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www.ohri.ca | Affiliated with • Affilié à
CPSI National Webinar Series
Knowledge Translation and Implementation Science Education Series
Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants
of implementation, in theory
Justin Presseau
Scientist, OHRI
Assistant Professor, uOttawa
@JPresseau
jpresseau@ohri.ca
Andrea Patey
Senior Clinical Research Associate, OHRI
Assistant Professor (Adjunct), Queen’s
@andreapatey
apatey@ohri.ca
Centre for Implementation Research
Webinar 4 overview
▶ Situating our progress in the webinar series
▶ Overview of key frameworks for identifying barriers/enablers used in
implementation science
▶ An in-depth consideration of the Theoretical Domains Framework
(TDF)
A behavioural perspective to KT and IS
▶ Successful implementation of patient safety programs needs key
actors (patients, healthcare providers, managers and policy makers)
to change their behaviours and/or decisions whilst working in the
complex (ordered chaos) of health care environments
▶ There is a substantial evidence base in behavioural sciences that
can support the development of patient safety programs and
increase the likelihood of success
The webinar series – overview
▶ Webinar 1: Introduction to KT and Implementation Science
▶ Webinar 2: Knowledge creation and synthesis
▶ Webinar 3: Who needs to do what, differently, to promote implementation?
▶ Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in
theory
▶ Webinar 5: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in practice
▶ Webinar 6: Selecting and evaluating strategies to address barriers and
enablers
Aim: build capacity in the basic principles and practice of Knowledge
Translation and Implementation Science to inform your own patient safety
initiatives
Situating ourselves in the webinar series
Knowledge to Action
Framework
Graham et al (2006)
Webinar 2: Focus on
the Knowledge
Creation funnel
Knowledge creation
funnel produces:
- Systematic reviews
(e.g. Cochrane)
- Clinical practice
guidelines
- Decision Aids
- Policy briefs
but… producing and
disseminating these
products does not
guarantee change
Situating ourselves in the webinar series
Knowledge to Action
Framework
Graham et al (2006)
Webinar 3: Focus on
identifying the
problem
• Identified gaps between
what evidence suggests
and current performance
• Specified: who needs to do
what, differently
• Used TACT-A to specify
each actors’ behaviour
... but selecting and tailoring
interventions depends on
knowing what to tailor on so
that solutions designed are fit
for purpose
Today’s webinar
Knowledge to Action
Framework
Graham et al (2006)
Webinar 4: What helps
and hinders
implementation?
▶Healthcare-associated infections are one of the top 10 causes
of hospital deaths worldwide
• Affects 10% of all patients in acute-care hospitals
▶Physician hand hygiene compliance is an international
problem
• Average reported compliance rate: 49-57%
▶Reasons for poor compliance not well understood
▶Our case study: assume we want to develop a patient safety
initiative to improve physician hand hygiene
Our Case Study to inform our overview:
Physician hand hygiene
TACT-A:
Atool for specifying
behaviours Use alcohol-based hand gel
Staff physicians, nurses and residents
Patients receiving care at the hospital
Patient rooms and hallways
Before and after touching a patient
Example 1: a ‘do more’
behavior
Hand hygiene
Now what?
Step 1: Who needs to do what, differently?
Whose behaviour need to change, and which behaviours? What is the evidence supporting this?
Step 2: What factors determine whether or not they do it?
What are the barriers and enablers?
Step 3: Which strategies can be effectively used to target
those factors?
Which behaviour change techniques are best suited to specifically target the identified
barriers and enablers
Step 4: How can we robustly measure the outcome?
1
2
3
4
10
(French et al., 2012)
Key Process model: The French Model
Step 1: Who needs to do what, differently?
Whose behaviour need to change, and which behaviours? What is the evidence supporting this?
Step 2: What factors determine whether or not they do it?
What are the barriers and enablers?
Step 3: Which strategies can be effectively used to target
those factors?
Which behaviour change techniques are best suited to specifically target the identified
barriers and enablers
Step 4: How can we robustly measure the outcome?
1
2
3
4
11
(French et al., 2012)
Key Process model: The French Model
Identifying barriers and enablers: the theory advantage
Hand hygiene seems to be a deceptively simple behaviour yet remains an issue
worldwide.
There are consistent modifiable factors that influence whether a behaviour is
performed or not. Some factors are intuitive; many are not.
✓ Provides a ‘leg-up’ of factors to focus on
✓ Provides a shared language for shared understanding
✓ More Efficient: Helps us to learn from each other and others rather than
starting from scratch each time in each setting
✓ Links to techniques/strategies best suited to address barriers
Advantages of using theory to
understand barriers and enablers
But Kurt! Which
theory / model /
framework should
we choose?
