Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

International plc

1,834 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

International plc

  1. 1. StudsPlanet Leading Education consultant in India www.StudsPlanet.comCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  2. 2. International Product and ServiceStrategiesDana-Nicoleta LascuChapter 10 Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives • Evaluate the stages of the international product life cycle identify locus of operations and target markets at each stage • Identify the different dimensions of the international product mix with company illustrations • Examine the new product development process and the activities involved at each stage in international markets • Examine degrees of product newness and address international diffusion processesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  4. 4. The International Product Life Cycle Introduction Early Late Decline and Growth Maturity: Maturity Stages: MNC Manufactures MNC Moves Developing Developing Country Product in Developed Production to Country Markets Remain Viable Countries; Exports to Developing Competitor Target Markets for Developing Countries Country; Begins Exports Product MNC; MNC Home Importing to To MNC Home Country Market Is Home Country Country; Diminishing Competes with MNC Imports Sales TimeCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  5. 5. International Product Life Cycle, continued • The Product Introduction Stage  Products are developed and marketed in developed countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  6. 6. International Product Life Cycle, continued • The Growth Stage  Increasing competition and rapid product adoption  Marketed primarily in developed countries  Product is exported to developing countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  7. 7. International Product Life Cycle, continued • The Maturity Stage  Product is adopted by most target consumers  Sales are leveling off  Profits decline due to intense competition  Manufacturing operations move to developing countries to take advantage of cheap labor  New competitors: firms from developing countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  8. 8. International Product Life Cycle, continued • The Decline Stage  Products are rapidly losing ground to new technologies and product alternatives  Decrease in sales and profits  Product lifecycle is extended through sales to consumers in developing countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  9. 9. Dimensions of the International Product Mix • Product length  Total number of brands • Product width  Total number of product lines • Product depth  Total number of different offerings for a product categoryCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  10. 10. New Product Development • Substantial risk and costs • Complex in international markets  Competition can appropriate the product/service idea and deliver final product or service to the market more swiftly than the initial developer  International consumers might not respond as anticipated  Local and/or home-country government might impose restrictions on product testing  Technological infrastructure of individual markets may be substandard and unable to support the productCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  11. 11. Generating New Product Ideas • Most product and service firms are driven by the marketing concept  Product development decisions are based on identifying the needs, wants, and desires of consumers • Technology firms focus on the products  Focus on research and developmentCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  12. 12. Product Ideas • Consumers • Competitive Analyses • Channel Members • Employees • Top Management • Inventors • Consultants • University ResearchCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  13. 13. Screening Ideas • Consider:  Fit with target consumers and the overall mission of the organization  The extent to which product offers unique benefits  The extent to which target market is large and/or is likely to grow  Fit between new product requirements and resources, skills, experience of the firmCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  14. 14. Developing and Evaluating Product Concepts • Develop detailed description of product • Ask consumers to evaluate and indicate willingness to buy • Use:  Focus Groups  Conjoint AnalysisCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  15. 15. Product Business Analysis • Estimate:  Project costs  Return on investment  Cash flow  Fixed/variable costsCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  16. 16. Product Development • Create prototypes • Create brand identity and marketing mix • Coordinate strategy across international subsidiariesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  17. 17. Test Marketing • Involves testing new product performance in a limited area of a national or regional target market • Provides estimate of product performance in the respective country or region • Expensive • Time consuming • Open to competitive sabotageCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  18. 18. Types of Test Marketing • Simulated Test Marketing  Test marketing simulating purchase environment where samples of target consumers are observed during the decision-making process • Controlled Test Marketing  Test marketing that involves offering a new product to a group of stores and evaluating market reaction • Test Marketing  Full-blown test marketing  Focus on cities appropriate for the test; involves selecting distributors and the ancillary marketing infrastructure  Most costly  Leaves the company most exposed to competitive sabotageCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  19. 19. Launching Product Internationally • Quality of launch  High service quality  On-time shipment  Appropriate product availability  Quality sales force and support  Quality and amount of promotionCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  20. 20. International Launch Decisions • Timing of launch • Consumers and countries • Marketing mix decisions  Product mix  Place  Price  PromotionCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  21. 21. Degree of Product/Service Newness • New product to existing market • New product to existing company • New line • New item in an existing product line • Modification of an existing company product • InnovationCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  22. 22. Product Diffusion • Product Factors  Relative advantage compared to competitive products  Compatibility with the needs of the consumers  Observability, or communicability to other consumers  Trialability – the ability of consumers to experience the product with only minimal effort • Country (Market) Factors – the country may be a  Lead country – wealthy industrialized country where the product is adopted first  Lag country – developing country that adopts the product laterCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  23. 23. Adopters • Innovators  Risk takers who can afford to pay a higher price during the introduction stage (2.5% of the total market)  Primarily consumers in developed countries • Early adopters  Consumers who purchase the product early in the lifecycle stage and who tend to be opinion leaders in their community  (13.5% of the total market)  Primarily consumers in developed countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  24. 24. Adopters, continued • Early majority  Consumers who enjoy status of being among the first to purchase a popular product (34% of the total market)  Consumers are primarily from developed countries • Late majority  Consumers who adopt popular products when the risk associated with them is minimal (34% of the total market)  Consumers are from both developed and developing countries • Laggards  The last consumers to adopt a product; they are risk averse and conservative in their spending (16% of the total population)  Consumers are primarily from developing countriesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  25. 25. Chapter Summary • Evaluated stages of the international product lifecycle • Identified focus of operations and target markets at each stage • Identified the different dimensions of the international product mix • Examined the new product development process • Examined degrees of product newness and addressed the international diffusion processesCopyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002

×