Management 1 - 4


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Management 1 - 4

  1. 1. Management
  2. 2. Managers and the Management Process CHAPTER 1
  3. 3. What does it mean to be a manager? Organizations have different levels and different types of managers
  4. 4.  Accountability is a cornerstone of managerial performance
  5. 5.  Effective managers help each other achieve high performance Managers must meet multiple changing expectations
  6. 6. What do Managers do and What Skills do They Use? Managerial work is often intense and demanding Managers plan, organize, lead and control
  7. 7.  Managers enact informational, interpersonal and decisional roles
  8. 8.  Managers pursue action agendas and engage in networking Managers use a variety of technical, human and conceptual skills
  9. 9. Six “Must Have” Managerial Skills* Teamwork. Able to work eff ectively as team member and leader; strong on team contributions,leadership, confl ict management, negotiation, consensus building* Self-Management. Able to evaluate self, modify behavior, and meet obligations;strong on ethical reasoning, personal fl exibility, tolerance for ambiguity, performanceResponsibility* Leadership .Able to infl uence and support others to perform complex and ambiguoustasks; strong on diversity awareness, project management, strategic action* Critical Th inking. Able to gather and analyze information for problem solving; strongon information analysis and interpretation, creativity and innovation, judgment, anddecision making* Professionalism .Able to sustain a positive impression and instill confi dence in others;strong on personal presence, initiative, and career management* Communication .Able to express self well in communication with others; strong onwriting, oral presentation, giving and receiving feedback, technology utilization
  10. 10. What are some important career issues in the new workplace? Globalization and job migration are the changing world of work Failures of ethics and corporate governance are troublesome Diversity and discrimination are continuing social priorities Intellectual, capital and self-management skills are essential for career success
  11. 11. Management Learning CHAPTER 2
  12. 12. What are the lessons of classical management approaches? Taylor‟ s Scientific Management sought efficiency in job performance Weber‟s bureaucratic organization is supposed to be efficient and fair Fayol‟s administrative principles describe managerial duties and practices
  13. 13. Weber Table 2.1 Characteristics of an Ideal Bureaucracy Clear Division of Labor Jobs are well defi ned, and workers become highly skilled at performing them. Clear Hierarchy of Authority Authority and responsibility are well defined, and each position reports to a higher-level one. Formal Rules and Procedures Written guidelines describe expected behavior and decisions in jobs; written files are kept for the historical record. Impersonality Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied; no one gets preferential treatment. Careers Based on Merit Workers are selected and promoted on ability and performance; managers are career employees of the organization.
  14. 14. The 14 Management Principles from Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel.
  15. 15.  Scalar chain (Line of Authority). Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. Equity. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of „personal vanity‟ on the part of many managers. Esprit de Corps. Management must foster the morale of its employees.
  16. 16. What are the contributions of Behavioral Management Approaches? Follett viewed organizations as communities of cooperative action. making every employee an owner in the business would create feelings of collective responsibility. The Hawthorne studies focused attention on the human side of organizations Maslow described a hierarchy of human needs with self-actualization on top
  17. 17.  McGregor believed managerial assumptions create self-fulfilling prophecies Argyris suggests that workers treated as adults will be more productive
  18. 18. What are the foundations of Modern Management Thinking? Managers use quantitative analysis and tools to solve complex problems Organizations are open systems that interact with their environments Contingency thinking holds that there is no one best way to manage
  19. 19.  Quality management focuses attention on continuous improvement Evidence-based management seeks hard facts about what really works
  20. 20. Ethics and Social Responsibility CHAPTER 3
  21. 21. How do Ethics and Ethical Behavior Play out in the Workplace? Ethical behavior is values driven What is considered ethical; varies among moral reasoning approaches
  22. 22.  What is considered Ethical can vary across cultures Ethical dilemmas arise as tests of personal ethics and values People have tendencies to rationalize unethical behaviors
  23. 23. How can we maintain high standards of ethical conduct? Personal character and moral development influence ethical decision making Training in ethical decision making can improve ethical conduct Protection of whistleblowers can encourage ethical conduct
  24. 24.  Managers as positive role models can inspire ethical conduct Formal codes of ethics set standards for ethical conduct
  25. 25. What should we know about the social responsibilities of organizations? Social responsibility is an organizations obligation to best serve society Scholars argue cases for and against corporate social responsibility
  26. 26.  Social responsibility audits measure the social performance of organizations
  27. 27.  Sustainability is an important social responsibility goal Social business and social entrepreneurship point the way in social responsibility
  28. 28. Managers as Decision Makers CHAPTER 4
  29. 29.  Problem A: A real estate developer wants to control costs andfinish building a new apartment complex on time. Quantitativeapproach: Network models like the Gantt chart picturednearby break large tasks into smaller components to trackcompletion of many different activities on the requiredtimetables. Problem B:An oil exploration company is worried about futurepetroleum reserves in various parts of the world. Quantitative approach: Mathematical forecasting helps make future projections for reserve sizes and depletion rates that are useful in the planning process.
  30. 30.  Problem C: A big box retailer is trying to deal with pressures on profi t margins by minimizing costs of inventories while never being “out of stock” for customers. Quantitative approach: Inventory analysis helps control inventories by mathematically determining how much to automatically order and when. Problem D: A grocery store is getting complaints from customers that waiting times are too long for checkouts during certain times of the day. Quantitative approach: Queuing theory helps allocate service personnel and workstations based on alternative workload demands and in a way that minimizes both customer waiting times and costs of service workers.
  31. 31. How do managers use information to solve problems? Managers deal with problems posing threats and offering opportunities Managers can be problem avoiders, problems solvers or problem seekers Managers make programmed and nonprogrammed decisions when solving problems Managers can use systematic and intuitive thinking Managers make decisions under conditions of certainty, risk and uncertainty
  32. 32. What are five steps in the decision-making process? Step 1 is to identify and define the problem Step 2 is to generate and evaluate alternative courses of action Step 3 is to decide on a preferred course of action Step 4 is to implement the decision Step 5 is to evaluate results Ethical reasoning is important at all steps in decision making
  33. 33. What are some issues in managerial decision making? Personal factors help drive creativity in decision making Group decision making has both advantages and disadvantages Judgmental heuristics and other biases and traps may cause decision-making errors Managers must be prepared for crisis decision- making