Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
Chapter 12 Fire Protection Systems  and Equipment
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the components of a water supply system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of a dependab...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe different types of extinguishing systems and their components </li></ul><ul><li>Descr...
Introduction <ul><li>Water is most common extinguishing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years, water systems have been be...
Public Water Companies <ul><li>Water is one of the single most important factor in municipal fire protection </li></ul><ul...
Private Water Companies <ul><li>Usually established to address industrial or commercial needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain o...
Water Supply Systems <ul><li>Storage capacity and redundancy of system </li></ul><ul><li>Factors for determining required ...
Water Supply Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of supply systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity fed systems </li></ul></ul><ul...
Water Supply Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Adequacy criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average daily consumption </li></ul></ul><ul...
Distribution System <ul><li>From storage to treatment to consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Water mains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unde...
Distribution System (con’t.) <ul><li>Secondary feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con...
Fire Hydrants <ul><li>Two basic types (see Figure 12-5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Special hydrant types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport taxiway/runway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Hydrant maintenance program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect, clean, and lubricate all parts <...
Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Hydrant testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed on new systems to assess flow rates </li></...
Water Systems Program <ul><li>Used to promote cooperation between fire department and water companies </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Auxiliary Sources of Water Supply <ul><li>In areas with lack of an adequate water supply system, especially rural areas </...
Private Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Designed to protect individual properties from fire </li></ul><ul><li>Uses detecti...
Detection Devices <ul><li>Smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For public education purposes, the NFPA prefers the term “...
Detection Devices (con’t.) <ul><li>Smoke/flame detector types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionization chamber </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Detection Devices (con’t.) <ul><li>Alarm system activation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual pull stations (see Figure 12-14) <...
Extinguishing Agents <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly used agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High specific...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of concentrate added to water </li></ul></ul><ul...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combinat...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of mechanical foam (Class B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Class A foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When used with CAFS, will stick to vertical surfa...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Wetting agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce surface tension of water and allow it to...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire retardant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depe...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )   dilutes oxygen to smothe...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Automatic sprinklers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proven 96% effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Residential Sprinklers <ul><li>Less expensive than commercial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Less complicated </li></ul><ul><li...
Commercial and Industrial Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Basic components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department connection </li...
Wet Pipe System <ul><li>Used where freezing is not a concern </li></ul><ul><li>Water remains behind sprinkler heads at all...
Dry Pipe System <ul><li>Used where freezing is a concern </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed air in system keeps water below clap...
Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire department connection   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to riser </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Path of water through system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water main </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Deluge system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All sprinkler heads open at all times </li></ul></ul>...
Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Preaction system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed sprinkler heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Sprinkler Heads <ul><li>Include deflector to divide flow into droplets </li></ul><ul><li>Various types for differing appli...
Standpipe Systems <ul><li>Usually found in stairwells </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent having to lay hose to upper floors </li></...
Foam Systems <ul><li>Can create foam in several ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eduction: draws concentrate into hose stream th...
Gas Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Used when water will cause excessive damage to stock or electrical installations </li></...
Dry Chemical Systems <ul><li>Powder stored in a container </li></ul><ul><li>Common fire extinguisher </li></ul><ul><li>May...
Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Used for combustible cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Installed hood system or portabl...
Fire Extinguishers <ul><li>From very small to very large </li></ul><ul><li>Found in all types of applications </li></ul><u...
Obsolete Agents <ul><li>Some obsolete extinguishers are still in use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soda acid, carbon tetrachloride...
Fire Pumps <ul><li>Boosts pressure in fixed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel and/or electric powered </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Pressure-Reducing  Devices <ul><li>Used to reduce pressure on lower floors of high-rise buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Used t...
<ul><li>Fire department should maintain close relationship with local water company </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters must:  ...