“There is nothing
more practical than
a good theory”
Beyond ISLAGIATT:
Theories, models & frameworks used in Implementation Science
Nilsen 2015
Theory of Planned
Behaviour
Learning
Theories
Health Action
Process
Approach
Control
Theory
Prototype
Willingness
Model
Job Demand/
Control
Dual
process
models
Operant
conditioning
Self-
determination
theory
Self-
regulation
models
Social Cognitive
Theory
▶Consolidated Framework for Implementation
Research (CFIR)1
▶Theoretical Domains Framework2,3
1Damschroder et al (2009); 2Michie et al (2005); 3Cane et al (2012)
From specific theoretical models to comprehensive
theoretical frameworks
▶ Synthesizes constructs (factors) from published implementation theories
▶ 39 constructs across 5 overarching categories:
• Intervention characteristics
• Outer setting
• Inner setting
• Characteristics of individuals involved
• Process of implementation
Damschroder et al (2009)
Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
I. Intervention characteristics
• Intervention source
• Evidence strength and
quality
• Relative advantage
• Adaptability
• Trialability
• Complexity
• Design Quality and
Packaging
• Cost
II. Outer setting
• Patient needs & resources
• Cosmopolitanism
• Peer pressure
• External policy & incentives
III. Inner setting
• Structural characteristics
• Networks and
communications
• Culture
• Implementation climate
- Tension for change
- Compatibility
- Relative priority
- Organizational
Incentives & Rewards
- Goals and feeback
- Learning climate
• Readiness for
implementation
- Leadership
engagement
- Available resources
- Access to knowledge
and information
IV. Characteristics of
individuals involved
• Knowledge & beliefs about the
intervention
• Self-efficacy
• Stage of change
• Individual identification with
organization
• Other personal attributes
V. Process of implementation
• Planning
• Engaging
- Opinion leaders
- Formally appointed
internal implementation
leaders
- Champions
- External change agents
• Executing
• Reflecting and evaluating
Damschroder et al (2009)
Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
• Broad framework that covers
- Barriers/enablers to performance (outer setting, inner setting,
characteristics of individuals, with focus on the organizational setting)
- Features of the intervention itself (intervention characteristics)
- The process of intervention delivery (process of implementation)
Damschroder et al (2009)
Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
▶Consolidated Framework for Implementation
Research (CFIR)1
▶Theoretical Domains Framework2,3
1Damschroder et al (2009); 2Michie et al (2005); 3Cane et al (2012)
From specific theoretical models to comprehensive
theoretical frameworks
▶ Decades of research in behavioural sciences about modifiable factors
that determine behaviour across a range of settings
▶ Attempts to make psychological theory more useful to those interested in
applying psychological theory but who do not necessarily have a
background in psychology
▶ Addresses theoretical model overload and synthezises key factors
associated with behaviour change
▶ 33 theories containing 128 constructs distilled into 12 domains that may
explain health-related behaviour change
• Validated in 2012: largely same domains (three split, one removed)2
▶ Provides a list of topics to explore that are known to affect behaviour
▶ Used for understanding barriers and enablers to behaviour change in
patients, healthcare professionals and policymakers
Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): Background
1Michie et al, 2005; 2Cane et al 2012
▶ Conducting interviews or focus groups with healthcare
professionals to understand their views about what helps and
hinders their performance of a specific behaviour
▶ Interviews with patients to understand barriers and facilitators to
their behaviour
▶ Questionnaires: understanding which domains correlate with
behaviour
▶ Systematic reviews: ‘re-engineering’ interventions to understand
what factors they were targeting
Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify
barriers and enablers
The TDF advantage
- Applicable to any target, action, context, time, and actor (TACT-A)
- Covers a breadth of factors associated with behaviour
- Linked to strategies / techniques for addressing barriers/enablers (informs
selection and tailoring of implementation interventions)
Theoretical Domains Framework
TDF Domains
Knowledge
Skills
Memory, attention and decision processes
Behavioural regulation
Environmental context and resources
Social Influences
Beliefs about capabilities
Intention
Goals
Social/professional role and identity
Beliefs about consequences
Reinforcement
Emotion
Optimism
What are the 3 factors needed to prove guilt in criminal law?
What are the 3 factors needed to prove guilt in criminal law?
Capability
Opportunity
Motivation
Michie, van Stralen, West (2011)
Theoretical Domains Framework
Capability
Opportunity
Motivation
TDF Domains
Knowledge
Skills
Memory, attention and decision processes
Behavioural regulation
Environmental context and resources
Social Influences
Beliefs about capabilities
Intention
Goals
Social/professional role and identity
Beliefs about consequences
Reinforcement
Emotion
Optimism
Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in theory
TACT-A:
Atool for specifying
behaviours Use alcohol-based hand gel
Staff physicians, nurses and residents
Patients receiving care at the hospital
Patient rooms and hallways
Before and after touching a patient
Example 1: a ‘do more’
behavior
Hand hygiene
Now what?
