Chapter 06

719 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
719
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 06

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 6 Fire Department Resources
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>List fire department facilities </li></ul><ul><li>List advantages of a department having its own facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the purpose of each of the fire department facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the types of fire apparatus and their functions </li></ul><ul><li>List the types of tools carried on fire apparatus </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe the use of the various tools carried on fire apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different types of personal protective equipment firefighters use </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the types and uses of aircraft in fire fighting </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>The modern fire department relies on facilities and equipment as resources </li></ul><ul><li>Some facilities are not available at every fire department due to need or budget constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment has evolved over a period of many years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies in fire departments according to situations and types of fires </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fire Department Facilities <ul><li>Includes the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive repair facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse/central stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire stations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Headquarters <ul><li>Houses managerial/command staff </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrates decision makers in one location </li></ul><ul><li>May be located at main fire station or at other location </li></ul>
  8. 8. Automotive Repair Facility <ul><li>Fleet maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus build up </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical expertise for fire equipment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Training Center <ul><li>Training center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specially constructed or improvised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill tower (see Figure 6-4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder training (ground/aerial) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hi-rise training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High angle rescue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Training Center (con’t.) <ul><li>Burn building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and interior attack drills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire environment demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation drills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials drills, including simulated drug labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Follow NFPA 1403 standards for live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drills </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Training Center (con’t.) <ul><li>Classrooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VCR, TV, white boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean/controlled environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting, seating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be shared with other agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage rooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparatus, equipment, supplies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Training Center (con’t.) <ul><li>Drafting pit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-site hydrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For drill tower and burn building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing on hydrant hookups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driver training/testing course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency stops, high-speed lane changes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Training Center (con’t.) <ul><li>Hazardous materials props </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbing props, railroad tank cars, large tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for confined space rescue training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create and duplicate training materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce closed-circuit TV programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of training materials </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Warehouse/Central Stores <ul><li>Stock day-to-day needs, from toilet paper to PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Keep items readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA and medical oxygen refill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose repair </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Communications Center <ul><li>Receives calls for emergency assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant 911 calls routed to fire department dispatcher </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatcher enters call information into CAD system </li></ul><ul><li>CAD system displays information to dispatch required units </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced 911 and CAD systems give incident address and equipment information </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fire Stations <ul><li>Began as apparatus storage sheds </li></ul><ul><li>Provide living quarters, office space, and apparatus room </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate women in the fire service </li></ul><ul><li>Provide handicapped access </li></ul><ul><li>Blend in with neighborhood </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fire Stations (con’t.) <ul><li>Keep well maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Occupy a large, secured lot </li></ul><ul><li>Supply room for maneuvering apparatus to perform drills </li></ul><ul><li>House equipment for vehicle maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor block heater, electric and air hose reels, air compressor, hose tower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Store turnouts in ventilated storage cabinets </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fire Apparatus <ul><li>Many types required </li></ul><ul><li>Build up from cab and chassis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial or custom cabs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meet NFPA 1901 Automotive Fire Apparatus requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Wear seat belts, remain seated and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>belted in until told to exit </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cab and Chassis <ul><li>Tour of cab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large mirrors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air brake pressure gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil pressure gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel level gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual or automatic transmission </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cab and Chassis (con’t.) <ul><li>Pump transfer case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers power to pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatics equipped with brake and throttle pedals </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel may have “jake brake” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns motor into air compressor for braking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves vehicle brakes from wear/overheating </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cab and Chassis (con’t.) <ul><li>Switches for lights and siren </li></ul><ul><li>Light bar on cab includes alley and red lights </li></ul><ul><li>Air horns in front bumper </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic siren with several tones </li></ul><ul><li>Radio system has multi-channel capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and emergency operations channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications with other jurisdictions </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cab and Chassis (con’t.) <ul><li>Intercom system allows intra-cab communications </li></ul><ul><li>SCBA mounted in cab for quick donning </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Data Computer (MDC) connect to CAD and AVL </li></ul><ul><li>Global positioning system (GPS) allows vehicle tracking and relay of position to aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Double battery setup for startup power and warning lights </li></ul>
  23. 23. Motor <ul><li>Diesel becoming most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long life and durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of torque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbo and/or supercharged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversized alternator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High idle switch keeps amperage up </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Modular Apparatus <ul><li>Cab and chassis </li></ul><ul><li>Replaceable buildup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat bed with skid unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows greater flexibility </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pumper/Engine <ul><li>Triple combination most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Water Tanks <ul><li>Various sized water tanks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 to 1,500 gallons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baffles to prevent sloshing and weight shift </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic gaining popularity as tank material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unharmed by foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not rust </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Foam Systems <ul><li>Foam systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior knockdown on ordinary combustibles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For hydrocarbon fuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often uses flow meter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses compressed air </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Pumps <ul><li>Main purpose is to lift water </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal most common as main pump </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeller is the vaned wheel inside case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suction inlets introduce water into eye of impeller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeller spins, forcing water outward against walls of casing </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Centrifugal Pumps <ul><li>Casing uses volute area to convert centrifugal energy to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Volute discharges water into plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Plumbing connects to various outlets (discharges) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.) <ul><li>Relief valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reroutes excess pressure to suction side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents pressure surges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure governor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls motor speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less speed = less pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents pressure surges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Should always be set at a safe operating </li></ul><ul><li>pressure to provide firefighter safety </li></ul>
  31. 31. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can spin without discharging water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of pressure from inlet side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can pump dirty water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipped with screens to limit size of debris entering pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety Note : If no water is discharged, it can reach </li></ul><ul><li>scalding temperatures </li></ul>
