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محاضرة 11


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برنامج مهارات البحث العلمي 7 (محاضرة 11)

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محاضرة 11

  1. 1. «7»
  2. 2. Writing Master and PhD thesisWriting Master and PhD thesis Prof. Afaf El-AnsaryProf. Afaf El-Ansary Biochemistry Department- ScienceBiochemistry Department- Science college-KSUcollege-KSU
  3. 3. Goals of this workshopGoals of this workshop  To introduce strategies for bridging the gap between coursework/beginning research and thesis writing.  To help you understand the criteria of the thesis proposal and common elements of such proposals.  To introduce practical and grammatical principles of writing effective Master and PhD thesis.  To provide you with tips for drafting and revising individual sections of your proposal followed by writing your thesis.
  4. 4. 4 What is a Thesis?  Thesis is the document describing the Project Work carried out as a part of partial fulfillment of academic requirement to get a degree.  It describes the complete process of the project starting from the problem formulation to the solution and conclusions in a Scientific and Methodical manner.
  5. 5. What is a thesis?What is a thesis?  Your thesis is a research report.  The report concerns a problem or series of problems in your area of research .  it should describe what was known about it previously, what you did towards solving it, what you think your results mean, and where or how further progress in the field can be made.
  6. 6. 6 What level of work is expected in a Master’s thesis?  Master’s thesis is just one step below the Ph.D. thesis in terms of originality and contribution.  Although “new invention” in the work is not expected, the originality in the solution and solution procedure is very important.
  7. 7. 7 What is Size of a Master’s Thesis ?  A Master’s thesis will fill around 60-80 pages in A4, inclusive of certificates, declarations, references, appendices and main text.  A too small thesis represent the inadequacy of the work content.  A too big thesis reflects the inability of the candidate to write a concise report.
  8. 8. Why is it so hard to write a thesis?  Writing a thesis is a completely new experience.  Writing a thesis marks a major transition in your professional life and thus can cause significant stress.  Writing a thesis is a very large, independent project.  Also…many graduate students have never actually read a thesis. Check out ,talk to your advisor, other faculty members, and colleagues in your department to find good examples.
  9. 9. About your thesis advisor…About your thesis advisor…  If you are given the opportunity to select your thesis advisor or advisory committee, do it wisely. Don’t focus only on content experts. Make sure you have selected committee members who are supportive of you and are willing to assist you in successfully completing your research.  Your thesis/dissertation advisor is your ally. Your thesis advisor wants you to succeed, so be sure to think of this person as something of a “teammate.” Spend time talking with your advisor so that he or she really understands your goals. Don’t be afraid to talk with your advisor; it is part of this person’s job to help you, and most faculty members take this responsibility very seriously.  Your thesis advisor cannot read your mind. If you have questions or concerns about your project, or if you are struggling for any reason at all, you cannot expect your advisor to know this automatically. One of your primary responsibilities is to keep the lines of communication open, so don’t wait for your advisor to come to you. Talk to your advisor when things are going well and when things are not.
  10. 10. Essential Elements of your thesis:Essential Elements of your thesis:  The formulation of a thesis in should thus address four issues: • What is the question or issue?• What is the question or issue? • What method will be used to address this• What method will be used to address this questions?questions? • What evidence can be applied?• What evidence can be applied? • What logic integrates the above?• What logic integrates the above?
  11. 11. The Question:  Understandably, the normal first step is to work in an area that interests you. However, the topic does not by itself define a thesis. In each case you need to identify a specific research question within the context of the topic.  The research question must certainly have more than one possible answer. If it cannot be refuted it has no real interest. For example, the hypothesis “Is melatonin important?”“Is melatonin important?” seems to have only one answer—YES. It is hard to see how melatonin is not important. A more challenging hypothesis might be “ Could melatonin“ Could melatonin be used to protect against propionic acid neurotoxicity?”be used to protect against propionic acid neurotoxicity?” The answer to this question might be either yes or no, and the research could lead to a surprise, a new insight. This could be worthwhile and interesting.
  12. 12. An Interesting Question  In defining your thesis, ask yourse lf if the answer to the question has some potential for making a difference.  The question should be interesting to others, at least to some specific audience.  The question should certainly be interesting to you. If it is not, you will have difficulty sustaining the motivation necessary to get the work done in a reasonable time.
