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PRAIA CABO VERDE
5-8 December 2023
Diet Transformation &
Food Environments
in West Africa
39th
ANNUAL MEETING
© Shutterstock/PhotopankPL
www.food-security.net
Veronique Theriault and Amidou Assima
Rapid diet transformations
Key drivers of diet transformations:
• Urbanization
• Income growth
Changes in eating habits have influenced what
food is consumed, purchased, where, how,
and by whom.
The food environments have affected food
quality, availability, and accessibility.
Figure 1. Food Systems
Source: HLPE (2017)
Increased demand for diversified foods
Figure 2. Food group consumption (#days/week)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
-1 1 3 5 7
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Fruits
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oils/Fats
Sugar/Sweets
Grains/Grain Products
Mali
2018/19 2014/15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fruits
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Sugar/Sweets
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Roots/Tubers/Plantain
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Vegetables
Grains/Grain Products
Oils/Fats
Nigeria
2018/19 2015/16
-1 1 3 5 7
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Fruits
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oils/Fats
Grains/Grain Products
Sugar/Sweets
Senegal
2018/19
Diversified foods – Differences across income groups
Figure 3. Food group consumption across expenditure quintiles, 2018/19
(#days/week)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Fruits
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oils/Fats
Sugar/Sweets
Grains/Grain Products
Mali
Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fruits
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Sugar/Sweets
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Vegetables
Grains/Grain Products
Oils/Fats
Nigeria
Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Fruits
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oils/Fats
Sugar/Sweets
Grains/Grain Products
Senegal
Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1
Diversified foods - Similar trends in urban and rural areas
Figure 4. Food group consumption in rural and urban areas, 2018/19
(#days/week)
-1 1 3 5 7
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Fruits
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oil/Fats
Grains/Grain Products
Spices/Seasonings
Sugar/Sweets
Mali
Rural Urban
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fruits
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Sugar/Sweets
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Grains/Grain Products
Vegetables
Spices/Seasonings
Oils/Fats
Nigeria
Rural Urban
-1 1 3 5 7
Pulses/Nuts/Seeds
Fruits
Roots/Tubers/Plantains
Milk/Milk Products/Eggs
Vegetables
Meat/Fish/Seafood
Oils/Fats
Spices/Seasonings
Grains/Grain Products
Sugar/Sweets
Senegal
Rural Urban
Increased demand for diversified foods
Number of food groups (up to 12) consumed in the
previous 7 days
1. Cereals 7. White tubers and roots
2. Vegetables 8. Fruits
3. Meats 9. Fish and seafood
4. Eggs 10. Milk and milk products
5. Oils and fats 11. Legumes, nuts, and seeds
6. Sweets 12. Spices, condiments, and beverages
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Mali Nigeria Senegal
Figure 5. Number of food groups consumed, 2018/1
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
Diversified foods- Increases in rural and urban areas
Figure 6. Number of food groups consumed in rural and urban areas over
time
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2018/19 2014/15 2018/19 2014/15
Rural Rural Urban Urban
Mali
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2018/19 2014/15 2018/19 2014/15
Rural Rural Urban Urban
Nigeria
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Rural Urban
2018/19 2018/19
Senegal
Diversified foods - Differences across income groups
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Quantile
1
Quantile
2
Quantile
3
Quantile
4
Quantile
5
Mali
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Quantile
1
Quantile
2
Quantile
3
Quantile
4
Quantile
5
Senegal
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Nigeria
Figure 7. Number of food groups consumed across expenditure
quintiles, 2018/19
Demand for convenient foods – Processed foods
Figure 8. Share of processed food items consumed by households, 2018/19
(%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. Note: Adapted from the processed food
classification in HLPE (2017:27).
Mali
Unprocessed processed
Basically processed
Moderately processed
Highly processed
Nigeria
Unprocessed processed
Basically processed
Moderately processed
Highly processed
Senegal
Unprocessed processed Basically processed
Moderately processed Highly processed
Demand for convenient foods – Food-away-from-home (FAFH)
Figure 9. Share of HHs who consumed
FAFH in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS
datasets
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mali Nigeria Senegal
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack Non-alcoholic
beverage
Alcoholic
beverage
Mali Nigeria Senegal
Figure 10. Share of HHs who consumed a meal/snack/drink
in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS
High reliance on markets
Figure 11. Sources of food items consumed in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets.
Note: Quantities in kgs. Maize shelled/off the cob in Nigeria.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mali
Production Purchases Others
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Senegal
Production Purchases Others
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Nigeria
Production Purchases Others
High reliance on markets in rural areas
Figure 12. Sources of food items consumed in the previous 7 days in rural areas, 2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets.