▶Definition:
• Existing procedural knowledge,
knowledge about guidelines,
knowledge about evidence and
how that influences what the
participants do
• What do they know & how does
that influence what they do?
Knowledge
Note: All definitions adapted from Cane et al 2012
▶Definition:
• Existing procedural knowledge,
knowledge about guidelines,
knowledge about evidence and how
that influences what the participants do
• What do they know & how does that
influence what they do?
Knowledge
▶ Do they know the evidence
about the need for using
hand gel?
▶ Are they aware of any
guidelines about using hand
gel for hand hygiene?
▶ Do you know the four
moments of hand hygiene?
WHO, 2009
▶Definition:
• An ability or proficiency acquired
through practice
• Objective competence and ability
about the procedural techniques
required to perform the behaviour
• What do they know about how they
should be doing something & how does
that influence whether they do it or not?
Skills
▶Definition:
• An ability or proficiency acquired
through practice
• Objective competence and ability
about the procedural techniques
required to perform the behaviour
• What do they know about how they
should be doing something & how does
that influence whether they do it or not?
Skills
▶ Were they ever trained in the
proper technique for hand
hygiene using hand gel?
▶ Has anyone evaluated their
hand hygiene against
recommended steps?
▶Definition:
• The ability to retain information,
focus selectively on aspects of
the environment and choose
between two or more alternatives
• How does their forgetfulness or
remembering to do it influence
whether or not they actually do it?
• How does their ability to focus on
the behaviour influence whether
or not they do it?
• How do the decisions they make
about the behaviour influence
whether they do it or not?
Memory, attention, decision-making
▶Definition:
• The ability to retain information,
focus selectively on aspects of
the environment and choose
between two or more alternatives
• How does their forgetfulness or
remembering to do it influence
whether or not they actually do it?
• How does their ability to focus on
the behaviour influence whether
or not they do it?
• How do the decisions they make
about the behaviour influence
whether they do it or not?
Memory, attention, decision-making
▶Aware of whether they
ever forget? Any specific
situations when more
likely to forget?
▶Can they take the time to
focus on using hand gel?
▶Ever decide not to?
▶Definition:
• Anything aimed at managing or
changing objectively observed or
measured actions
• Existing strategies the participants
have in place to help them perform
the behaviour
• Strategies the participants would
like to have in place to help them
Behavioural Regulation
▶Definition:
• Anything aimed at managing or
changing objectively observed or
measured actions
• Existing strategies the participants
have in place to help them perform
the behaviour
• Strategies the participants would
like to have in place to help them
Behavioural Regulation
▶ What existing strategies
are already in place to
support them? Do they
use these?
▶ What additional strategies
for they think might help
(note: people typically not
very good at determining
what strategies would
help)
▶Definition:
• Any circumstance of a person's
situation or environment that
discourages or encourages the
development of skills and abilities,
independence, social competence,
and adaptive behaviour
• Focus on physical and resource
factors in which the behaviour is
performed (the setting)
Environmental Context & Resources
▶Definition:
• Any circumstance of a person's
situation or environment that
discourages or encourages the
development of skills and abilities,
independence, social competence,
and adaptive behaviour
• Focus on physical and resource
factors in which the behaviour is
performed (the setting)
Environmental Context & Resources
▶What resources do
they currently have
access to use hand
gel in recommended
way?
▶What aspects of their
work environment
influence whether they
use hand gel?
▶Definition:
• Those interpersonal processes that
can cause individuals to change
their thoughts, feelings, or
behaviours
• External influence from other people,
views of other professions, norms,
leadership, culture, patients and
families, doing what you are told and
how that influences what you do
Social influences
▶Definition:
• Those interpersonal processes that
can cause individuals to change
their thoughts, feelings, or
behaviours
• External influence from other people,
views of other professions, norms,
leadership, culture, patients and
families, doing what you are told and
how that influences what you do
Social influences
▶ Do other team members
influence their use of hand
gel? Who?
▶ Do they think there is an
expectation that they should
use hand gel? Who expects
them to? How important is
that expectation to them?
▶ How do patients and their
families influence use of hand
gel?
▶Definition:
• Perceptions about competence, self-
efficacy and confidence in doing the
behaviour
• Perceived control over engaging in
the behaviour
Beliefs about capabilities
▶Definition:
• Perceptions about competence, self-
efficacy and confidence in doing the
behaviour
• Perceived control over engaging in
the behaviour
Beliefs about capabilities
▶ How confident that they
can use sanitizing gel? At
all recommended times?
• Before touching a patient
• After touching a patient
• After touch patient
surroundings
▶ Is it up to them whether
then can use sanitizing gel
in all recommended
settings?
