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Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and
functions
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Ribosomes:
• The ribosome word is derived – ‘ribo’ from ribonucleic acid and
‘somes’ from the Greek word ‘soma’ which means ‘body’.
• Ribosomes are tiny spheroidal dense particles (of 150 to 200
A0 diameters) that are primarily found in most prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
• They are sites of protein synthesis.
• They are structures containing approximately equal amounts of RNA and
proteins and serve as a scaffold for the ordered interaction of the
numerous molecules involved in protein synthesis.
• The ribosomes occur in cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
• In prokaryotic cells, the ribosomes often occur freely in the cytoplasm.
• In eukaryotic cells, the ribosomes either occur freely in the cytoplasm or
remain attached to the outer surface of the membrane of the
endoplasmic reticulum.
• The location of the ribosomes in a cell determines what kind of protein it
makes.
• If the ribosomes are floating freely throughout the cell, it will make
proteins that will be utilized within the cell it self.
• When ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, it is referred
to as rough endoplasmic reticulum or rough ER.
• Proteins made on the rough ER are used for usage inside the cell or
outside the cell.
• The number of ribosomes in a cell depends on the activity of the cell.
• On average in a mammalian cell, there can be about 10 million ribosomes.
Structure of ribosomes:
https://microbenotes.com/ribosomes-structure-and-functions/
• A ribosome is made from complexes of RNAs and proteins and is,
therefore, a ribonucleoprotein.
• Around 37 to 62% of RNA is comprised of RNA and the rest is proteins.
• Each ribosome is divided into two subunits:
• A smaller subunit which binds to a larger subunit and the mRNA pattern,
and
• A larger subunit which binds to the tRNA, the amino acids, and the
smaller subunit.
• Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes respectively subunits comprising the
little subunit of 30S and the bigger subunit of 50S.
• Their small subunit has a 16S RNA subunit (consisting of 1540
nucleotides) bound to 21 proteins.
• The large subunit is composed of a 5S RNA subunit (120 nucleotides), a
23S RNA subunit (2900 nucleotides) and 31 proteins.
• Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes respectively comprising of little (40S) and
substantial (60S) subunits.
• The smaller 40S ribosomal subunit is prolate ellipsoid in shape and consists of
one molecule of 18S ribosomal RNA (or rRNA) and 30 proteins (named as S1,
S2, S3, and so on).
• The larger 60S ribosomal subunit is round in shape and contains a channel
through which growing polypeptide chain makes its exit.
• It consists of three types of rRNA molecules, i.e., 28S rRNA, 5.8 rRNA and 5S
rRNA, and 40 proteins (named as L1, L2, L3 and so on).
• The differences between the ribosomes of bacterial and eukaryotic are used to
create antibiotics that can destroy bacterial infection without harming human
cells.
• The ribosomes seen in the chloroplasts of mitochondria of eukaryotes are
comprised of big and little subunits composed of proteins inside a 70S
particle.
• The ribosomes share a core structure that is similar to all ribosomes
despite differences in its size.
• The two subunits fit together and work as one to translate the mRNA into
a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.
• Because they are formed from two subunits of non-equal size, they are
slightly longer in the axis than in diameter.
• During protein synthesis, when multiple ribosomes are attached to the
same mRNA strand, this structure is known as polysome.
• The existence of ribosomes is temporary, after the synthesis of
polypeptide the two sub-units separate and are reused or broken up.
Functions of Ribosomes:
• The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all
living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein
synthesis (translation).
• Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger
RNA (mRNA) molecules.
• Ribosomes act as catalysts in two extremely important biological
processes called peptidyl transfer and peptidyl hydrolysis.
• They assemble amino acids to form specific proteins, proteins are essential to
carry out cellular activities.
• The process of production of proteins, the deoxyribonucleic acid produces
mRNA by the process of DNA transcription.
• The genetic message from the mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA
translation.
• The sequences of protein assembly during protein synthesis are specified in the
mRNA.
• The mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and is transported to the cytoplasm for
further process of protein synthesis.
• In the cytoplasm, the two subunits of ribosomes are bound around the
polymers of mRNA; proteins are then synthesized with the help of transfer RNA.
• The proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes present in the cytoplasm
are used in the cytoplasm itself. The proteins produced by the bound ribosomes
are transported outside the cell.