  13. 13. 2. Methods:2. Methods:  What is the proposed method, specifically?  Do you already know how to apply this method?  Do you have the resources to apply this method (the time to learn it,  the equipment or program to carry it out, the money to pay for it?
  14. 14. 3.Evidence:3.Evidence:  What kind of data does your method and question require?  How much of it do you already have in hand?  How sure are you that you will be able to obtain what you require  within your deadline? What obstacles might prevent you from obtaining your degree?  what you need?  Will you have a safe plan?
  15. 15. For whom is it written?For whom is it written?  The readers of a thesis do not know what the "answer" is.  If the thesis is for a PhD, the university requires that it make an original contribution to human knowledge: your research must discover something unknown.  Obviously your examiners will read the thesis. They will be experts in the general field of your thesis but, on the exact topic of your thesis, you are the world expert. Keep this inyou are the world expert. Keep this in mind: you should write to make the topic clear to a readermind: you should write to make the topic clear to a reader who has not spent most of the last three years thinkingwho has not spent most of the last three years thinking about it.about it.
  16. 16. Keep in your mind thatKeep in your mind that  Your thesis will also be used as a scientific report and consulted by future workers in your laboratory who will want to know, in detail, what you did.  Theses are occasionally consulted by people from other institutions, and the library sends microfilm versions if requested .  More commonly theses are now stored in a digital form. These may be stored as .pdf files on a server at your university. The advantage is that your thesis can be consulted much more easily by researchers around the world.
  17. 17. The Good NewsThe Good News You only have to write ONE thesis At the end, you can add “Dr” to your name
  18. 18. The Bad NewsThe Bad News  Writing a thesis is hard, painful work  You’ve already done the fun part (the research)  It’s unlike any other document  Thesis writing is not a marketable skill
  19. 19. How to Write a Good MasterHow to Write a Good Master’’s Thesiss Thesis  Writing a Master’s thesis is very important process that requires good knowledge and time.  Before starting to write your own Master’s dissertation – take a look at other projects completed on your faculty.  Ask your supervisor professor how to review close to your topic dissertations previously defended on the faculty
  20. 20. PhD thesisPhD thesis  Opens a new area  Provides unifying framework  Resolves long-standing question  Thoroughly explores area  Contradicts existing knowledge  Experimentally validates theory  Produces ambitious system  Provides empirical data  Develops new methodology  Develops new tool  Produces negative result
  21. 21. Thesis message You’re tackling an important research problem You’ve made an original contribution to its resolution
  22. 22. Writing of your thesis is described asWriting of your thesis is described as academic writingacademic writing
  23. 23. What is Academic Writing?What is Academic Writing? Scholarly citations Evidence-based Synthesis of literature Develop and defend arguments Contribute to an area of research Construct new knowledge Is not about solving the world’s problem in one dissertation, research paper, book chapter, or book
  24. 24.  It is much easier to write your own work when you have a model of the thesis.  Remember that you are free to ask any questions – consult with your supervisor and discuss when he is available to read your drafts.  A lot of students consult with their advisor rarely that makes additional troubles and takes more time in the end.  Your advisor can explain you how to write a Master's thesis correctly.
  25. 25. A timetableA timetable  Set down with the adviser and make up a timetable for writing it: a list of dates for when you will give the first and second drafts of each chapter to your advisor.  This structures your time and provides intermediate targets.  If you have told your adviser that you will deliver a first draft of chapter 3 on Wednesday, it focuses your attention. You may want to make your timetable into a chart with items that you can check off as you have finished them.  This is particularly useful towards the end of the thesis when you find there will be quite a few loose ends here and there.
  26. 26. Managing the SupervisorManaging the Supervisor  Listen, listen, listen  Meet the deadlines  Turn up for appointments in time – he/she has a life too.  Accommodate his/her work if possible
  27. 27. Reading before start WritingReading before start Writing  Browse to get general understanding, take notes (key words).  Always have something available for a quick read and save the best.  Form a thesis statement.  Create two files: the main text andCreate two files: the main text and referencesreferences.  Read the selected references in depth. Annotate your bibliography entries. Type the quotes, your comments regarding the topic.
