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# written pole electric motor

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a seminar on written pole electric motor :)

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### written pole electric motor

1. 1. 1 WRITTEN-POLE ELECTRIC MOTORS By: SURESH.A 1BI10EE051 Under the guidance of: PROF.J ASHWATHNARAYANAPPA EEE DEPT. BIT
2. 2. 2 CONTENTS •INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN POLE TECHNOLOGY •LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY •BASIC DIFFERENCE •CONSTRUCTION •OPERATION •COMPARISON •ADVANTAGES •WEATHER CONDITIONS •APPLICATIONS •CONCLUSION
3. 3. WRITTEN POLE TECHNOLOGY  This is a hybrid concept, which utilizes basic concepts from induction, hysteresis and permanent magnet motors, with several important distinctions.  The wp technology allows the machines to operate in which the speed and the frequency are independent of each other, because the number of poles can be a controlled variable.  Poles are changed by a “writing” coil that can change the polarity of a normally “permanent” magnetic
4. 4. LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY 1.Dependence of speed on no. of poles of rotor. speed = 120 X frequency no. of poles 2.The machine must have even no. of poles and deviating from this condition will cause instability at its rated speed.
5. 5. Basic difference Conventional technology Conventional motors have a fixed, even number of discrete field pole structures, and therefore have a fixed relationship between shaft speed and the frequency of the electrical input. Written pole technology The written-pole motor operates as if it has a variable number of poles. The written-pole motor consist of a special magnetic layer on the rotor and
6. 6. Contd.. main elements of a written pole motor
7. 7. Contd… ROTOR  The rotor is made up of a high resistance rotor cage.  The high resistance cage is a key factor in limiting the starting current of Written- Pole motors and provides considerable induction torque during the initial stage of starting.  A continuous layer of permanent magnetic ferrite material covers the rotor lamination stack. Construction
8. 8. STATOR  The stator of a written-pole motor is very similar to a typical induction motor.  The stator lamination stack is constructed using low loss electrical steel laminations.  The windings are similar in design and function to those used in a conventional induction or synchronous motor.
9. 9. Written-pole motor makes use of a concentrated excitation winding located at one or two points on the stator. The excitation windings are contained within the stator structure and are located between the main stator windings. The excitation winding is designed to produce a magnetic field powerful enough to fully magnetize the portion of the rotor’s magnetic layer that is immediately across the air gap from it. The unique feature: excitation winding
10. 10. Since the power supplied to the excitation winding is a constant frequency 50 Hz, AC sinusoidal supply, the actual size and quantity of poles generated on the surface of the rotor are dependent on the rotational speed of the machine. Lower speeds result in a larger number of smaller poles with shorter spans.  While higher speeds result in a smaller number of larger poles with longer spans. Writing of poles
11. 11. Operation There are three modes of operation: 1.Start mode 2.Transition mode 3.Run mode
12. 12. Start Mode In the start mode, a written-pole motor produces large amounts of hysteresis and induction torque, which begin to accelerate the motor to its rated speed.Transition Mode As the written-pole motor accelerates toward its rated speed, it enters the transition mode, during which the excitation winding begins to influence the magnetic geometry of the rotor. The rotational speed at which the motor switches to transition mode is generally in the range of 80 to 90% of normal synchronous speed.
13. 13. Run Mode A written-pole motor enters run mode upon reaching its rated synchronous speed.  Since operation of the excitation winding is not required in this mode, it is turned off and the motor continues to operate as a permanent magnet synchronous motor until power is turned off.
14. 14. Characteristics (50 hp unit) Feature Conventional WP Speed 3,560rpm 3600 rpm Efficiency 85% 93% Power factor 90.5% 100% Full-load power 53kW 40kW Full-load torque 99.92N-m 98.97N-m Starting torque 119.31N-m 111.17N-m Full-load current 219 amps 173 amps Locked rotor current 1450 amps 312amps Cost (p.u.) 1.0 1.2
15. 15. ADVANTAGES 1. Low starting current requirements 2. Energy efficient operation 3. Unity power factor operation 4. Simple construction 5. Low temperature rise 6. High inertia starting 7. Instantaneous restart capability 8. Ride through characteristics
16. 16. Disadvantages The cost of a written pole motor is comparitively higher than that of a conventional motor owing to extra features such as the excitation windings and the ferrite magnetic layer. Its cost is about 20% higher than that of a conventional motor. The design of exciter windings is complicated.
17. 17. Ride through characteristics
18. 18. Most Written-Pole motors feature an external rotor that spins around an internal stator, opposite to that of conventional motors. This inverted structure creates a flywheel effect that allows the machine to ride through 99% of power-quality disturbances. At full load, Written-Pole motors can provide full power to driven equipment through power interruptions as long as 15 sec.
19. 19. WEATHER CONDITIONS • The Written-Pole motor is designed to operate in ambient temperatures ranging from 32ºF to 104ºF. • However, test results show that Written- Pole motors have reliably operated at temperatures ranging upto 122ºF. • They may be operated safely in the open air if there is adequate protection from direct rain. The motor base must be mounted on a raised concrete pad or steel frame to avoid exposure to standing water.
20. 20. Applications  The main application is as irrigation pumps at remote places where 3 phase supply is not available.  Other applications include, • Golf course irrigation  • Oil pumps • Small municipal water systems
21. 21. A WRITTEN POLE RIDE THROUGH MOTOR USED IN A FARM
22. 22. CONCLUSION  The written-pole motor is a motor design that allows for the operation of very large single- phase motors.  This unique product has applications virtually anywhere that three-phase power is either not available, or is not economical to provide.  The written-pole motor also has performance advantages over a conventional induction motor including low starting current, very high operating efficiency, and excellent power factor.  This motor technology has the additional benefit of being able to ride through brief service interruptions on single-phase power
23. 23. WRITTEN POLE TECHNOLOGY THANK YOU!