References:
• https://microbenotes.com/ribosomes-structure-and-functions/
• https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/ribosomes-structure-and-
functions/
Thank you

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Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions

  • 1. Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Ribosomes: • The ribosome word is derived – ‘ribo’ from ribonucleic acid and ‘somes’ from the Greek word ‘soma’ which means ‘body’. • Ribosomes are tiny spheroidal dense particles (of 150 to 200 A0 diameters) that are primarily found in most prokaryotic and eukaryotic. • They are sites of protein synthesis. • They are structures containing approximately equal amounts of RNA and proteins and serve as a scaffold for the ordered interaction of the numerous molecules involved in protein synthesis.
  • 3. • The ribosomes occur in cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. • In prokaryotic cells, the ribosomes often occur freely in the cytoplasm. • In eukaryotic cells, the ribosomes either occur freely in the cytoplasm or remain attached to the outer surface of the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. • The location of the ribosomes in a cell determines what kind of protein it makes. • If the ribosomes are floating freely throughout the cell, it will make proteins that will be utilized within the cell it self.
  • 4. • When ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, it is referred to as rough endoplasmic reticulum or rough ER. • Proteins made on the rough ER are used for usage inside the cell or outside the cell. • The number of ribosomes in a cell depends on the activity of the cell. • On average in a mammalian cell, there can be about 10 million ribosomes.
  • 6. • A ribosome is made from complexes of RNAs and proteins and is, therefore, a ribonucleoprotein. • Around 37 to 62% of RNA is comprised of RNA and the rest is proteins. • Each ribosome is divided into two subunits: • A smaller subunit which binds to a larger subunit and the mRNA pattern, and • A larger subunit which binds to the tRNA, the amino acids, and the smaller subunit.
  • 7. • Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes respectively subunits comprising the little subunit of 30S and the bigger subunit of 50S. • Their small subunit has a 16S RNA subunit (consisting of 1540 nucleotides) bound to 21 proteins. • The large subunit is composed of a 5S RNA subunit (120 nucleotides), a 23S RNA subunit (2900 nucleotides) and 31 proteins. • Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes respectively comprising of little (40S) and substantial (60S) subunits.
  • 8. • The smaller 40S ribosomal subunit is prolate ellipsoid in shape and consists of one molecule of 18S ribosomal RNA (or rRNA) and 30 proteins (named as S1, S2, S3, and so on). • The larger 60S ribosomal subunit is round in shape and contains a channel through which growing polypeptide chain makes its exit. • It consists of three types of rRNA molecules, i.e., 28S rRNA, 5.8 rRNA and 5S rRNA, and 40 proteins (named as L1, L2, L3 and so on). • The differences between the ribosomes of bacterial and eukaryotic are used to create antibiotics that can destroy bacterial infection without harming human cells.
  • 9. • The ribosomes seen in the chloroplasts of mitochondria of eukaryotes are comprised of big and little subunits composed of proteins inside a 70S particle. • The ribosomes share a core structure that is similar to all ribosomes despite differences in its size. • The two subunits fit together and work as one to translate the mRNA into a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis. • Because they are formed from two subunits of non-equal size, they are slightly longer in the axis than in diameter.
  • 10. • During protein synthesis, when multiple ribosomes are attached to the same mRNA strand, this structure is known as polysome. • The existence of ribosomes is temporary, after the synthesis of polypeptide the two sub-units separate and are reused or broken up.
  • 11. Functions of Ribosomes: • The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). • Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. • Ribosomes act as catalysts in two extremely important biological processes called peptidyl transfer and peptidyl hydrolysis.
  • 12. • They assemble amino acids to form specific proteins, proteins are essential to carry out cellular activities. • The process of production of proteins, the deoxyribonucleic acid produces mRNA by the process of DNA transcription. • The genetic message from the mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA translation. • The sequences of protein assembly during protein synthesis are specified in the mRNA. • The mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and is transported to the cytoplasm for further process of protein synthesis. • In the cytoplasm, the two subunits of ribosomes are bound around the polymers of mRNA; proteins are then synthesized with the help of transfer RNA. • The proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes present in the cytoplasm are used in the cytoplasm itself. The proteins produced by the bound ribosomes are transported outside the cell.