Chemistry Unit 2 Part 1

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Chemistry Unit 2 Part 1

  1. 1. Matter and Change Part 1 – Properties of Matter
  2. 2. TAKS student expectation <ul><li>Integrated Physics and Chemistry (8) Science Concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life . The student is expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle; and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Here’s what you have to do if you want to pass this part of the TAKS: </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Remember to duplicate </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  4. 4. <ul><li>Characteristics of a substance can be classified as physical properties or chemical properties. Which of the following is a chemical property? </li></ul><ul><li>A Boils at 56ºC </li></ul><ul><li>B Tastes sour </li></ul><ul><li>C Has a density of 2.9 g/cm3 </li></ul><ul><li>D Reacts with acid to produce hydrogen gas </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Reviewing Chemistry TAKS.
  5. 5. Properties and Changes in Matter <ul><li>Every substance has characteristic properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemists use these properties to distinguish between substances and separate them. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Extensive vs. Intensive Properties Properties are either extensive or intensive . <ul><li>Extensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>depend on amount of matter present </li></ul><ul><li>volume, mass, and </li></ul><ul><li>amount of energy in a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>do not depend on amount of matter present </li></ul><ul><li>melting point, density, ability to conduct electricity, and percent composition </li></ul>
  7. 7. Properties of One Penny <ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Mass – 2.50 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Volume – 0.442 mL </li></ul><ul><li>Density – 5.66 g/mL </li></ul>
  8. 8. Properties of Many Pennies <ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Mass – 2500 grams </li></ul><ul><li>(1000 pennies x 2.5 g) </li></ul><ul><li>Volume – 442 mL </li></ul><ul><li>(1000 pennies x.442mL) </li></ul><ul><li>Density – 5.66 g/mL </li></ul>One Thousand Pennies
  9. 9. Extensive vs. Intensive Properties <ul><li>WHICH PROPERTIES REMAINED THE SAME? </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Percent Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>The intensive properties remained the same because they do not depend on the amount of pennies present. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extensive vs. Intensive Properties <ul><li>WHICH PROPERTIES CHANGED? </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>The extensive properties changed because they do depend on the amount of pennies present. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Property Types <ul><li>There are 2 major categories that all properties of matter fall into </li></ul>Physical Chemical
  12. 12. Physical Properties <ul><li>Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be observed by using the five senses. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Properties <ul><li>Cross between a lab and a poodle </li></ul><ul><li>Size of a lab </li></ul><ul><li>With the curly hair of a poodle </li></ul><ul><li>Can be black, yellow, brown, or white </li></ul><ul><li>Tail of a lab </li></ul>What are the physical properties of a labradoodle?
  14. 14. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical properties relate to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples of chemical properties: <ul><li>Conductivity -ability to conduct electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Flammability – ability to ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Electronegativity – the ability to retain electrons </li></ul>
  16. 16. Density – a Property of Matter <ul><li>Density – a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume. The density of every pure substance in the world is unique. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Calculating Density <ul><li>The formula for calculating density is given on your TAKS formula chart, so you must know how to use it </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sample Question Source: Grade 11 TAKS Information Book
  19. 19. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  20. 20. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  21. 21. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  22. 22. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  23. 23. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  24. 24. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  25. 25. <ul><li>Remember to duplicate </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  26. 26. Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  27. 27. Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 10th TAKS
  28. 28. Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 10th TAKS
  29. 30. Part 2 – Changes in Matter
  30. 31. Physical Change <ul><li>A change in the physical appearance of a substance that does not change the identity of the substance. </li></ul>LIQUID SOLID GAS
  31. 32. Physical Changes <ul><li>Phase Change – physical change from one state to another </li></ul>LIQUID Between 0°C and 100 0°C SOLID Below 0°C GAS Above 100°C Only the temperature changes Still H 2 O in every form!!!
  32. 33. Physical Changes <ul><li>Examples of physical changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Crushing an aluminum can </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting your hair </li></ul><ul><li>Shredding paper </li></ul>
  33. 34. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Chemical changes, or chemical reactions, occur when one or more substances is converted into another substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Original atoms are preserved </li></ul><ul><li>New substances are formed </li></ul><ul><li>Different chemical composition than original substance </li></ul>
  34. 35. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Chemical changes are chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated by a number of signs </li></ul><ul><li>formation of a gas, </li></ul><ul><li>formation of a solid, or precipitate </li></ul><ul><li>change in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>evolution of heat and light </li></ul><ul><li>Change in color </li></ul><ul><li>Change in odor </li></ul>
  35. 36. Chemical Changes <ul><li>When iron (Fe) rusts, you can see it happen over a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual iron molecules change their structure as they react with oxygen and are oxidized. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Examples of chemical changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Milk souring </li></ul><ul><li>Grass growing </li></ul><ul><li>Frying an egg </li></ul>
  37. 38. Energy Transfer <ul><li>All changes (physical and chemical) involve some transfer of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Body uses energy from chemical reactions to digest food. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather involves a transfer of energy to evaporate water in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the study of matter also involves the study of energy. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Summary <ul><li>Extensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties and Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties and Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of Energy </li></ul>

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