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Basic training water based fire protection

  1. Introduction to WATER BASED FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Presented by Engr. Sabrul Jamil, PRINCE2 Manager, Fire Safety, Ezzy Automations Ltd, Bangladesh Phone: +88 01617181910 eMail: Website:
  2. WATER BASED FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM • Standpipe (Hydrant) System • Wet pipe Sprinkler System • DRY pipe Sprinkler System • DELUGE Sprinkler System • Single interlock PRE-ACTION Sprinkler System • Double Interlock PRE- ACTION Sprinkler System • WATER MIST FIRE PROTECTION 2
  3. Standards NFPA 14 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems NFPA 13D Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two- Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes NFPA 13E Recommended Practice for Fire Department Operations in Properties Protected by Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems NFPA 13R Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height NFPA 15 Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection NFPA 16 Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems NFPA 750 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems 3
  4. Terminology ► Hose Station: A combination of a hose rack or reel, hose nozzle, hose, and hose connection. ► Fire Extinguishment: The complete suppression of a fire until there are no burning combustibles. ► Fire Suppression: The sharp reduction of the rate of heat release of a fire and the prevention of regrowth. ► Nozzle Operating Pressure: The pressure range at which nozzles are listed to control, suppress, or extinguish a fire. ► Standby Pressure: The pressure that exists in the distribution system in the static state, prior to nozzle discharge. ► System Design Pressure: The maximum pressure a system or component is rated to withstand. ► Working Pressure: The maximum anticipated pressure applied to the system components exclusive of surge pressures. 4
  5. Terminology ► Engineered Water Mist Systems: Those systems that need individual calculation and design to determine the flow rates, nozzle pressures, pipe size, area, or volume protected by each nozzle, discharge density of water mist, the number and types of nozzles, and the nozzle placement in a specific system. ► Pre-Engineered Water Mist Systems: Those systems that have predetermined pipe and tube sizes, maximum and minimum pipe lengths, number of fittings and numbers and types of nozzles, nozzle pressures, atomizing media, and water storage quantities and that do not require additional hydraulic calculations. ► Twin-Fluid System: A water mist system in which water and an atomizing medium are supplied to the water mist nozzle utilizing a separate piping system for each medium or a single piping system for both. 5
  6. Terminology ► Water Mist: A water spray for which the Dv0.99, for the flow-weighted cumulative volumetric distribution of water droplets is less than 1000 μm within the nozzle operating pressure range. ► Water Mist Nozzle: A special purpose device, containing one or more orifices, designed to produce and deliver a water spray meeting either the definition of water mist or meeting the specific requirements of an approved water mist fire test protocol. ► Automatic Water Mist Nozzles: Nozzles that operate independently of other nozzles by means of a detection/ activation device built into the nozzle. ► Multi-functional Water Mist Nozzles: Nozzles capable of operation using both automatic and nonautomatic means. ► Nonautomatic Water Mist Nozzles (Open): Nozzles that operate as an entire system or grouping of nozzles, containing open orifices and activating the water flow to the nozzles by an independent detection system. 6
  7. Standpipe System 7
  8. Standpipe System • Network of pipes and outlets for fire hoses built into a structure to provide water for firefighting purposes • Usually used in high-rise buildings, although they are found in many other structures as well. • Shall be designed to cover entire area. RISER STANDPIPE IN THE OUTSIDE OF BUILDING 8
  9. Valves  Control Valve: A valve controlling flow to water based fire protection systems.  Hose Valve: The valve to an individual hose connection.  Inspector's Test Valves,  Drain Valves,  Trim Valves For Dry Pipe, Pre- action And Deluge Valves,  Check Valves,  Relief Valves. 9
  10. Landing Valve FDC/ Breeching Inlet  Landing Valve:  Oblique Landing Valves/ Angle Hose Valve  Important source of water which is crucial for fighting fires on any level of your building  Can be Pressure reducing type  (4 bar -12 bar).  Fire Department Connection/ Breeching Inlet  Must comply with BS 5041 PART-3:1975 standard comprising of male instantaneous connections complying with BS 336:2010, drain valves complying with BS 5154, PN16 rated and Non Return Valve  Capable of being charged with water by pumping 10
  11. Pressure Regulating Valve  Automatically maintain the outlet “set pressure” (static and residual) within a close range,  Regardless of fluctuations in the higher pressure inlet line or varying flow rates.  Can be installed either vertically or horizontally  Pilot valve provides for any outlet “set pressure”, i.e., 80 to 225 psi (5,5 to 15,5 bar) 11
  12. Pressure Relief Valve  Releases the pressure above the set value  Closes after releasing the pressure  Field relief “set pressure” range of 30 to 250 psi (2,1 to 17,2 bar)  Designed for general service such as shut- off, throttling, or drain valves  Provide positive shut-off under normal operating conditions TRIM VALVES 12
  13. System Components 13
  15. Water Monitor • Large flow capability • Both manual & Automatic control • Ease of operation, • Vertical and horizontal rotation • Minimum maintenance • Resistance to normally destructive environments 15
  16. Wet Type Pillar Hydrant 16
  17. Hydrant Unit Outdoor Type 17
  18. Hose Stations  Class I System.  21∕2 in. (65 mm) hose connections for fire departments.  Class II System.  11∕2 in. (40 mm) hose for use by trained personnel  Class III System.  11∕2 in. (40 mm) hose for use by trained personnel and  21∕2 in. (65 mm) hose to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments. 18
  19. Wet pipe Sprinkler System 19
  20. AUTOMATIC WET PIPE SPRINKLERS  A fire sprinkler system consists of a series of pipes with small discharge nozzles (sprinklers) located throughout a building.  When a fire occurs, heat rising from the fire melts the solder link or expands the liquid in the glass bulb, causing it to break and release water onto the fire.  Well maintained fire sprinkler systems are highly reliable and provide people protection as well as property protection. 20
  22. STANDARD SPRAY SPRINKLERS  Standard/ Quick Response Sprinklers (5 mm/ 3mm bulb)  Bulb type/Solder type  K FACTOR = Discharge Coefficient  GPM√PSI (LPM√BAR)  K=2.8 (40,3)  K=5.6 (80,6)  K=8.0 (115,2)  Typical Application Office Buildings Banks Factories Libraries Theaters  Schools Light & Ordinary Hazard Occupancies 22
  23. Nozzles Directional Spray Nozzle Automatic Directional Spray Nozzle Horizontal Spray Nozzle, Open 23
  24. Open Nozzles HIGH VELOCITY Directional Spray Nozzle Medium Velocity Directional Spray Nozzles Cooling Tower Nozzles, Foam-Water Sprinkler 24
  25. Sprinkler Head Temperature Ratings, Classifications and Color Coding Maximum Ceiling Temperature Temperature Rating Temperature Classification Color Code (with Fusible Link) Liquid Alcohol in Glass Bulb Color 100 °F / 38 °C 135-170 °F / 57- 77 °C Ordinary Uncolored or Black Orange (135 °F / 57 °C) or Red (155 °F / 68 °C) 150 °F / 66 °C 175-225 °F / 79- 107 °C Intermediate White Yellow (175 °F / 79 °C) or Green (200 °F / 93 °C) 225 °F / 107 °C 250-300 °F / 121-149 °C High Blue Blue 300 °F / 149 °C 325-375 °F / 163-191 °C Extra High Red Purple 375 °F / 191 °C 400-475 °F / 204-246 °C Very Extra High Green Black 475 °F / 246 °C 500-575 °F / 260-302 °C Ultra High Orange Black 625 °F / 329 °C 650 °F / 343 °C Ultra High Orange Black 25
  26. Sprinkler Head Temperature Ratings, Classifications and Color Coding 26
  27. Nozzles, Applications  Special Hazard Applications.  Exposure Protection, Fire Control,  Fire Extinguishment,  Explosion Prevention  Flammable Liquid Tanks & Operations  Equipment or Processes that Require Special Designs  Cable Trays  Clean Rooms  Conveyors  Cut-Off Rooms  Engine Test Cells  Flammable Liquid Storage  Food Processing  Fuel Storage  Gas Turbines  Historic Sites & Museums  Industrial Process Equipment  Machining Centers  Ferries  Offshore Platforms  Transformers  Vapor Suppression 27
  28. AUTOMATIC WET PIPE SPRINKLERS  Pipes are always filled with water. Heat from fire opens a sprinkler head,  Usually only one or two heads open,  Water flows until it is shut off,  The open sprinkler head(s) is replaced and the system is reset. 28
  30. AUTOMATIC WET PIPE SPRINKLERS  A one-way clapper prevents water from re-entering the water supply,  Gauges on both sides of the main valve, register pressure on the supply and system sides,  A retard chamber prevents sudden pressure surges which could cause a false alarm,  An alarm check valve detects water flow and activates the alarm system, 30
  31. AUTOMATIC WET PIPE SPRINKLERS  There is a control valve to shut off the system, normally an O.S.& Y. (Outside Stem and Yoke) or (Outside Screw and Yoke),  There is a main drain valve which drains the system for service,  And an Inspectors Test Valve, usually at the end of the system, used to simulate flow from a single head and to measure the system response, 31
  32. EXTENDED COVERAGE SPRINKLERS  Protection Of Large Areas  Both Standard Response (EC) And Quick Response (QR-EC)  Upright, Pendent, Horizontal Sidewall And Recessed Horizontal Sidewall.  Typically Used In  Office Buildings  Hotels  Hospitals  Libraries  High-piled Storage  “Big-box” Retailing  Restaurants,  Warehouses, And  Other Areas Where It Is Desirable To Reduce The Overall Number Of Required Sprinklers. 32
  33. STORAGE SPRINKLERS  Specific applications, including the protection of high-piled and  rack storage of a variety of finished goods.  Can provide more water at lower pressures or more water over a greater area of coverage.  In many instances, can eliminate the need for additional in-rack sprinklers.  Application  High-Piled Storage  In-Rack Storage  Warehouse  High Challenge Occupancies DRY-TYPE PENDENT 33
  34. RAPID RESPONSE® SPRINKLERS  Developed specifically for residential occupancies  Features BlazeMaster® CPVC pipe and fittings, making installation quick, easy, flexible, and affordable  APPLICATIONS Single Family Homes Apartments Student Housing Hotels Beamed Ceilings Sloped Ceilings 34
  35. SPECIAL PURPOSE SPRINKLERS Spray Patterns BB (Back-to-Back), SD (Single Directional), HIP, & AP (Attic Plus) 35
  36. DRY pipe Sprinkler System 36
  38. AUTOMATIC DRY PIPE SPRINKLERS  Pipes are not filled with water (but with pressurized gas or air),  Heat from a fire opens a sprinkler head,  Usually only one or two heads open,  Air pressure drops in the piping and opens a water valve (the dry-pipe valve),  Application:  Dry pipes systems are used in unheated buildings, but the valve room must be heated  Unheated Warehouses  Parking Garages  Store Windows  Attic Spaces  Loading Docks, & Other Areas Exposed To Freezing Temperatures 38
  39. Extended Coverage Pendant Extended Coverage Horizontal Sidewall Dry Sprinkler Boot (close the air gap through a wall or ceiling 39
  40. DELUGE Sprinkler System 40
  41. DELUGE Sprinkler System  Normally used in special hazard installations  Water must be applied to an entire area for protection.  Open sprinklers or spray nozzles  Attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through the deluge valve.  May be activated by wet or dry pilot sprinklers, or electric detectors.  Applications  Flammable Liquid Handling  Storage Areas for Valuable Artifacts  Aircraft Hangars  High-Hazard Installations  Computer Rooms  Libraries, Archives  Refrigerated Areas 41
  42. DELUGE Sprinkler System  When the deluge valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all open sprinklers and nozzles.  Electric Actuation system shown here • When the deluge valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all open sprinklers and nozzles. • Electric Actuation system shown here 42
  43. PRE-ACTION Sprinkler System 43