▶Definition:
• The confidence that things will
happen for the best or that desired
goals will be attained
• Overall assess of
optimistic/pessimistic they are about
whether engaging in the behaviour
will result in positive outcomes
Optimism
▶ Are they optimistic that
using hand gel will lead to
reduced risk of healthcare
associated infection?
▶Definition:
• The confidence that things will
happen for the best or that desired
goals will be attained
• Overall assess of
optimistic/pessimistic they are about
whether engaging in the behaviour
will result in positive outcomes
Optimism
▶Definition:
• Outcomes of a behaviour in
a given situation
• Perceptions about outcomes
and advantages and
disadvantages of performing
the behaviour or pervious
experiences that have
influenced whether the
behaviour is performed or
not.
• What are the good and bad
things that can happen from
what they do and how does
that influence whether they’ll
do it in the future?
Beliefs about consequences
▶Definition:
• Outcomes of a behaviour in
a given situation
• Perceptions about outcomes
and advantages and
disadvantages of performing
the behaviour or pervious
experiences that have
influenced whether the
behaviour is performed or
not.
• What are the good and bad
things that can happen from
what they do and how does
that influence whether they’ll
do it in the future?
Beliefs about consequences
▶ What will happen to them,
their patients, their
colleagues, the organization if
they use hand gel as
recommended?
• Positive and negative
outcomes, short and long
term
▶ What will happen if they do
not use hand gel as
recommended?
▶Definition:
• A dependent relationship, or
contingency, between the
response and a given
stimulus
Reinforcement
▶Definition:
• A dependent relationship, or
contingency, between the
response and a given
stimulus
Reinforcement
▶ How have their experiences
(good and bad) of using hand
gel in the past influenced
whether or not they do it
again?
▶ Are there external incentives
in place to encourage hand
gel use?
Intention
▶Definition:
• A conscious decision to
perform a behaviour or a
resolve to act in a certain
way
• How does how inclined they
are to do something
influence whether they will
do it?
▶Definition:
• A conscious decision to
perform a behaviour or a
resolve to act in a certain
way
• How does how inclined they
are to do something
influence whether they will
do it?
Intention
▶Do they intend use
hand gel (prompt: the
4 moments)?
▶Do they want to?
▶Definition:
• Mental representations of
outcomes or end states that
an individual wants to
achieve
• How important is what they
do & does that influence
whether or not they do it?
• Priorities, importance,
commitment to a certain
course of actions or
behaviours Intentions
Goals
Goals
▶Is using hand gel a
personal goal? An
institutional goal?
▶How much of a priority is
using hand gel
compared to competing
demands? Which
competing demands
may interfere?
▶Definition:
• Mental representations of
outcomes or end states that
an individual wants to
achieve
• How important is what they
do & does that influence
whether or not they do it?
• Priorities, importance,
commitment to a certain
course of actions or
behaviours Intentions
▶Definition:
• A coherent set of behaviours
and displayed personal
qualities of an individual in a
social or work setting
Social / Professional Role & Identity
▶Definition:
• A coherent set of behaviours
and displayed personal
qualities of an individual in a
social or work setting
• Is the behaviour something
they are supposed to do or
someone else’s role? (When
discussing ‘we’/the collective)
• How does who they are as a
professional influence
whether they do something or
not?
Social / Professional Role & Identity
▶ Is using hand gel part and
parcel of how they see
themselves as clinicians
(identity)
▶ Do they see this as part of
their job? Who else’s role is
it? What are the boundaries
(implicit or explicit) between
professional groups in who
should use hand gel?
▶Definition:
• A complex reaction pattern,
involving experiential, behavioural,
and physiological elements, by
which the individual attempts to
deal with a personally significant
matter or event
• How feelings, affect (positive or
negative) may influence behaviour
Emotions
▶ How do they feel about
using hand gel and how
do those feelings
influence what they do?
▶ Does not using hand gel
evoke worry, regret or
concern?