Note: Note: Quantities in kgs. Maize shelled/off the cob in Nigeria.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mali
Production Purchases Others
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Nigeria
Production Purchases Others
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Senegal
Production Purchases Others
High reliance on markets across all income groups
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Mali
Production Purchases
Figure 13. Sources of millet consumed in the previous 7 days across expenditure
quintiles, 2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Senegal
Production Purchases Other sources
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Nigeria
Production Purchase Others
Wide variety of food retailing outlets
Food retailing outlets:
Open-air markets
Kiosks
Street vendors
Traditional stores
Convenient/Grocery stores
Independent supermarkets
Chain supermarkets
Bakeries
Restaurants
Others
Food retailing in Senegal
~10,000-15,000 traditional stores, kiosks, open-
air markets in rural and urban areas
~1000-1,500 convenient/grocery stores in Dakar
and largest cities
~250 to 300 supermarkets in Dakar
Source: Knight and Sylla (2013)
Wide variety of food retailing outlets
Figure 14. Sources of purchased food, 2023 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from MSU/USSGB and MSU/ISRA-BAME datasets (2023)
Mali
Supermarket
Bakery
Other
Street vendor
Senegal
Bakery
Other
Supermarket
Street vendor
Store
Open-air market
but open-air markets remain the main outlet.
Diversity of food group purchases
Figure 15. Share of the budget allocated to food group purchases in the last 30 days,
2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Mali
Urban Rural
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Nigeria
Urban Rural
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Senegal
Urban Rural
High budget share for food
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Urban Rural
Mali
Food Non-Food
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Urban Rural
Nigeria
Food Non-Food
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Urban Rural
Senegal
Food Non-Food
Figure 16. Share of the budget allocated to food in rural and urban areas,
2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
High budget share for food
Figure 17. Share of the budget allocated to food across expenditure quintiles,
2018/19 (%)
Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Mali
Food Non-Food
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Nigeria
Food Non-Food
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Senegal
Food Non-Food
Conclusions
Rapid changes in food consumption patterns.
• The frequency of food group consumption differs more widely across
expenditure quintiles than between rural and urban areas.
• The frequency of consumption of milk/milk products/eggs,
meat/fish/seafood, and fruits increases the most with urbanization and
income.
• Grains and grain products remain regularly consumed by most
households.
The number of food groups consumed over a 7-day period went up in Mali and
Nigeria from 2014/15-2015/16 to 2018/19. On average, urban and wealthier
households consume more food groups.
Conclusions
Food away from home is an important consumption source
Wide variety of food retailing outlets reflect increases in demand for
diversified and convenient foods.
Both urban and rural households rely on food retailing outlets. The reliance
on food retailing outlets goes up with total household expenditure.
Open-air markets remain important for food purchases.
Implications
Diets are changing as are food environments.
More and better data, ideally representative at the national level, is needed to
understand the scope and scale of those changes and assess their impacts,
particularly on food and nutrition security.
• What types of food is purchased, where, and by whom?
• What types of food is consumed away from home, where, and by whom?
• What is the availability, affordability, and quality of food supplied across food retailing
outlets?
• Does a wider variety of food retailing outlets translate into more, safer, healthier, and
cheaper food for consumers?
• Are healthy convenient foods available (and affordable)?
• Where are located the different food retailing outlets?
• Are poorer or rural households more likely to live in “food deserts”?
www.food-security.net
References
• Cellule de Planification et de Statistiques. Enquête Agricole de Conjoncture Intégrée (ECAI) 2014. Ref.
MLI_2014_EACI_M_v03_M. Dataset downloaded from from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.
• HLPE. 2017. Nutrition and food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and
Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome.
• Knight, R. and Sylla, F. 2012. Retail Food Sector 2012. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Global Agricultural
Information Network. Gain Report.
• MSU-USSGB. 2023. Cowpea Consumer Survey in Mali. Dataset.
• MSU-ISRA/BAME. 2023. Cowpea Consumer Survey in Senegal. Dataset.
• WAEMU Commission, Harmonized Survey on Households Living Standards, Mali 2018-2019. Ref.
MLI_2018_EHCVM_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.
• WAEMU Commission, Harmonized Survey on Households Living Standards, Senegal 2018-2019. Ref.
SEN_2018_EHCVM_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.
• Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics. General Household Survey, Panel (GHS-Panel) 2018-2019. Dataset
downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.
• Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics. General Household Survey, Panel (GHS-Panel) 2015-2016 . Ref.
NGA_2015_GHSP-W3_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.
Thank you!!