  28. 28. OutlineOutline  General aspects and philosophy  Organization  of the whole thesis  Within the thesis  Writing style and form  Getting started, keeping going  (personal advice from writers)  Resources
  29. 29. But I still have a hard time beginning to write!!
  30. 30. OrganisationOrganisation  It is encouraging and helpful to start a filing system. Open a word-processor file for each chapter and one for the references.  You can put notes in these files, as well as text. While doing something for Chapter CC, you will think "Oh I must refer back to/discuss this in Chapter D" and so you put a note to do so in the file for Chapter D. Or you may think of something interesting or relevant for that chapter.  When you come to work on Chapter D, the more such notes you have accumulated, the easier it will be to
  31. 31. Make a back-up of these files and do soMake a back-up of these files and do so every day at leastevery day at least(depending on the reliability(depending on the reliability of your computer and the age of your diskof your computer and the age of your disk drive).drive).
  32. 32. Gathering Resource MaterialsGathering Resource Materials  Sources:  The references, footnotes of books & journal articles  Library research: lib catalogues, electronic resources  References of conference papers  Personal communication with experts  Remember to record the sources, using theRemember to record the sources, using the assigned format.assigned format.
  33. 33. General philosophyGeneral philosophy  ContentContent  The message given  StyleStyle  The way that message is presented (structure, language, and illustration)  FormForm  The appearance of the message (grammar, punctuation, usage, spelling, and format).
  34. 34. General philosophyGeneral philosophy  A research paper (or thesis) is an attempt to satisfy others with your idea.  The key to satisfy is organization.  Don't use a thousand words where five hundred will do.  If at first you don't succeed, try, try, try, again.
  35. 35. Recognize that writing is a process. Defining objectives Planning Drafting Evaluating Revising Learn to separate these stagesLearn to separate these stages!
  36. 36. Manage the writing process.  Start early  Manage your time  Learn to draft – avoid need for perfection at this stage  Learn to separate the creative and critical parts of your personality.
  37. 37. Homework: Assignment 2:  Prepare a one-page summary of your thesis title developed into a thesis outline Including: research problem, objective, questions,
  38. 38. Sequence of Drafting 1. Write draft of Introduction 2. Write draft of Methods 3. Write draft of Literature Review 4. Write draft of Results 5. Write draft of Conclusions 6. Revise Introduction 7. Revise middle three chapters 8. Revise Conclusions 9. Revise Introduction 10. Write Abstract
  39. 39. Writing Process and Planning: You organize for yourself (outlines, etc.), and you organize the document for the reader.
  40. 40.  Students may study a selection of theories, choosing one to demonstrate understanding. DOCTORAL-LEVEL STUDY  Students question, challenge, and test the work of others, then produce their own original work, creating a unique theory.  Doctoral students educate themselves, critique their work against established theories, then design their own theory to present to others.  Students help others relate their own practice to a theory. Master-Level vs. Doctoral-Level MASTER-LEVEL STUDY
  41. 41. What is Scholarly Writing?What is Scholarly Writing?  Narrative  Description  Exposition – writing that explains and answers the questions how? And why? In what ways?
  42. 42. Scholarly writings  Identifiable characteristics:  Specialized topic  Written by academics for an academic audience  Author’s name, credentials and affiliation listed  Usually includes a literature review  Extensively footnoted  Generally not many graphics
  43. 43. The Thesis/Dissertation StructureThe Thesis/Dissertation Structure • Title: Name: Course: Year  • Abstract  • Acknowledgements  • Table of Contents  • Abbreviations  • List of Figures/ Tables  • Chapter 1: Introduction  • Chapter 2: Literature Review  • Chapter 3: Research Methods  • Chapter 4: Findings  • Chapter 5: Conclusions  • Chapter 6: References  • Appendices  • Appendix : Research papers are condensed versions of your
  44. 44. Example: table of contents Table of Contents Acknowledgements iii Abstract v Contents vii 1 Introduction 1 2 Survey 6 2.1 Literature 6 2.2 Software products 13 5 Implementation 34 5.1 Model 34 5.2 User interface 39 5.3 Controller 43 5.4 Test strategy 46 6 Evaluation 48 6.1 Methodology 48 6.2 Results 50
  45. 45. Formatting: chapter/section numbering  Chapters should be numbered 1, 2, 3, etc.  Sections within Chapter 7 (say) should be numbered 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, etc.  Subsections within Section 7.4 (say) should be numbered 7.4.1, 7.4.2, etc.  Appendices should be “numbered” A, B, C, etc.
