What does it mean to be a manager? Organizations have different levels and different types of managers
Accountability is a cornerstone of managerial performance
Effective managers help each other achieve high performance Managers must meet multiple changing expectations
What do Managers do and What Skills do They Use? Managerial work is often intense and demanding Managers plan, organize, lead and control
Managers enact informational, interpersonal and decisional roles
Managers pursue action agendas and engage in networking Managers use a variety of technical, human and conceptual skills
Six “Must Have” Managerial Skills* Teamwork. Able to work eff ectively as team member and leader; strong on team contributions,leadership, confl ict management, negotiation, consensus building* Self-Management. Able to evaluate self, modify behavior, and meet obligations;strong on ethical reasoning, personal fl exibility, tolerance for ambiguity, performanceResponsibility* Leadership .Able to infl uence and support others to perform complex and ambiguoustasks; strong on diversity awareness, project management, strategic action* Critical Th inking. Able to gather and analyze information for problem solving; strongon information analysis and interpretation, creativity and innovation, judgment, anddecision making* Professionalism .Able to sustain a positive impression and instill confi dence in others;strong on personal presence, initiative, and career management* Communication .Able to express self well in communication with others; strong onwriting, oral presentation, giving and receiving feedback, technology utilization
What are some important career issues in the new workplace? Globalization and job migration are the changing world of work Failures of ethics and corporate governance are troublesome Diversity and discrimination are continuing social priorities Intellectual, capital and self-management skills are essential for career success
What are the lessons of classical management approaches? Taylor‟ s Scientific Management sought efficiency in job performance Weber‟s bureaucratic organization is supposed to be efficient and fair Fayol‟s administrative principles describe managerial duties and practices
Weber Table 2.1 Characteristics of an Ideal Bureaucracy Clear Division of Labor Jobs are well defi ned, and workers become highly skilled at performing them. Clear Hierarchy of Authority Authority and responsibility are well defined, and each position reports to a higher-level one. Formal Rules and Procedures Written guidelines describe expected behavior and decisions in jobs; written files are kept for the historical record. Impersonality Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied; no one gets preferential treatment. Careers Based on Merit Workers are selected and promoted on ability and performance; managers are career employees of the organization.
The 14 Management Principles from Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel.
Scalar chain (Line of Authority). Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. Equity. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of „personal vanity‟ on the part of many managers. Esprit de Corps. Management must foster the morale of its employees.
What are the contributions of Behavioral Management Approaches? Follett viewed organizations as communities of cooperative action. making every employee an owner in the business would create feelings of collective responsibility. The Hawthorne studies focused attention on the human side of organizations Maslow described a hierarchy of human needs with self-actualization on top
McGregor believed managerial assumptions create self-fulfilling prophecies Argyris suggests that workers treated as adults will be more productive
What are the foundations of Modern Management Thinking? Managers use quantitative analysis and tools to solve complex problems Organizations are open systems that interact with their environments Contingency thinking holds that there is no one best way to manage
Quality management focuses attention on continuous improvement Evidence-based management seeks hard facts about what really works
How do Ethics and Ethical Behavior Play out in the Workplace? Ethical behavior is values driven What is considered ethical; varies among moral reasoning approaches
What is considered Ethical can vary across cultures Ethical dilemmas arise as tests of personal ethics and values People have tendencies to rationalize unethical behaviors
How can we maintain high standards of ethical conduct? Personal character and moral development influence ethical decision making Training in ethical decision making can improve ethical conduct Protection of whistleblowers can encourage ethical conduct
Managers as positive role models can inspire ethical conduct Formal codes of ethics set standards for ethical conduct
What should we know about the social responsibilities of organizations? Social responsibility is an organizations obligation to best serve society Scholars argue cases for and against corporate social responsibility
Social responsibility audits measure the social performance of organizations
Sustainability is an important social responsibility goal Social business and social entrepreneurship point the way in social responsibility
Problem A: A real estate developer wants to control costs andfinish building a new apartment complex on time. Quantitativeapproach: Network models like the Gantt chart picturednearby break large tasks into smaller components to trackcompletion of many different activities on the requiredtimetables. Problem B:An oil exploration company is worried about futurepetroleum reserves in various parts of the world. Quantitative approach: Mathematical forecasting helps make future projections for reserve sizes and depletion rates that are useful in the planning process.
Problem C: A big box retailer is trying to deal with pressures on profi t margins by minimizing costs of inventories while never being “out of stock” for customers. Quantitative approach: Inventory analysis helps control inventories by mathematically determining how much to automatically order and when. Problem D: A grocery store is getting complaints from customers that waiting times are too long for checkouts during certain times of the day. Quantitative approach: Queuing theory helps allocate service personnel and workstations based on alternative workload demands and in a way that minimizes both customer waiting times and costs of service workers.
How do managers use information to solve problems? Managers deal with problems posing threats and offering opportunities Managers can be problem avoiders, problems solvers or problem seekers Managers make programmed and nonprogrammed decisions when solving problems Managers can use systematic and intuitive thinking Managers make decisions under conditions of certainty, risk and uncertainty
What are five steps in the decision-making process? Step 1 is to identify and define the problem Step 2 is to generate and evaluate alternative courses of action Step 3 is to decide on a preferred course of action Step 4 is to implement the decision Step 5 is to evaluate results Ethical reasoning is important at all steps in decision making
What are some issues in managerial decision making? Personal factors help drive creativity in decision making Group decision making has both advantages and disadvantages Judgmental heuristics and other biases and traps may cause decision-making errors Managers must be prepared for crisis decision- making