▶Definition:
• A complex reaction pattern,
involving experiential, behavioural,
and physiological elements, by
which the individual attempts to
deal with a personally significant
matter or event
• How feelings, affect (positive or
negative) may influence behaviour
Emotions
Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in theory
Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in theory
▶Use of an established theoretical framework provides a strong,
replicable basis for identifying barriers and enablers to
implementing a patient safety-related behaviour
• Gives leg-up on factors to consider
• Prevents “re-inventing the wheel”
• Helps to generalize across settings to understand why some strategies may
be effective in some settings and some behaviours but not in others
▶Resulting findings under each can then be used to help select fit-
for-purpose techniques and strategies (webinar 6)
Summary and take home messages
Next Webinar
Identifying barriers and enablers, in
practice
May 30th, 2018 noon EST
Lead: Justin and Andrea
In the meantime…
Please send us examples of your own planned/ongoing patient
safety initiatives so that we can directly inform our examples in
the next webinars
Send to: jpresseau@ohri.ca
www.ohri.ca | Affiliated with • Affilié à
Justin Presseau
Scientist, OHRI
Assistant Professor, uOttawa
@JPresseau
jpresseau@ohri.ca
Andrea Patey
Senior Clinical Research Associate, OHRI
Assistant Professor (Adjunct), Queen’s
@andreapatey
apatey@ohri.ca
Centre for Implementation Research
Thank you

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Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in theory

  • 1. www.ohri.ca | Affiliated with • Affilié à CPSI National Webinar Series Knowledge Translation and Implementation Science Education Series Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants of implementation, in theory Justin Presseau Scientist, OHRI Assistant Professor, uOttawa @JPresseau jpresseau@ohri.ca Andrea Patey Senior Clinical Research Associate, OHRI Assistant Professor (Adjunct), Queen’s @andreapatey apatey@ohri.ca Centre for Implementation Research
  • 2. Webinar 4 overview ▶ Situating our progress in the webinar series ▶ Overview of key frameworks for identifying barriers/enablers used in implementation science ▶ An in-depth consideration of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)
  • 3. A behavioural perspective to KT and IS ▶ Successful implementation of patient safety programs needs key actors (patients, healthcare providers, managers and policy makers) to change their behaviours and/or decisions whilst working in the complex (ordered chaos) of health care environments ▶ There is a substantial evidence base in behavioural sciences that can support the development of patient safety programs and increase the likelihood of success
  • 4. The webinar series – overview ▶ Webinar 1: Introduction to KT and Implementation Science ▶ Webinar 2: Knowledge creation and synthesis ▶ Webinar 3: Who needs to do what, differently, to promote implementation? ▶ Webinar 4: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in theory ▶ Webinar 5: Identifying barriers and enablers, and determinants, in practice ▶ Webinar 6: Selecting and evaluating strategies to address barriers and enablers Aim: build capacity in the basic principles and practice of Knowledge Translation and Implementation Science to inform your own patient safety initiatives
  • 5. Situating ourselves in the webinar series Knowledge to Action Framework Graham et al (2006) Webinar 2: Focus on the Knowledge Creation funnel Knowledge creation funnel produces: - Systematic reviews (e.g. Cochrane) - Clinical practice guidelines - Decision Aids - Policy briefs but… producing and disseminating these products does not guarantee change
  • 6. Situating ourselves in the webinar series Knowledge to Action Framework Graham et al (2006) Webinar 3: Focus on identifying the problem • Identified gaps between what evidence suggests and current performance • Specified: who needs to do what, differently • Used TACT-A to specify each actors’ behaviour ... but selecting and tailoring interventions depends on knowing what to tailor on so that solutions designed are fit for purpose
  • 7. Today’s webinar Knowledge to Action Framework Graham et al (2006) Webinar 4: What helps and hinders implementation?
  • 8. ▶Healthcare-associated infections are one of the top 10 causes of hospital deaths worldwide • Affects 10% of all patients in acute-care hospitals ▶Physician hand hygiene compliance is an international problem • Average reported compliance rate: 49-57% ▶Reasons for poor compliance not well understood ▶Our case study: assume we want to develop a patient safety initiative to improve physician hand hygiene Our Case Study to inform our overview: Physician hand hygiene
  • 9. TACT-A: Atool for specifying behaviours Use alcohol-based hand gel Staff physicians, nurses and residents Patients receiving care at the hospital Patient rooms and hallways Before and after touching a patient Example 1: a ‘do more’ behavior Hand hygiene Now what?