  46. 46. How to Write Thesis AcknowledgementsHow to Write Thesis Acknowledgements  In the thesis acknowledgment chapter students need to thank all people who assisted them in preparing this work. Surely, it is correct. However, you have to pick out the best way to impress the committee and your supervisor not only with a perfectly disclosed topic but also with perfectly written thesis acknowledgments!
  47. 47. ways to make your thesis acknowledgmentways to make your thesis acknowledgment chapter properly and even interestingchapter properly and even interesting.  Certainly, you should not focus only on thanking your parents and relatives in thesis acknowledgments.  Make a list of people who assisted you. Naturally, professors are worth your attention in this chapter. However, mind those laboratory assistants who helped you during your experiments, etc… in thesis acknowledgments.
  48. 48.  Think over each of your words. It should not be a simple list like: I thank my mom; I want to say thanks… Use synonyms and adjectives. Still, try not to overuse them.  Be informative and up to the point. Who knows, maybe, your examiner will like your thesis acknowledgments, and it will give you a chance to increase your grade.
  49. 49.  When developing the acknowledgement the writer can rely on certain generally accepted phrases which are used to express gratitude – in order for the acknowledgement not to sound too unprofessional or simple. A perfect acknowledgement, is suggested.
  50. 50.  It is with immense gratitude that I acknowledge the support and help of my Professor…  It gives me great pleasure in acknowledging the support and help of Professor  I am indebted to my Professor, my parents and my classmates ….  I wish to thank, first and foremost, my Professor and my parents…  I am indebted to my many colleagues who supported me …  I would like to thank…  I owe my deepest gratitude to…  This thesis would not have been possible unless Useful Phrases for Thesis AcknowledgementUseful Phrases for Thesis Acknowledgement
  51. 51. USING EVIDENCE  Books, journal articles, and other publications  First-hand research results  Personal communication Scholarly writing is characterized by the use of evidence (see examples to the right) to support assertions. Evidence improves the credibility of your argument and analysis by demonstrating your critical engagement with knowledge in your field.
  52. 52. Revise, Revise, Revise  Writing is a process, not an event. Plan on writing multiple drafts of your first assignments.  Use the following checklist for revision:  thesis statement  paper and paragraph organization  use of evidence  citation format  tone  wordiness  mechanics (grammar, spelling)
  53. 53. Limit Direct Quotation  Paraphrase (restating an author’s ideas in your own words) demonstrates a higher level of engagement with the source material than directly quoting it.  Rely on paraphrase to demonstrate that you have understood what you have read and can restate in your own words.
  54. 54. Know your audience  Explain abbreviations, unusual terms  CLEAR writing  Explain assumptions, limitations  For a journal article, know the usual audience and scope of papers  For a grant proposal, learn what kind of expenses are allowable, write to the specific goals or questions of that agency
  55. 55. Keep to the point  A concise thesis requires keeping the main points in mind--ONLY include background information, data, discussion that is relevant to these points  For a proposal, focus on the aspects for which you request funding
  56. 56. Style and structureStyle and structure Organization Emphasis Depth Transitions between sections
  57. 57. Organization of the thesis  Abstract  Introduction  Background and Literature review  Problem statement/research question  Methods  Data presentation  Interpretation  Discussion  Conclusions  References **Different types of writing might have more/less emphasis on each of these elements
  58. 58. AbstractAbstract • Write this LAST! • Abstracts should be 1-2 pages and should be self- contained • Model after a thesis in your field • Written to attract readers to your thesis, gives a good initial impression • Summary of the contents of the thesis • Brief but contains sufficient detail • motivation for the work (problem statement) • project objectives • techniques employed • main results and conclusions
  59. 59. Moves in Writing Introduction Move 1. Establishing a research area  A. By showing its importance, centrality, problematic or relevant in some way (optional)  B. By reviewing items of previous research in the area (obligatory=ob) Move 2 Establishing a niche A. Indicating a gap in previous knowledge (ob) Move 3 Occupying the niche A. By outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present research (ob)
  60. 60. Background  A brief section giving background information may be necessary. Your readers may not have any experience with some of the material needed to follow your thesis, so you need to give it to them. A more informative title is usually better, e.g. “Biochemical aspects of Diabetes Mellitus.
