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  1. 1. LEADERSHIPChapter 11
  2. 2. WHAT ARE THE FOUNDATIONS OF EFFECTIVELEADERSHIP? Leadership – the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks Leadership is one of the four functions of management Leaders use position power to achieve influence Power – ability to let someone else do something you want done
  3. 3.  Reward power – achieves influence by offering something of value Coercive power – achieves influence by of punishment Legitimate power – achieves influence by formal authority
  4. 4.  Leaders use personal power to achieve influence Expert power – achieves influence by expertise Referent power – achieves influence by personal identification
  5. 5.  Leaders bring vision to leadership situations Vision – clear sense of future Visionary leadership – brings the situation a clear sense of the future and understanding to get there Leaders display different traits in the quest for leadership effectiveness Leaders display different styles in the quest for leadership effectiveness
  6. 6.  Leadership style – recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by a leader Autocratic leader – acts in unilateral command – and – control fashion Human relations – leader emphasizes people over task Democratic leader – encourages participation with an emphasis on task and people Laissez-faire leader – disengaged, showing low task and people concerns
  7. 7. WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM CONTINGENCYLEADERSHIP THEORIES? Contingency leadership perspective – suggests that what is successful as a leadership style varies according to the situation and the people involved Feidler’s contingency model matches leadership styles with situational differences
  8. 8.  The Hersey-Blanchard situational relationship model matches leadership styles with the maturity of followers
  9. 9.  House’s path-goal theory matches leadership styles with task and follower characteristics Substitutes for leadership – factors in work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader
  10. 10.  Leader-member exchange theory describes how leaders treat in-group and out-group followers
  11. 11.  The Vroom-Jago model describes a leader’s choice of alternative decision making methods
  12. 12. WHAT ARE CURRENT ISSUES AND DIRECTIONS INLEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT? Transformational leadership inspires enthusiasm and great performance Charismatic leader – develops special leader-follower relationship and inspires followers in extraordinary ways Transactional leadership – directs efforts of others through tasks, rewards and structures Transformational leadership – inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance
  13. 13.  Emotionally intelligent leaders handle emotions and relationships well Emotional Intelligence (EI) – ability to manage our emotions in leadership and social relationships
  14. 14.  Interactive leadership emphasizes communication, listening and participation Gender similarities hypothesis – males and females have similar psychological make-ups Interactive leadership - strong on communicating, participation, and dealing with problems by teamwork
  15. 15.  Moral leadership builds trust from a foundation of personal integrity Moral leadership – has integrity and appears to others as “good” and “right” according to ethical standards Integrity in leadership is honesty, credibility and consistency in putting values into action Servant leadership is follower-centered and empowering
  16. 16.  Servant leadership – means serving others and helping them use their talents to help organizations best serve community Empowerment – gives people job freedom and power to influence affairs in the organization