  • 10. Step 1: Who needs to do what, differently? Whose behaviour need to change, and which behaviours? What is the evidence supporting this? Step 2: What factors determine whether or not they do it? What are the barriers and enablers? Step 3: Which strategies can be effectively used to target those factors? Which behaviour change techniques are best suited to specifically target the identified barriers and enablers Step 4: How can we robustly measure the outcome? 1 2 3 4 10 (French et al., 2012) Key Process model: The French Model
  • 11. Step 1: Who needs to do what, differently? Whose behaviour need to change, and which behaviours? What is the evidence supporting this? Step 2: What factors determine whether or not they do it? What are the barriers and enablers? Step 3: Which strategies can be effectively used to target those factors? Which behaviour change techniques are best suited to specifically target the identified barriers and enablers Step 4: How can we robustly measure the outcome? 1 2 3 4 11 (French et al., 2012) Key Process model: The French Model
  • 12. Identifying barriers and enablers: the theory advantage Hand hygiene seems to be a deceptively simple behaviour yet remains an issue worldwide. There are consistent modifiable factors that influence whether a behaviour is performed or not. Some factors are intuitive; many are not. ✓ Provides a ‘leg-up’ of factors to focus on ✓ Provides a shared language for shared understanding ✓ More Efficient: Helps us to learn from each other and others rather than starting from scratch each time in each setting ✓ Links to techniques/strategies best suited to address barriers Advantages of using theory to understand barriers and enablers
  • 13. But Kurt! Which theory / model / framework should we choose? “There is nothing more practical than a good theory”
  • 14. Beyond ISLAGIATT: Theories, models & frameworks used in Implementation Science Nilsen 2015
  • 15. Theory of Planned Behaviour Learning Theories Health Action Process Approach Control Theory Prototype Willingness Model Job Demand/ Control Dual process models Operant conditioning Self- determination theory Self- regulation models Social Cognitive Theory
  • 16. ▶Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)1 ▶Theoretical Domains Framework2,3 1Damschroder et al (2009); 2Michie et al (2005); 3Cane et al (2012) From specific theoretical models to comprehensive theoretical frameworks
  • 17. ▶ Synthesizes constructs (factors) from published implementation theories ▶ 39 constructs across 5 overarching categories: • Intervention characteristics • Outer setting • Inner setting • Characteristics of individuals involved • Process of implementation Damschroder et al (2009) Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
  • 18. I. Intervention characteristics • Intervention source • Evidence strength and quality • Relative advantage • Adaptability • Trialability • Complexity • Design Quality and Packaging • Cost II. Outer setting • Patient needs & resources • Cosmopolitanism • Peer pressure • External policy & incentives III. Inner setting • Structural characteristics • Networks and communications • Culture • Implementation climate - Tension for change - Compatibility - Relative priority - Organizational Incentives & Rewards - Goals and feeback - Learning climate • Readiness for implementation - Leadership engagement - Available resources - Access to knowledge and information IV. Characteristics of individuals involved • Knowledge & beliefs about the intervention • Self-efficacy • Stage of change • Individual identification with organization • Other personal attributes V. Process of implementation • Planning • Engaging - Opinion leaders - Formally appointed internal implementation leaders - Champions - External change agents • Executing • Reflecting and evaluating Damschroder et al (2009) Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
  • 19. • Broad framework that covers - Barriers/enablers to performance (outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of individuals, with focus on the organizational setting) - Features of the intervention itself (intervention characteristics) - The process of intervention delivery (process of implementation) Damschroder et al (2009) Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)
  • 20. ▶Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)1 ▶Theoretical Domains Framework2,3 1Damschroder et al (2009); 2Michie et al (2005); 3Cane et al (2012) From specific theoretical models to comprehensive theoretical frameworks
  • 21. ▶ Decades of research in behavioural sciences about modifiable factors that determine behaviour across a range of settings ▶ Attempts to make psychological theory more useful to those interested in applying psychological theory but who do not necessarily have a background in psychology ▶ Addresses theoretical model overload and synthezises key factors associated with behaviour change ▶ 33 theories containing 128 constructs distilled into 12 domains that may explain health-related behaviour change • Validated in 2012: largely same domains (three split, one removed)2 ▶ Provides a list of topics to explore that are known to affect behaviour ▶ Used for understanding barriers and enablers to behaviour change in patients, healthcare professionals and policymakers Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): Background 1Michie et al, 2005; 2Cane et al 2012
  • 22. ▶ Conducting interviews or focus groups with healthcare professionals to understand their views about what helps and hinders their performance of a specific behaviour ▶ Interviews with patients to understand barriers and facilitators to their behaviour ▶ Questionnaires: understanding which domains correlate with behaviour ▶ Systematic reviews: ‘re-engineering’ interventions to understand what factors they were targeting Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and enablers The TDF advantage - Applicable to any target, action, context, time, and actor (TACT-A) - Covers a breadth of factors associated with behaviour - Linked to strategies / techniques for addressing barriers/enablers (informs selection and tailoring of implementation interventions)
  • 23. Theoretical Domains Framework TDF Domains Knowledge Skills Memory, attention and decision processes Behavioural regulation Environmental context and resources Social Influences Beliefs about capabilities Intention Goals Social/professional role and identity Beliefs about consequences Reinforcement Emotion Optimism
  • 24. What are the 3 factors needed to prove guilt in criminal law?
  • 25. What are the 3 factors needed to prove guilt in criminal law? Capability Opportunity Motivation Michie, van Stralen, West (2011)
  • 26. Theoretical Domains Framework Capability Opportunity Motivation TDF Domains Knowledge Skills Memory, attention and decision processes Behavioural regulation Environmental context and resources Social Influences Beliefs about capabilities Intention Goals Social/professional role and identity Beliefs about consequences Reinforcement Emotion Optimism
  • 28. TACT-A: Atool for specifying behaviours Use alcohol-based hand gel Staff physicians, nurses and residents Patients receiving care at the hospital Patient rooms and hallways Before and after touching a patient Example 1: a ‘do more’ behavior Hand hygiene Now what?