  61. 61. IntroductionIntroduction  This is a general introduction to what the thesis is all about -- it is not just a description of the contents of each section. Briefly summarize the question (you will be stating the question in detail later), some of the reasons why it is a worthwhile question, and perhaps* give a brief overview of your main results.  * often done in journal articles, but not usually in theses
  62. 62. IntroductionIntroduction  Topic?  Defines scope and limitations of study  Importance?  Background?  Arrangement of thesis?  You probably wrote this for your thesis proposal; REWRITE IT AFTER body of thesis is written  Look at examples in published literature in your field  This section is likely to contain a lot of reference citations--put your thesis in context of existing work
  63. 63. Broad information on topic  Previous research Narrower background information  Need for study Focus of paper  Hypothesis Summary of problem (selling point)
  64. 64. You're only writing a paper, not a book. Your time for reading is limited. The broader the topic the more you must read in order to cover all aspects of that topic. You want to study a narrow area deeply, not a broad area superficially.
  65. 65. Too much or not enough information i.e:  Unnecessary Length  Unclear structure and organisation  Lack of purpose and direction  Too many irrelevant details  Not enough background context  Too much background context
  66. 66. Assignment 3:  Suggest the points to be covered in order to write a perfect introduction related to the title below or your thesis title. Life style as preventive and treatmentLife style as preventive and treatment strategy of chronic diseasesstrategy of chronic diseases
  67. 67. The Literature Review: Telling aThe Literature Review: Telling a Story`Story`  What is literature – anything that represents research or scholarship on a subject i.e., books, articles, conference, proceedings, dissertations, websites etc.  Credibility factor with supervisors – refereed journal articles, books, dissertations, conference papers, websites. The review should tell a story relevant to your topic. It should be viewed as a conceptual triangle – broad to narrow. It is not a list readings that is unconnected by any flow.  Words/phrases that help the flow – differences (however, by contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, despite this etc), agreement( similarly, likewise, equally, in support of this, further confirmation is found in etc), one idea leading to another (hence, therefore, consequently, as a result etc)  Links, links, links!
  68. 68. Review of the State of the ArtReview of the State of the Art (Literature review)(Literature review)  Limited to the state of the art relevant to your thesis. Again, a specific heading is appropriate; e.g., “Previous work on Cretaceous orogeny in the Cascades." The idea is to present (not analyze) the major ideas in the state of the art right up to, but not including, your own personal brilliant ideas. You organize this sectionYou organize this section by ideaby idea, and not, and not by author or by author or by publication.  Some advisors think this section should come after the problem statement (next section)  Some advisors do not expect a long lit. review for the thesis proposal or the thesis--be sure you ask your committee!
  69. 69. Literature reviewLiterature review  Provides context for and details about the motivation for the project  States why the problem is important  Sets the scene for the work described in the thesis.  Describes what others have done and hence sets a benchmark for the current project  Justifies the use of specific techniques or problem solving procedures
  70. 70. Tips for literature reviewTips for literature review • Make it a point to keep on top of your field of study by making regular visits to the library and to the electronic journals websites. • When reading a technical paper, jot down the key points and make a note of the journal or technical publication where the paper was published. • Devise a cataloguing system that will allow you to retrieve the paper quickly. (e.g. use ENDNOTE)
  71. 71. • Make sure that you have read and understood cited work • Organize your content according to ideas instead of individual publications. • Do not simply quote or paraphrase the contents of published articles. Weave the information into focused views. Demonstrate your deeper understanding of the topic. • Do not be tempted to summarize everything youDo not be tempted to summarize everything you have read; only include those relevant to yourhave read; only include those relevant to your main points.main points.