  32. 32. Centrifugal Pumps (con’t.) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only act on the water that enters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot draw water from a static source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavitation can occur if the discharge exceeds intake pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May damage pump impeller </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Positive Displacement Pumps <ul><li>Types include rotary gear, piston and diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge volume equals intake volume </li></ul><ul><li>Used to “prime” centrifugal pumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuates air from pump housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure forces water into pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in some high pressure applications </li></ul>
  34. 34. Positive Displacement Pumps (con’t.) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-priming (can pump air) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must keep a discharge open at all times due to pressure buildup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot pump debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy and expensive </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Aerial Ladder and Elevated Platform Apparatus <ul><li>Two basic configurations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tractor/trailer with tiller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight chassis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ladder types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extendable with flies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With or without basket/platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>108 feet of ground ladders needed to qualify as a ladder truck </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Aerial Ladder and Elevated Platform Apparatus (con’t.) <ul><li>Additional features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulated boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercom system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing air system in platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbing for elevated streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote controls in platform </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Quint <ul><li>Quint apparatus ladder truck/pumper combination includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground ladders </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Squads <ul><li>Specialty vehicles to serve department’s special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special lighting vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical and hazardous materials vans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical command post and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terra torch (for wildland firefighting) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting (ARFF) <ul><li>Large water tank </li></ul><ul><li>Foam and dry chemical extinguishing systems </li></ul><ul><li>All-wheel drive for off-runway operation </li></ul><ul><li>Turret and ground sweep nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>Pump and roll capability </li></ul><ul><li>Hand lines and ladders for fuselage access </li></ul>
  40. 40. Fire Tools and Appliances <ul><li>Includes the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nozzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fittings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Hose <ul><li>Come in various sizes and construction types </li></ul><ul><li>Use couplings </li></ul><ul><li>Carried in apparatus hose beds </li></ul><ul><li>Used for various applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Figure 6-37 Hose lines, 2 ½ inch, three-inch, and four-inch diameter, laid in hose bed.
  43. 43. Nozzles <ul><li>Numerous sizes and designs </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fog or straight stream patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Straight tip/smooth bore </li></ul><ul><li>Bail handle turns on and off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to turn itself off if dropped </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Nozzles (con’t.) <ul><li>Foam inductors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on venturi principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws concentrate from pail and introduces it into the hose stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must follow manufacturer’s instructions or quality foam will not be produced </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Fittings <ul><li>Connect hoses and appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows versatility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reverse direction of hose lays </li></ul><ul><li>Change hose size or thread type </li></ul><ul><li>Combine or divide hose lays </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ladders <ul><li>Attic ladder: folding 10-foot most common </li></ul><ul><li>Roof ladder: 14-foot with fold out hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Extension ladder: bed ladder with one or more flies, various lengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Ladders used must be designed for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>firefighting use </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. SCBA <ul><li>Self-contained breathing apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Four main components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backpack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low pressure alarm </li></ul>
  48. 48. SCBA (con’t.) <ul><li>Protect firefighters from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low oxygen concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic byproducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superheated gases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulator operates in positive pressure mode to prevent toxic gases from entering face mask </li></ul>
  49. 49. Hand Tools <ul><li>General and specialized tools for cutting, forcing, lighting, tightening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hose tools (spanners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic rescue tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular saws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain saws </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Hand Tools (con’t.) <ul><li>More tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sledge hammers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pike poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubbish hooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power fans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke ejectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage covers/rolled plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire extinguishers </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Hand Tools (con’t.) <ul><li>More tools (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical aid equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic external defibrillator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lights/power cords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shovels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal imaging camera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many other tools are carried depending on needs </li></ul>
  52. 52. Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools <ul><li>For cutting and scraping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McLeod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulaski </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shovels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain saws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusees (for road flares) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Wildland Firefighting Hand Tools (con’t.) <ul><li>Other tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flagging tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canteens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other specialized tools are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Cutting tools are very sharp; use great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>care! </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Heavy Equipment <ul><li>Bulldozers create firelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrape earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knock down trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pumper Cat has water tank on board </li></ul><ul><li>Special foam units for oil firefighting </li></ul>
  55. 55. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) <ul><li>Includes the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Station/work uniform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure fire PPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal alarm/personal safety system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity suits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildland PPE </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Station/Work Uniforms <ul><li>May be flame-resistant material, cotton or cotton blend </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton underwear </li></ul><ul><li>Additional layers help to protect from radiant heat </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Any clothing made of nylon or related </li></ul><ul><li>synthetic fabrics can melt to your skin </li></ul>
  57. 57. Structure Fire PPE <ul><li>Designed as a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helmet and hood or ear protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCBA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boots and gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Note : PPE must all be worn every time to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide proper protection </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Personal Alarm / Proximity Suits <ul><li>Personal Alarm Device (PAL or PASS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required to carry on SCBA suit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emits signal when no motion is detected for approximately 30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximity Suits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to approach flaming fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designed for walking in flames </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Wildland PPE <ul><li>Designed as a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard hat, ear and face protection, and goggles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire shirt with T-shirt underneath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flame-resistant pants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lace-up boots with lug soles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety Note : Never leave vehicle without shelter </li></ul>
  60. 60. Emergency Medical PPE <ul><li>Universal precautions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture-resistant long-sleeved shirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex or vinyl gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye, nose, and mouth protection </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Aircraft <ul><li>Fixed wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air tankers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke jumper transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rotary wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troop/materiel transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water dropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS transport </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Tools and equipment constantly developed or adapted for firefighters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment varies according to department needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools make job easier and safer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not become so dependent on power tools that you are ineffective without them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities in this chapter are only a representative sample </li></ul><ul><li>Most important resource: the firefighter </li></ul>Summary

×