  • 29. ▶Definition: • Existing procedural knowledge, knowledge about guidelines, knowledge about evidence and how that influences what the participants do • What do they know & how does that influence what they do? Knowledge Note: All definitions adapted from Cane et al 2012
  • 30. ▶Definition: • Existing procedural knowledge, knowledge about guidelines, knowledge about evidence and how that influences what the participants do • What do they know & how does that influence what they do? Knowledge ▶ Do they know the evidence about the need for using hand gel? ▶ Are they aware of any guidelines about using hand gel for hand hygiene? ▶ Do you know the four moments of hand hygiene? WHO, 2009
  • 31. ▶Definition: • An ability or proficiency acquired through practice • Objective competence and ability about the procedural techniques required to perform the behaviour • What do they know about how they should be doing something & how does that influence whether they do it or not? Skills
  • 32. ▶Definition: • An ability or proficiency acquired through practice • Objective competence and ability about the procedural techniques required to perform the behaviour • What do they know about how they should be doing something & how does that influence whether they do it or not? Skills ▶ Were they ever trained in the proper technique for hand hygiene using hand gel? ▶ Has anyone evaluated their hand hygiene against recommended steps?
  • 33. ▶Definition: • The ability to retain information, focus selectively on aspects of the environment and choose between two or more alternatives • How does their forgetfulness or remembering to do it influence whether or not they actually do it? • How does their ability to focus on the behaviour influence whether or not they do it? • How do the decisions they make about the behaviour influence whether they do it or not? Memory, attention, decision-making
  • 34. ▶Definition: • The ability to retain information, focus selectively on aspects of the environment and choose between two or more alternatives • How does their forgetfulness or remembering to do it influence whether or not they actually do it? • How does their ability to focus on the behaviour influence whether or not they do it? • How do the decisions they make about the behaviour influence whether they do it or not? Memory, attention, decision-making ▶Aware of whether they ever forget? Any specific situations when more likely to forget? ▶Can they take the time to focus on using hand gel? ▶Ever decide not to?
  • 35. ▶Definition: • Anything aimed at managing or changing objectively observed or measured actions • Existing strategies the participants have in place to help them perform the behaviour • Strategies the participants would like to have in place to help them Behavioural Regulation
  • 36. ▶Definition: • Anything aimed at managing or changing objectively observed or measured actions • Existing strategies the participants have in place to help them perform the behaviour • Strategies the participants would like to have in place to help them Behavioural Regulation ▶ What existing strategies are already in place to support them? Do they use these? ▶ What additional strategies for they think might help (note: people typically not very good at determining what strategies would help)
  • 37. ▶Definition: • Any circumstance of a person's situation or environment that discourages or encourages the development of skills and abilities, independence, social competence, and adaptive behaviour • Focus on physical and resource factors in which the behaviour is performed (the setting) Environmental Context & Resources
  • 38. ▶Definition: • Any circumstance of a person's situation or environment that discourages or encourages the development of skills and abilities, independence, social competence, and adaptive behaviour • Focus on physical and resource factors in which the behaviour is performed (the setting) Environmental Context & Resources ▶What resources do they currently have access to use hand gel in recommended way? ▶What aspects of their work environment influence whether they use hand gel?
  • 39. ▶Definition: • Those interpersonal processes that can cause individuals to change their thoughts, feelings, or behaviours • External influence from other people, views of other professions, norms, leadership, culture, patients and families, doing what you are told and how that influences what you do Social influences
  • 40. ▶Definition: • Those interpersonal processes that can cause individuals to change their thoughts, feelings, or behaviours • External influence from other people, views of other professions, norms, leadership, culture, patients and families, doing what you are told and how that influences what you do Social influences ▶ Do other team members influence their use of hand gel? Who? ▶ Do they think there is an expectation that they should use hand gel? Who expects them to? How important is that expectation to them? ▶ How do patients and their families influence use of hand gel?
  • 41. ▶Definition: • Perceptions about competence, self- efficacy and confidence in doing the behaviour • Perceived control over engaging in the behaviour Beliefs about capabilities
  • 42. ▶Definition: • Perceptions about competence, self- efficacy and confidence in doing the behaviour • Perceived control over engaging in the behaviour Beliefs about capabilities ▶ How confident that they can use sanitizing gel? At all recommended times? • Before touching a patient • After touching a patient • After touch patient surroundings ▶ Is it up to them whether then can use sanitizing gel in all recommended settings?