  72. 72. How do you write a good literature review?How do you write a good literature review? Read with a purpose. You need to summarize the work you read, but you must also decide which ideas or information are important to your research (so you can emphasize them), and which are less important (so you can cover them briefly or leave them out altogether). You should also look for the major concepts, conclusions, theories, and arguments that underlie the work, and look for similarities and differences with closely related work. This is difficult when you first start reading, but will become easier the more you read in your area.
  73. 73. How do you write a good literature review? Write with a purpose. Your goal is to evaluate and show relationships between the work already done and your own research project. (Is Researcher Y's theory more convincing than Researcher X's? Did Researcher X build on the work of Researcher Y?) To achieve this goal, you must carefully plan how you are going to organize your review.
  74. 74. Many researchers have shown interest in the field of coastal erosion and the resulting beach profiles. They have carried out numerous laboratory experiments and field observations to explore this field. Their findings and suggestions are reviewed here. JACHOWSKI (1964) developed a model investigation conducted on the interlocking precast concrete block seawall. After surveying damages caused by the severe storm on the coast of the USA, a new and especially shaped concrete block was developed for use in shore protection. This block was designed to be used in a revetment type seawall that would be both durable and economical as well as reduce wave run-up and overtopping, and scour at its base or toe. It was proved that effective shore protection could be designed utilizing these units. HOM-MA and HORIKAWA (1964) studied wave forces acting on the seawall which was located inside the surf zone. On the basis of the experimental results conducted to measure waves forces against a vertical wall, the authors proposed an empirical formula of wave pressure distribution on a seawall. The computed results obtained by using the above formula were compared well with the field data of wave pressure on a vertical wall. SELEZOV and ZHELEZNYAK (1965) conducted experiments on scour of sea bottom in front of harbor seawalls, basing on the theoretical investigation of solitary wave interaction with a vertical wall using a Boussinesque type equation. It showed that the numerical results were in reasonable agreement with laboratory experimental data. and so on. Example of a bad literature review
  75. 75. Roll, Y., M.J. Rosenblatt and D. Kadosh. “On the optimal container size in automated warehouses”, Proceedings of the Ninth ICPR.Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) are being introduced into the industry and warehousing at an increasing rate. Forecasts indicate that this trend will continue for the foreseeable future (see [1]). Research in the area of AS/RS has followed several avenues. Early work by Hausman, Schwarz and Graves [6, 7] was concerned with storage assignment and interleaving policies, based on turnover rates of the various items. Elsayed [3] and Elsayed and Stern [4] compared algorithms for handling orders in AR/RS. Additional work by Karasawa et al. [9], Azadivar [2] and Parry et al. [11] dealt with the design of an AS/RS and the determination of its throughput by simulation and optimization techniques. Several researchers addressed the problem of the optimal handling unit (pallet or container) size, to be used in material handling and warehousing systems. Steudell [13], Tanchoco and Agee[14], Tanchoco et al. [15] and Grasso and Tanchoco [5] studied various aspects of this subject. The last two references incorporate the size of the pallet, or unit load, in evaluation of the optimal lot sizes for multi- inventory systems with limited storage space. In a report on a specific case, Normandin [10] has demonstrated that using the 'best-size' container can result in considerable savings. A simulation model combining container size and warehouse capacity considerations, in an AS/RS environment, was developed by Kadosh [8]. The general results, reflecting the stochastic nature of the flow of goods, are similar to those reported by Rosenblatt and Roll [12]. Nevertheless, container size was found to affect strongly overall warehousing costs. In this paper, we present an analytical framework for approximating the optimal size of a warehouse container. The approximation is based on series of generalizations and specific assumptions. However, these are valid for a wide range of real life situations. The underlying assumptions of the model are presented in the following section. Example of a better literatureExample of a better literature reviewreview
  76. 76. The writer did several things to make this literature review more effective than the earlier example: • The writer grouped similar information: "Steudell [13], Tanchoco and Agee[14], Tanchoco et al. [15] and Grasso and Tanchoco [5] studied various aspects of this subject." • The writer showed the relationship between the work of different researchers, including similarities/differences: "The general results, reflecting the stochastic nature of the flow of goods, are similar to those reported by Rosenblatt and Roll [12]." • The writer indicated the position of the work in the research area history: "Early work by Hausman, Schwarz and Graves [6, 7] . . . " • The writer moved from a general discussion of the research in AS/RS to the more specific area. Why is this example better than the first one?