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Transformation des régimes alimentaires, marchés, prix et environnement

  • 1. PRAIA CABO VERDE 5-8 December 2023 Diet Transformation & Food Environments in West Africa 39th ANNUAL MEETING © Shutterstock/PhotopankPL www.food-security.net Veronique Theriault and Amidou Assima
  • 2. Rapid diet transformations Key drivers of diet transformations: • Urbanization • Income growth Changes in eating habits have influenced what food is consumed, purchased, where, how, and by whom. The food environments have affected food quality, availability, and accessibility. Figure 1. Food Systems Source: HLPE (2017)
  • 3. Increased demand for diversified foods Figure 2. Food group consumption (#days/week) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets -1 1 3 5 7 Roots/Tubers/Plantains Fruits Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oils/Fats Sugar/Sweets Grains/Grain Products Mali 2018/19 2014/15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fruits Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Sugar/Sweets Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Roots/Tubers/Plantain Meat/Fish/Seafood Vegetables Grains/Grain Products Oils/Fats Nigeria 2018/19 2015/16 -1 1 3 5 7 Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Fruits Roots/Tubers/Plantains Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oils/Fats Grains/Grain Products Sugar/Sweets Senegal 2018/19
  • 4. Diversified foods – Differences across income groups Figure 3. Food group consumption across expenditure quintiles, 2018/19 (#days/week) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roots/Tubers/Plantains Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Fruits Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oils/Fats Sugar/Sweets Grains/Grain Products Mali Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fruits Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Roots/Tubers/Plantains Meat/Fish/Seafood Sugar/Sweets Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Vegetables Grains/Grain Products Oils/Fats Nigeria Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roots/Tubers/Plantains Fruits Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oils/Fats Sugar/Sweets Grains/Grain Products Senegal Quintile 5 Quintile 4 Quintile 3 Quintile 2 Quintile 1
  • 5. Diversified foods - Similar trends in urban and rural areas Figure 4. Food group consumption in rural and urban areas, 2018/19 (#days/week) -1 1 3 5 7 Roots/Tubers/Plantains Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Fruits Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oil/Fats Grains/Grain Products Spices/Seasonings Sugar/Sweets Mali Rural Urban 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fruits Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Sugar/Sweets Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Roots/Tubers/Plantains Meat/Fish/Seafood Grains/Grain Products Vegetables Spices/Seasonings Oils/Fats Nigeria Rural Urban -1 1 3 5 7 Pulses/Nuts/Seeds Fruits Roots/Tubers/Plantains Milk/Milk Products/Eggs Vegetables Meat/Fish/Seafood Oils/Fats Spices/Seasonings Grains/Grain Products Sugar/Sweets Senegal Rural Urban
  • 6. Increased demand for diversified foods Number of food groups (up to 12) consumed in the previous 7 days 1. Cereals 7. White tubers and roots 2. Vegetables 8. Fruits 3. Meats 9. Fish and seafood 4. Eggs 10. Milk and milk products 5. Oils and fats 11. Legumes, nuts, and seeds 6. Sweets 12. Spices, condiments, and beverages 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Mali Nigeria Senegal Figure 5. Number of food groups consumed, 2018/1 Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
  • 7. Diversified foods- Increases in rural and urban areas Figure 6. Number of food groups consumed in rural and urban areas over time 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2018/19 2014/15 2018/19 2014/15 Rural Rural Urban Urban Mali 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2018/19 2014/15 2018/19 2014/15 Rural Rural Urban Urban Nigeria 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Rural Urban 2018/19 2018/19 Senegal
  • 8. Diversified foods - Differences across income groups Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Quantile 1 Quantile 2 Quantile 3 Quantile 4 Quantile 5 Mali 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Quantile 1 Quantile 2 Quantile 3 Quantile 4 Quantile 5 Senegal 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Nigeria Figure 7. Number of food groups consumed across expenditure quintiles, 2018/19
  • 9. Demand for convenient foods – Processed foods Figure 8. Share of processed food items consumed by households, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. Note: Adapted from the processed food classification in HLPE (2017:27). Mali Unprocessed processed Basically processed Moderately processed Highly processed Nigeria Unprocessed processed Basically processed Moderately processed Highly processed Senegal Unprocessed processed Basically processed Moderately processed Highly processed
  • 10. Demand for convenient foods – Food-away-from-home (FAFH) Figure 9. Share of HHs who consumed FAFH in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mali Nigeria Senegal 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack Non-alcoholic beverage Alcoholic beverage Mali Nigeria Senegal Figure 10. Share of HHs who consumed a meal/snack/drink in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS
  • 11. High reliance on markets Figure 11. Sources of food items consumed in the previous 7 days, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. Note: Quantities in kgs. Maize shelled/off the cob in Nigeria. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mali Production Purchases Others 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Senegal Production Purchases Others 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Nigeria Production Purchases Others
