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# 3.3 orbital notation

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### 3.3 orbital notation

1. 1. Orbital NotationOrbital Notation Props to Mr. Smyk for giving this to me.
2. 2. What is Orbital NotationWhat is Orbital Notation  Orbital notation is a visual transformationOrbital notation is a visual transformation of the electron configuration.of the electron configuration.  Orbital notation shows you where eachOrbital notation shows you where each specific electron is placed (in order) andspecific electron is placed (in order) and what it’s “spin” is.what it’s “spin” is.
3. 3. Vocabulary List CheckVocabulary List Check  Pauli Exclusion Principle:Pauli Exclusion Principle:  No two electrons in the same atom can have the same spin quantum number. If one electron has the value of +½ then the other electron must have the value of −½.  In Orbital notation this means the arrows representing the electrons must face opposite direction (+ is up, - is down).
4. 4. Vocabulary List CheckVocabulary List Check  Aufbau principle: (you already knowAufbau principle: (you already know the concept)the concept) Aufbau is the German word for “building up.” The principle states that electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first. You fill electrons in a certain order. 11ss < 2< 2ss < 2< 2pp < 3< 3ss < 3< 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s <p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f < 6d <4d < 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f < 6d < 7p7p
5. 5. Vocabulary List CheckVocabulary List Check  Hund’s Rule:Hund’s Rule:  The rule that states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin.  What?  You must share your electrons. “Everybody gets one before anyone gets two.”
6. 6. What’s next?What’s next?  The orbital notationThe orbital notation reference sheet.reference sheet.  This shows eachThis shows each orbital split apart intoorbital split apart into its 3 dimensionalits 3 dimensional axes.axes.  Relax, this is easy.Relax, this is easy.
7. 7. Write out the electron configurationWrite out the electron configuration for Sodiumfor Sodium  Na, 11eNa, 11e--  1s1s22 2s2s22 2p2p66 3s3s11  We are now going toWe are now going to represent each electronrepresent each electron as a ‘half arrow”.as a ‘half arrow”.  We must fill in (buildWe must fill in (build up) the electrons as weup) the electrons as we did previously but showdid previously but show them using arrows onthem using arrows on the orbital notationthe orbital notation diagram.diagram.  First one in an orbital isFirst one in an orbital is placed up (+placed up (+½½ spin)spin)
8. 8. Write out the electron configurationWrite out the electron configuration for Boronfor Boron  B, 5eB, 5e--  1s1s22 2s2s22 2p2p11  We are now going toWe are now going to represent each electronrepresent each electron as a ‘half arrow”.as a ‘half arrow”.  We must fill in (buildWe must fill in (build up) the electrons as weup) the electrons as we did previously but showdid previously but show them using arrows onthem using arrows on the orbital notationthe orbital notation diagram.diagram.  First one in an orbital isFirst one in an orbital is placed up (+placed up (+½½ spin)spin)
9. 9. Write out the electron configurationWrite out the electron configuration for Titaniumfor Titanium  Ti, 22eTi, 22e--  1s1s22 2s2s22 2p2p66 3s3s22 3p3p66 3d3d22 4s4s22
10. 10. On your own. CalciumOn your own. Calcium  Ca, 20eCa, 20e--  1s1s22 2s2s22 2p2p66 3s3s22 3p3p66 4s4s22
11. 11. HomeworkHomework  Complete the Electron ConfigurationComplete the Electron Configuration Homework WKST.Homework WKST.