  77. 77. The goal of this section is to explain two important things about your project: What you did How you did it You should also justify your choices, explaining why your plan was appropriate for this project. Methodology
  78. 78. MethodsMethods  Depending on your topic this may be one paragraph or a long section  If measurement error is important to your study, state how this was assessed.
  79. 79. Methodology Sections (PastMethodology Sections (Past TenseTense)  Materials, apparatus, procedures, participants, definitions, statistic procedures  Some commonly used phrases:  In an effort to reduce ______, ______  In order to establish______, _____  For the purpose of this study,_____ is defined as_______  Based on the feedback from the pilot study, _________ (Swales & Feak, 2004, p. 229)
  80. 80. Results Sections (Past Tense)  Judging the right strength of the claim (Hypotheses supported? To what extent? )  Highlighting key findings from the data.  Making generalized comparisons  One emerging pattern  Procedure/justification (optional)  Location statement  Statement of general finding (Hypotheses supported?)  More specific statements to interpret the results  Example/case/commentary (optional)
  81. 81. *An Example of “Results”An Example of “Results” Children’s self-initiated Use of Pain Relieving Methods The children reported 13 successful types of self-initiated pain relieving methods. As shown in Table 2, most of the children reported using distraction, resting/sleeping, positioning/immobility and asking for pain medication when they experienced pain. (Swales and Feak, 2004, p. 239)
  82. 82. Data presentationData presentation  Draft your figures first: (A picture is worth a thousand words)  Make captions stand alone  Use enough figures to present the data that justifies your interpretations and conclusions. No more, no less. (Don’t use 1000 words when 500 will do)  Write your text around your figures
  83. 83. Data and InterpretationData and Interpretation  Present data that is relevant to answering the question or solving the problem:  if there were blind alleys and dead ends, do not include these, unless specifically relevant to the demonstration that you answered the thesis question.  Note for some theses it may be important to include these in an appendix
  84. 84. Focus on one important thing in each paragraph Each paragraph needs a topic sentence Contents of paragraph should only relate to that topic Use Outline view to see and revise this
  85. 85. Use the proper tools (for your research AND your writing)  Spreadsheets, analysis tools  Plotting programs  Graphics programs  ENDNOTE  Writing resources  Start learning these before you collect the data (e.g., during the thesis proposal process)
  86. 86. Now you have toNow you have to start thinking instart thinking in order to write aorder to write a perfect discussionperfect discussion
  87. 87. InterpretationInterpretation  Keep separate from data, clearly distinguished by paragraph, section, and/or words like “are interpreted to show”.  Depending on your topic, it is often useful to subdivide interpretation into a “local” or small scale (directly flows from your data) and a “regional” or “big picture” scale, that flows from consideration of your data with that of others. This latter type is usually included in the “discussion” section.
  88. 88. DiscussionDiscussion  Look at discussion sections in papers in your field. See what they cover.  Usually is a broader scale interpretation than just your data (relate to previous published results)  Addresses the bigger problems of your research topic and how your study fits into solving those problems  Is NOT a conclusion section
  89. 89. •Relate your findings to the general problem you’re working on and any specific objectives posed in your introduction. •What have you learned? Summarize clearly what your results do and do not demonstrate. •What kinds of questions might other researchers study in order to expand our knowledge about this topic? Note: This section combines references to your own work (described in the past tense) with general conclusions about the state of this field (described in the present tense). You will also speculate about the work still to be done (future tense). DiscussionDiscussion
  90. 90. ConclusionsConclusions  1. Conclusions  2. Summary of Contributions  3. Future Research  Conclusions are not a rambling summary of the thesis: they are short, concise statements of the inferences that you have made because of your work. It helps to organize these as short numbered paragraphs, ordered from most to least important. All conclusions should be directly related to the research question stated
  91. 91. ReferencesReferences  All references cited, including those in Tables and Figure captions. No more, no less.  Use consistent style throughout (e.g. “et al.” OR “and others”, not both)  Use ENDNOTE program (start NOW building your library database)
  92. 92. Recommended Bibliographic SystemsRecommended Bibliographic Systems The system that seems to provide the most useful balance between simplicity, intelligibility and reliability is the “Harvard”“Harvard” method that gives the authors’ names in the text. It has several advantages:  Because it uses names rather than numbers, both the author and the reader  can have a direct idea of who is being cited, and if this reference is appropriate.  The reader will also be able to find references easily in the bibliography.  References correct for any citation are still correct even if the text is radically rearranged.