  • 12. High reliance on markets in rural areas Figure 12. Sources of food items consumed in the previous 7 days in rural areas, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. Note: Note: Quantities in kgs. Maize shelled/off the cob in Nigeria. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mali Production Purchases Others 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Nigeria Production Purchases Others 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Senegal Production Purchases Others
  • 13. High reliance on markets across all income groups 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Mali Production Purchases Figure 13. Sources of millet consumed in the previous 7 days across expenditure quintiles, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Senegal Production Purchases Other sources 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5 Nigeria Production Purchase Others
  • 14. Wide variety of food retailing outlets Food retailing outlets: Open-air markets Kiosks Street vendors Traditional stores Convenient/Grocery stores Independent supermarkets Chain supermarkets Bakeries Restaurants Others Food retailing in Senegal ~10,000-15,000 traditional stores, kiosks, open- air markets in rural and urban areas ~1000-1,500 convenient/grocery stores in Dakar and largest cities ~250 to 300 supermarkets in Dakar Source: Knight and Sylla (2013)
  • 15. Wide variety of food retailing outlets Figure 14. Sources of purchased food, 2023 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from MSU/USSGB and MSU/ISRA-BAME datasets (2023) Mali Supermarket Bakery Other Street vendor Senegal Bakery Other Supermarket Street vendor Store Open-air market but open-air markets remain the main outlet.
  • 16. Diversity of food group purchases Figure 15. Share of the budget allocated to food group purchases in the last 30 days, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Mali Urban Rural 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Nigeria Urban Rural 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Senegal Urban Rural
  • 17. High budget share for food 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Urban Rural Mali Food Non-Food 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Urban Rural Nigeria Food Non-Food 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Urban Rural Senegal Food Non-Food Figure 16. Share of the budget allocated to food in rural and urban areas, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets
  • 18. High budget share for food Figure 17. Share of the budget allocated to food across expenditure quintiles, 2018/19 (%) Source: Authors’ calculations from World Bank’s LSMS datasets 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Mali Food Non-Food 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Nigeria Food Non-Food 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Senegal Food Non-Food
  • 19. Conclusions Rapid changes in food consumption patterns. • The frequency of food group consumption differs more widely across expenditure quintiles than between rural and urban areas. • The frequency of consumption of milk/milk products/eggs, meat/fish/seafood, and fruits increases the most with urbanization and income. • Grains and grain products remain regularly consumed by most households. The number of food groups consumed over a 7-day period went up in Mali and Nigeria from 2014/15-2015/16 to 2018/19. On average, urban and wealthier households consume more food groups.
  • 20. Conclusions Food away from home is an important consumption source Wide variety of food retailing outlets reflect increases in demand for diversified and convenient foods. Both urban and rural households rely on food retailing outlets. The reliance on food retailing outlets goes up with total household expenditure. Open-air markets remain important for food purchases.
  • 21. Implications Diets are changing as are food environments. More and better data, ideally representative at the national level, is needed to understand the scope and scale of those changes and assess their impacts, particularly on food and nutrition security. • What types of food is purchased, where, and by whom? • What types of food is consumed away from home, where, and by whom? • What is the availability, affordability, and quality of food supplied across food retailing outlets? • Does a wider variety of food retailing outlets translate into more, safer, healthier, and cheaper food for consumers? • Are healthy convenient foods available (and affordable)? • Where are located the different food retailing outlets? • Are poorer or rural households more likely to live in “food deserts”?
  • 23. References • Cellule de Planification et de Statistiques. Enquête Agricole de Conjoncture Intégrée (ECAI) 2014. Ref. MLI_2014_EACI_M_v03_M. Dataset downloaded from from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023. • HLPE. 2017. Nutrition and food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome. • Knight, R. and Sylla, F. 2012. Retail Food Sector 2012. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Global Agricultural Information Network. Gain Report. • MSU-USSGB. 2023. Cowpea Consumer Survey in Mali. Dataset. • MSU-ISRA/BAME. 2023. Cowpea Consumer Survey in Senegal. Dataset. • WAEMU Commission, Harmonized Survey on Households Living Standards, Mali 2018-2019. Ref. MLI_2018_EHCVM_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023. • WAEMU Commission, Harmonized Survey on Households Living Standards, Senegal 2018-2019. Ref. SEN_2018_EHCVM_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023. • Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics. General Household Survey, Panel (GHS-Panel) 2018-2019. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023. • Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics. General Household Survey, Panel (GHS-Panel) 2015-2016 . Ref. NGA_2015_GHSP-W3_v02_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 10/3/2023.