  • 43. ▶Definition: • The confidence that things will happen for the best or that desired goals will be attained • Overall assess of optimistic/pessimistic they are about whether engaging in the behaviour will result in positive outcomes Optimism
  • 44. ▶ Are they optimistic that using hand gel will lead to reduced risk of healthcare associated infection? ▶Definition: • The confidence that things will happen for the best or that desired goals will be attained • Overall assess of optimistic/pessimistic they are about whether engaging in the behaviour will result in positive outcomes Optimism
  • 45. ▶Definition: • Outcomes of a behaviour in a given situation • Perceptions about outcomes and advantages and disadvantages of performing the behaviour or pervious experiences that have influenced whether the behaviour is performed or not. • What are the good and bad things that can happen from what they do and how does that influence whether they’ll do it in the future? Beliefs about consequences
  • 46. ▶Definition: • Outcomes of a behaviour in a given situation • Perceptions about outcomes and advantages and disadvantages of performing the behaviour or pervious experiences that have influenced whether the behaviour is performed or not. • What are the good and bad things that can happen from what they do and how does that influence whether they’ll do it in the future? Beliefs about consequences ▶ What will happen to them, their patients, their colleagues, the organization if they use hand gel as recommended? • Positive and negative outcomes, short and long term ▶ What will happen if they do not use hand gel as recommended?
  • 47. ▶Definition: • A dependent relationship, or contingency, between the response and a given stimulus Reinforcement
  • 48. ▶Definition: • A dependent relationship, or contingency, between the response and a given stimulus Reinforcement ▶ How have their experiences (good and bad) of using hand gel in the past influenced whether or not they do it again? ▶ Are there external incentives in place to encourage hand gel use?
  • 49. Intention ▶Definition: • A conscious decision to perform a behaviour or a resolve to act in a certain way • How does how inclined they are to do something influence whether they will do it?
  • 50. ▶Definition: • A conscious decision to perform a behaviour or a resolve to act in a certain way • How does how inclined they are to do something influence whether they will do it? Intention ▶Do they intend use hand gel (prompt: the 4 moments)? ▶Do they want to?
  • 51. ▶Definition: • Mental representations of outcomes or end states that an individual wants to achieve • How important is what they do & does that influence whether or not they do it? • Priorities, importance, commitment to a certain course of actions or behaviours Intentions Goals
  • 52. Goals ▶Is using hand gel a personal goal? An institutional goal? ▶How much of a priority is using hand gel compared to competing demands? Which competing demands may interfere? ▶Definition: • Mental representations of outcomes or end states that an individual wants to achieve • How important is what they do & does that influence whether or not they do it? • Priorities, importance, commitment to a certain course of actions or behaviours Intentions
  • 53. ▶Definition: • A coherent set of behaviours and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social or work setting Social / Professional Role & Identity
  • 54. ▶Definition: • A coherent set of behaviours and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social or work setting • Is the behaviour something they are supposed to do or someone else’s role? (When discussing ‘we’/the collective) • How does who they are as a professional influence whether they do something or not? Social / Professional Role & Identity ▶ Is using hand gel part and parcel of how they see themselves as clinicians (identity) ▶ Do they see this as part of their job? Who else’s role is it? What are the boundaries (implicit or explicit) between professional groups in who should use hand gel?
  • 55. ▶Definition: • A complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioural, and physiological elements, by which the individual attempts to deal with a personally significant matter or event • How feelings, affect (positive or negative) may influence behaviour Emotions
  • 56. ▶ How do they feel about using hand gel and how do those feelings influence what they do? ▶ Does not using hand gel evoke worry, regret or concern? ▶Definition: • A complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioural, and physiological elements, by which the individual attempts to deal with a personally significant matter or event • How feelings, affect (positive or negative) may influence behaviour Emotions
  • 59. ▶Use of an established theoretical framework provides a strong, replicable basis for identifying barriers and enablers to implementing a patient safety-related behaviour • Gives leg-up on factors to consider • Prevents “re-inventing the wheel” • Helps to generalize across settings to understand why some strategies may be effective in some settings and some behaviours but not in others ▶Resulting findings under each can then be used to help select fit- for-purpose techniques and strategies (webinar 6) Summary and take home messages
  • 60. Next Webinar Identifying barriers and enablers, in practice May 30th, 2018 noon EST Lead: Justin and Andrea In the meantime… Please send us examples of your own planned/ongoing patient safety initiatives so that we can directly inform our examples in the next webinars Send to: jpresseau@ohri.ca
  • 61. www.ohri.ca | Affiliated with • Affilié à Justin Presseau Scientist, OHRI Assistant Professor, uOttawa @JPresseau jpresseau@ohri.ca Andrea Patey Senior Clinical Research Associate, OHRI Assistant Professor (Adjunct), Queen’s @andreapatey apatey@ohri.ca Centre for Implementation Research Thank you