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  1. 1. MOTIVATIONChapter 13
  2. 2. HOW DO HUMANS NEED INFLUENCE MOTIVATION TOWORK? Motivation accounts for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expanded at work Maslow described a hierarchy of needs topped by self- actualization Need – unfulfilled psychosocial or psychological desire Lower order needs – physiological, safety and social needs in Maslow’s hierarchy Higher-order needs are esteem and self-actualization needs in Maslow’s hierarchy
  3. 3.  Alderfer’s ERG theory deals with existence, relatedness and growth needs Existence needs – desires for physiological and material well-being Relatedness needs – desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships Growth needs – desires for continued physiological growth and development
  4. 4.  McClelland identified acquired needs for achievement, power and affiliation Need for achievement – desire to do something better, to solve problems or to master complex tasks Need for power – desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people Need for affiliation – desire to establish and maintain good relations with people
  5. 5.  Hezberg’s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfaction Satisfier factor – found in job content such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth Hygiene factor – found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organization policies, and salary
  6. 6.  The Core Characteristics model integrates motivation and job design Job design – allocation of specific work tasks to individual and groups Job enrichment – increases job content by adding work planning and evaluating duties normally performed by the supervisor
  7. 7. HOW DO THOUGHT PROCESSES AND DECISIONSAFFECT MOTIVATION TO WORK? Equity theory explains how social comparisons motivate individual behavior Perceived negative inequity – discomfort felt over being harmed by unfair treatment Perceived positive inequity – discomfort felt over benefiting from an unfair treatment
  8. 8.  Expectancy theory considers Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence Expectancy – the person’s belief that working hard will result in high task performance Instrumentality – person’s belief that various outcomes will occur as a task or performance Valence – the value a person assigns to work-related outcomes Self-efficacy – person’s belief that they are capable of performing a task
  9. 9.  Goal setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
  10. 10. HOW DOES REINFORCEMENT INFLUENCEMOTIVATION TO WORK? Operant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequences Law of effect – states that behavior followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is not Operant conditioning – control of behavior by manipulating its consequences
  11. 11.  Positive reinforcement – strengthens behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence Negative reinforcement - strengthens behavior by making an avoidance of undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence Punishment – discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence Extinction – discourages a behavior by making an the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence
  12. 12.  Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences Shaping – positive reinforcement of successive approximations to desired behavior Law of contingent reinforcement – deliver the reward only when desired behavior occurs Law of immediate reinforcement – deliver the reward as soon as possible after the desired behavior occurs
  13. 13.  Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences