Aneesha Agarwal


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Aneesha Agarwal

  2. 2. Water Recycling Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and replenishing a ground water basin (referred to as ground water recharge). Water recycling offers resource and financial savings.
  3. 3. Recycling Of Water Factors that should be considered in a water recycling program include: - Identification of water reuse opportunities - Evaluation of the minimum water quality needed for a particular use - Evaluation of water quality degradation resulting from the use - Determination of the treatment steps
  4. 4. Utilisation Some of the benefits of utilising recycled water for IRRIGATION are: Guaranteed water supply Supply of water quality underpinned with a comprehensive water quality assurance program Security for investment in agricultural enterprises Recycling of valuable nutrients
  5. 5. Hardness of water  Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects
  6. 6. SOURCES OF HARDNESS  Water's hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations are cation with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. Common calcium-containing minerals are calcite and gypsum. A common magnesium mineral is dolomite . Rainwater and distilled water are soft, because they contain few ions.  The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving/formation of calcium carbonate scale:  CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ⇋ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Calcium carbonate scale formed in water-heating systems is called limescale
  7. 7. EFFECTS OF HARDWATER  Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale". This precipitation is principally caused by thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ions . The resulting build-up of scale restricts the flow of water in pipes. In a pressurized system, this overheating can lead to failure of the boiler.The damage caused by calcium carbonate deposits varies on the crystalline form, for example, calcite or aragonite.
  8. 8. WATER RESOURCES Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural,industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. The majority of human uses require fresh water. 97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.
  9. 9. HYDRO POWER  Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux.
  10. 10. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability.
  11. 11. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN  Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Damin Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA.
  12. 12. PEOPLE INVOLVED  There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada damaffected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy.  While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach. Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan are Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir Khan. ARUNDHATI ROY AAMIR KHAN
  13. 13.  RESULT: The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process.
  14. 14. SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. Groundwater makes up about twenty percent of the world's freshwater supply, which is about 0.61% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice. Global groundwater storage is roughly equal to the total amount of freshwater stored in the snow and ice pack, including the north and south poles.
  15. 15. OVERUTILISATION Groundwater is overused due to overpopulation in certain areas where the water supply is limited and due to lack of awareness for conservation. INDIA: Groundwater is a critical resource in India, accounting for over 65% of irrigation water and 85% of drinking water supplies. But this dependence is leading to a rapid and very worrying deterioration in the nation’s groundwater resources. it is estimated that 60% of groundwater sources will be in a critical state of degradation within the next twenty years.In the most seriously affected north-western states, recent satellite measurements indicate an average decline of 33 cm per year from 2002 to 2008.5 Local observations of annual water table decline exceeding 4 metres are common throughout India
  16. 16. WHY TO CONSERVE GROUNDWATER? Groundwater depletion has many negative effects: 1.Lowering of the Water Table 2.Increased Costs 3.Reduced Surface Water Supplies 4.Land Subsidence 5.Degraded Water Quality
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. The tankas were part of the welldeveloped rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’.
  18. 18. RAINWATER HARVESTINGprojects The process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Watershed management is the integrated use of land, vegetation and water in a geographically discrete drainage area for the benefit of its residents, with the objective of protecting or conserving the hydrologic services that the watershed provides and of reducing or avoiding negative downstream or groundwater impacts. Fresh water, and freshwater ecosystems, is the most basic components of watershed management.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES  RWH provides a good supplement to other water sources thus relieving pressure on other water sources.  It can supply as a buffer and can be used in times of emergency or breakdown of public water supply systems.  Helps reduce the storm drainage load and flooding in the cities.  It is a flexible technology and can be built to require meets of any range. Also the construction, operation and maintenance is not very labour intensive in most systems.  Prevents water wastage by arresting run off as well as prevents soil erosion and mitigates flood.  Sustains and safeguards existing water table through recharge.  Arrests sea-water intrusion and prevents salination of ground water..
  20. 20. Watershed management Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, stormwater,runoff,water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. INDIA: Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) is a modified programme. The main objectives of the IWMP are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water. The outcomes are prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. This enables multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities, which help to provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area.
  21. 21. THE END