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States of Matter

Chemical/Physical Change

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  1. 1. What is Chemistry? 1.1
  2. 2. Properties and Changes of Matter <ul><li>A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition. </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical States of Matter <ul><li>The states of matter are the physical forms of matter which are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Properties of the Physical States <ul><li>Solids have a fixed volume and shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases have neither fixed volume nor shape. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Changes of Matter <ul><li>Physical changes are changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes of state are physical changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can go back. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical changes occur when the identities of substances change and new substances form. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Na + Cl  NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants ( Na + Cl ) are the substances are the left-hand side of the arrow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are used up in the reaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products ( NaCl ) are the substances are the right-hand side of the arrow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are made in the reaction. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evidence of a Chemical Change <ul><li>Evidence that a chemical change may be happening generally falls into one of the following categories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effervescence (bubbles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of a precipitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release or absorption of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a change in temperature or the giving off of light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color change in the reaction system </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Describing Matter 1.2
  9. 9. Matter Has Mass and Volume <ul><li>Volume is the space an object occupies. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is the quantity of matter in an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is the force produced by gravity acting on a mass . </li></ul>
  10. 10. SI ( Système Internationale d’Unités ) <ul><li>Base SI Units: </li></ul><ul><li>Length = Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Volume = Liter </li></ul><ul><li>Mass = Gram </li></ul>
  11. 11. SI Conversion <ul><li>Base units can be too large or too small for some measurements, so the base units may be modified by attaching prefixes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Derived Units <ul><li>These units are derived by multiplying or dividing the base units. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed is distance divided by time. The derived unit of speed is meters per second (m/s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rectangle’s area is found by multiplying its length (in meters) by its width (also in meters). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its unit is square meters (m 2 ). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Properties <ul><li>A physical property of a substance is a characteristic that does not involve a chemical change. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties of a substance can be determined without changing the nature of a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties include: texture, state, melting point, and boiling point. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Density is a physical property. <ul><li>Densities are expressed in derived units such as g/cm 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>The density of a substance is the same no mater what the size of the sample is. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chemical Properties <ul><li>A chemical property a property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical property of many substances is that they react with oxygen like rusting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iron (Fe) + Oxygen (O 2 ) FeO 2 (rust) </li></ul>