  44. Preaction Systems  Used to protect areas where water damage from damaged sprinklers or piping must be avoided.  A prealarm of a possible fire allows time for alternate fire extinguishment prior to a sprinkler discharge.  They are designed for applications such as refrigerated areas that require maximum protection against inadvertent operation of the sprinkler system.  Pipes are not filled with water,  All sprinkler heads are of the standard type (they are closed),  A actuation device opens a water valve,  Water fills the pipes,  Water only flows from a sprinkler head if it is opened by heat from a fire,  Water flows until shut off and system is reset. 44
  45. Single interlock PRE-ACTION Sprinkler System • Automatic Sprinklers • Piping System Containing 10 Psi (0,7 Bar) Supervisory Pressure, • Supplemental Electric Fire Detection System • May Also Be Activated By Either Wet Or Dry Pilot Sprinklers Instead Of Electric Detectors • Actuation Of The Fire Detection System From A Fire Opens The Deluge Valve 45
  46. Double Interlock PRE-ACTION Sprinkler System • In order to actuate the double interlock preaction system, two independent events, caused by a fire condition, must occur. • The sprinkler system piping must lose air or nitrogen pressure due to the operation of one or more sprinklers, and the deluge releasing panel must energize and open the solenoid valve upon the operation of a fire detection device. 46
  47. Double Interlock PRE-ACTION Sprinkler System The double interlock system will operate only when both the dry pilot actuator and the solenoid valve are open at the same time. Opening of the dry pilot actuator only (for example: a forklift truck accidentally dislodges a sprinkler) or of the solenoid valve only (for example: accidental operation of an electric manual pull station) will cause an alarm, and will not trip the system or flood the sprinkler system piping. 47
  48. WATER MIST FIRE PROTECTION • Medium velocity systems – cooling fire down • High velocity systems – getting under the fire 48
  49. How Water Mist Fire Fighting Works Evaporation (Heat extraction) is a function of the surface area of the droplets Reducing droplet size increases the surface area Increasing the surface area allows for larger cooling effect for a given flow Water converts to vapour, expanding by a factor of 1650 Oxygen is displaced and diluted thereby blocking it from the fuel source Higher heat levels cause faster vaporisation Fire extinguishment is improved with direct contact of water droplets This type of extinguishment is normally associated with standard sprinklers Small droplets tend to remain suspended The expanding mist will expand and cool the gasses and other fuel in the area Blocks the transfer of radiant heat to the adjacent combustibles and pre-wets them49
  50. WATER MIST FIRE PROTECTION • High Pressure Water Mist System: Piping pressures ≥34.5bar (500psi). • Intermediate Pressure System: Piping pressures 12.1 bar (175psi) to 34.5 bar (500psi). • Low Pressure Water Mist System: Piping pressures ≤12.1bar (175psi). 570 25 50 100 Sprinklers LPWM IPWM HPWM 50
  52. Twin-Fluid System 52
  53.  Extinguishing  Class B & K  Hydro-Carbon, high heat release  Global/local oxygen displacement  Flame cooling  Radiant heat blocking  Alternative to traditional sprinklers and gaseous suppression/CO2 WATER MIST FIRE PROTECTION DROPLET SIZES  Control  Class A  Ordinary combustibles, low heat release  Flame / smoke cooling  Radiant heat blocking  Pre-wetting combustibles  2.5 Dimensional wetting  Alternative to traditional sprinklers 53
  54.  Deluge  Class B & Class K  Hydrocarbon, high heat release  Deluge (Open) Nozzles  All nozzles discharge simultaneously  Total Flooding: Enclosure design area Enclosure volume and ventilation key design variables WATER MIST FIRE PROTECTION DROPLET SIZES  Automatic  Class A  Ordinary combustibles, low heat release  Frangible bulb actuation  Hydraulically most remote / favorable design area  Ventilation key variable dependent on application 54
  55. Applications – Machinery Spaces 55
  56. Applications – Industrial Fryer 56
  57. Applications – Light / Ordinary Hazard I 57
  58. Applications – Data Centre 58
  59. THANK YOU Q&A 59