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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 12 Fire Protection Systems and Equipment
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the components of a water supply system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of a dependable water supply system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the components and importance of a fire department water supply program </li></ul><ul><li>Describe fire detection systems and their components </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe different types of extinguishing systems and their components </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different types of extinguishing agents </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the various types of extinguishment agents work </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Water is most common extinguishing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years, water systems have been become dependable and readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Additives are added to water to increase effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Other extinguishing agents have been developed for cases in which water causes damage or is ineffective </li></ul>
  6. 6. Public Water Companies <ul><li>Water is one of the single most important factor in municipal fire protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water companies formed to provide adequate water supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire or building department determines required fire flow for structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water company may have to boost pressure to provide for flow at large fires </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Private Water Companies <ul><li>Usually established to address industrial or commercial needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain own distribution and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Should be checked periodically by fire department </li></ul>
  8. 8. Water Supply Systems <ul><li>Storage capacity and redundancy of system </li></ul><ul><li>Factors for determining required system capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency and duration of drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger to system from natural disaster </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Water Supply Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of supply systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity fed systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct pumping systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground storage systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires duplication of equipment to prevent shutdowns </li></ul>
  10. 10. Water Supply Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Adequacy criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average daily consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum daily consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak hourly consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimum recognized water supply system for fire protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250 gpm for 2 hours (30,000 gallons) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Distribution System <ul><li>From storage to treatment to consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Water mains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground piping of differing sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest are called primary feeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely spaced throughout system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when laid in grid pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looped to prevent dead ends and pressure drops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Distribution System (con’t.) <ul><li>Secondary feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate supply in high demand areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve individual hydrants and blocks of consumers </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Fire Hydrants <ul><li>Two basic types (see Figure 12-5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have more than one valve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common fitting sizes: 2 ½, 4, and 4 ½ inch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is dry to prevent freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valve located underground </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Special hydrant types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport taxiway/runway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Totally underground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry hydrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drafting source from static water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates drafting operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrant spacing is specified by local ordinance </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Hydrant maintenance program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect, clean, and lubricate all parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear weeds and other obstructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notify water company first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open and close valves slowly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water hammer may occur if valves are closed too quickly, especially at high flows or pressures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fire Hydrants (con’t.) <ul><li>Hydrant testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed on new systems to assess flow rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed on old systems to assess condition of system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrant painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted for visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color coded to identify flow rates (developed by NFPA) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Water Systems Program <ul><li>Used to promote cooperation between fire department and water companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of working agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water system map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrant records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintaining water system familiarizes personnel with the location of hydrants </li></ul>
  18. 18. Auxiliary Sources of Water Supply <ul><li>In areas with lack of an adequate water supply system, especially rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Water available from static sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisterns, reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals, creeks, rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks, swimming pools, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preplan your area and identify sources </li></ul>
  19. 19. Private Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Designed to protect individual properties from fire </li></ul><ul><li>Uses detection devices </li></ul><ul><li>Has two main purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert building occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notify fire department </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Detection Devices <ul><li>Smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For public education purposes, the NFPA prefers the term “smoke alarm” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A working smoke alarm in the home doubles a person’s chances of surviving a fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change your clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change your battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test your alarm monthly </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Detection Devices (con’t.) <ul><li>Smoke/flame detector types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionization chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flame or light detector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible smoke detector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of rise detector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed temperature detector </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Detection Devices (con’t.) <ul><li>Alarm system activation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual pull stations (see Figure 12-14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water flow switch or excess flow switch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many systems have combinations of smoke/heat detectors and other devices </li></ul>
  23. 23. Extinguishing Agents <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly used agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High specific heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One gallon absorbs 1,280 BTU when temperature raised from 62 degrees to 212 degrees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional 8,080 BTU absorbed when going from 212 degrees water to 212 degrees steam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume expands 1,700 times when converted to steam </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of concentrate added to water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguishes three ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cools surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuts off vapor production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulates surface from radiated heat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of two agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction creates bubbles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate added to hose stream through inductor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nozzle adds air to create bubbles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Types of mechanical foam (Class B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFF ATC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorinated protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High expansion </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Class A foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When used with CAFS, will stick to vertical surfaces to form fire resistive protection layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as wetting agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces surface tension of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps it soak into fuel/reduces runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not mix foam types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the right type for the classification of fire </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Wetting agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce surface tension of water and allow it to soak into fuel at faster rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water does not evaporate as fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water is needed for job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep seated embers are extinguished more quickly </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire retardant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on wetness to suppress fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses class A foam and wetting agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applied by air or ground-based units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on chemical reaction with fuel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains pigment to remain visible from air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applied by aircraft </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) dilutes oxygen to smother fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halogenated agents break chemical chain reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean agents act like halogenated agents and do not damage ozone layer </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks chemical chain reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for A, B, and C fires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used along with water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be followed up with water to ensure deep-seated embers are extinguished </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Extinguishing Agents (con’t.) <ul><li>Other agents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for class D fires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used on flammable metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May just be dry sand in a pail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Water may react violently with some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>combustible metals, causing an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explosion of hot metal particles </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Automatic sprinklers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proven 96% effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failures are primarily due to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate or shut off water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect installation or design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obstructions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Residential Sprinklers <ul><li>Less expensive than commercial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Less complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Proven effective, but not commonly installed due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misconception that operation results in water damage </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Commercial and Industrial Sprinkler Systems <ul><li>Basic components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open screw and yoke (OS&Y) valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post indicator (PI) valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backflow prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main control valve </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Wet Pipe System <ul><li>Used where freezing is not a concern </li></ul><ul><li>Water remains behind sprinkler heads at all time </li></ul><ul><li>Clapper in control valve keeps water pressure constant in system </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm valve actuates when flow is detected </li></ul><ul><li>Retard chamber prevents false alarms due to pressure fluctuations </li></ul>
  37. 37. Dry Pipe System <ul><li>Used where freezing is a concern </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed air in system keeps water below clapper in main control valve </li></ul><ul><li>Head opening releases air pressure and water enters system </li></ul><ul><li>System may cause delay in water discharge at head </li></ul>
  38. 38. Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Fire department connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to riser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For boosting system pressure with fire department apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be several in high rise or other large structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know which ones to connect to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preplan your systems and mark if possible </li></ul>
  39. 39. Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Path of water through system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water main </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PI valve and OS&Y (may have back flow preventer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through main valve mounted on riser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed mains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross mains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinkler heads </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Deluge system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All sprinkler heads open at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor system releases water into sprinkler system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used where flooding amounts of water are required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems are used in LPG storage, lumber operations, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Dry Pipe System (con’t.) <ul><li>Preaction system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed sprinkler heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preaction valve opens on activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows water into piping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is discharged when heat is sufficient to open sprinkler head </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Sprinkler Heads <ul><li>Include deflector to divide flow into droplets </li></ul><ul><li>Various types for differing applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pendant: head down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upright: head upright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewall: head horizontal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note : Types are not interchangeable and should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only be used as designed </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Standpipe Systems <ul><li>Usually found in stairwells </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent having to lay hose to upper floors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I: 2 ½ inch hose connection for Fire Department use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class II: 1 ½ inch hose connection with hose for occupant use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class III: 2 ½ and 1 ½ inch connection for occupant and fire department use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch out for pressure-reducing devices </li></ul>
  44. 44. Foam Systems <ul><li>Can create foam in several ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eduction: draws concentrate into hose stream through Venturi action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injection: injects concentrate into system before or after main pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch mixing: pours concentrate into tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premixing: concentrate and water stored as mixture </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Gas Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Used when water will cause excessive damage to stock or electrical installations </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in large tanks/cylinders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbed to nozzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm evacuates area before discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release delayed to allow evacuation </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Dry Chemical Systems <ul><li>Powder stored in a container </li></ul><ul><li>Common fire extinguisher </li></ul><ul><li>May have expellant gas in container with powder or in remote reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle rough service </li></ul><ul><li>Requires little maintenance </li></ul>
  47. 47. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Used for combustible cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Installed hood system or portable extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces temperature of liquid and applies extinguishing agent </li></ul>
  48. 48. Fire Extinguishers <ul><li>From very small to very large </li></ul><ul><li>Found in all types of applications </li></ul><ul><li>Different types for all classifications of fires </li></ul><ul><li>Not for use on all classifications of fire at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Check the label before using </li></ul>
  49. 49. Obsolete Agents <ul><li>Some obsolete extinguishers are still in use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soda acid, carbon tetrachloride </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If encountered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove these from service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle carefully ad dispose properly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If unsure of extinguisher type, ask local extinguishing service to assist </li></ul>
  50. 50. Fire Pumps <ul><li>Boosts pressure in fixed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel and/or electric powered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System may have both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical turbine pumps </li></ul>
  51. 51. Pressure-Reducing Devices <ul><li>Used to reduce pressure on lower floors of high-rise buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Used to reduce pressure in standpipe systems </li></ul><ul><li>May require special nozzles to provide effective firefighting hose stream </li></ul><ul><li>Preplan the location and types of systems for safety </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Fire department should maintain close relationship with local water company </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be familiar all types of extinguishing agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of the hazards of agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to operate all agent systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay informed of new agents and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to pick the best option available at an incident </li></ul></ul>Summary

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