  93. 93. In Text Citation In the text, the recommended method gives all references parenthetically, to author and year. Unless confusion would result, the citations should come at the end of a sentence; otherwise, they should be at least at the end of a clause.
  94. 94. BibliographyBibliography  In the bibliography, you should list references alphabetically by first author, exactly as cited in the text. For any particular set of authors the references are chronological, with the more recent references first. Thus:  Marks, D. H. (1990a) . . .  Marks, D. H. (1990b) . . .  Marks, D. H. ( 1989) . . .  The format for the references in the bibliography starts off with the authors by last name, and then initials followed by the data. Thus: El-Ansary A., Al-Ayadhi L., Al-Daihan S. (1973) . . .
  95. 95. For a journal article, the string continues with the article’s title (in quotes), the journal’s name in italics, the volume number, the issue number, and the pages in the journal. For example: El-Ansary A., Al-Ayadhi L., Al-Daihan S.(2012) Fatty acids as diagnostic markers in Saudi Autistics. Lipids in health and diseases 35(2):33-45. For a book, the string proceeds with the title in italics, the publisher, and publisher’s location. Thus: de Neufville, R. (1991), Applied Systems Analysis — Engineering Planning and Technology Management, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  96. 96. Assignment 4:Assignment 4: Try to cite the manuscript entitled below as a unified styleTry to cite the manuscript entitled below as a unified style references.references.  The complementary role of high sensitivity C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and severity assessment of autism. Mohammad Reza Khakzad , Maryam Javanbakht, Mohammad Reza Shayegan, Sina Kianoush, Fatemeh Omid. Toxicolgy 2013, Volume 18 issue 2 Pages 45-67.  Neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorders Afaf El-Ansary, Sooad Al-Daihan, Laila Al-Ayadhi Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, volume 9 Page 265
  97. 97. AvAvoid ornate language, words you don’toid ornate language, words you don’t really understandreally understand
  98. 98. Be professional! (or at least try really hard)
  99. 99. AppendicesAppendices In one or more appendices, include materials that are not essential parts of your thesis but that provide useful information to readers seeking more detail. Typical materials included in appendices include:Typical materials included in appendices include: •Detailed explanations too technical or involved to be included in the main text •Additional diagrams •Additional tables summarizing data •Long lists •Experimental protocols or survey questions •Computations directly relevant to discussions in the main body
  100. 100. Giving written work to yourGiving written work to your advisor/reviewersadvisor/reviewers  It may just be a draft, but proofread it first. A spell- check is not enough.  Preferably proofread hours or days after you wrote the text  Outlines are a good place to start  If you want comments or need a reference letter, give him/her time.  If you are aiming at a non-geologic audience, give it to a friend or 211 student  If it’s a thesis proposal, check with all committee members to see what they expect should be included; resolve conflicts early
  101. 101. Definition of PlagiarismDefinition of Plagiarism  Plagiarism is using the words or ideas of others and presenting them as your own. Plagiarism is a type of intellectual theft. It can take many forms, from deliberate cheating to accidentally copying from a source without acknowledgement.  Unintentional plagiarism can result from not knowing how to acknowledge or incorporate sources of information, or from careless note- taking or 'cutting and pasting' of electronic sources.
  102. 102. Types of PlagiarismTypes of Plagiarism  Copying, cutting and pasting text from an electronic source and submitting it as your own work.  Using significant ideas from someone else and presenting them as your own.  Putting someone else's ideas into your own words and not acknowledging the source of the ideas is plagiarism.  Using sources from the internet without referencing them.
  103. 103. How Not to PlagiariseHow Not to Plagiarise  Be aware of what constitutes plagiarism  Employ the technology e.g., Viper (free)  Be aware of what Lingnan considered to be plagiarism.  Become very familiar with the Lingnan requirements regarding referencing and citations e.g., Harvard, APA