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Concept
• The trade union came in to being as an agent of
  workers and working class.
• Over the years workers struggled hard to achieve an
  adequate measure of their protection against
  exploitation.
• With the growth of modern industrial
  establishment, involving the employment of large
  no. of workers under the condition of poor
  bargaining power at individual level, the growth of
  trade union became necessary.
• A continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of
  maintaining and improving the condition of their working lives.
• A continuous long term association of employees, formed and
  maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the
  interests of members in their working relationship.
• A trade union is any combination, whether temporary or
  permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the
  relation between workmen and employer, or between workmen and
  workmen, and between employer and employer or for imposing
  restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business.
• Thus as a whole trade union is an instrument of defense against
  exploitation and provide a forum for collecting the forces of working
  class.
Characteristics………..
• Trade union are voluntary association of either employee or
  employer or independent workers
• Trade union are generally permanent combination.
• Trade union formed by collective actions of workers
• Basic objective of any trade union is to promote and
  protect the economic, social and vocational interest of
  workers/members
• Trade union are adoptable to the changing socio-economic-
  legal - political environment.
• Trade union are designed to eliminate the exploitatation of
  the workers through workers participation in the
  management.
Why UNION???
• Trade union emerged due to group psychology
• Trade union is an organizing centre, it provide the
  locus for collecting the forces for working class.
• Trade union provide job security to the employees.
• Trade union can negotiate with management on
  the industrial conflicts.
• Right of workers i.e. wages and condition of work
  are protected by the trade union.
THEORIES /APPROCHES OF Trade Union
Industrial Democracy Approach by Webbs:
The trade union is the extension of principle of
 democracy in the sphere of industry.
They sought a solution for industrial conflict by
 equality and collective agreement.
Trying to transform industrial autocracy to
 democracy
Trade union as a means by which worker can
 cope up with the stronger political and economic
 power.
Social psychological approach Robert Hoxie
• Trade union have emerged due to group
  psychology, social psychological environment
  rather than economic reason.
• Unionism affects not only production but also the
  established rights(employer’s rights to run his
  business, worker’s right to work, )ethical standard,
  distribution of wages, and law and order.
Capitalism approach by Tannenbaum
• The fundamental cause of exploitation of workers is
  the use of machine.
• The machines threatens the security of individuals
  workers and they react in self defense., through the
  union to attempt to control the machine.
• So trade unions are the byproducts of an industrial
  society in which automation (machine) has
  destroyed the old way of life and robbed the
  workers of his identity, purpose and creativity.
• So trade-union are the spontaneous reaction of the
  growth of capitalism
Anti capitalism Approach by Marx
• Marx said that trade union is an instrument for
  destroying the capitalist class.
• Trade union is necessary to bring about
  revolutionary and fundamental changes in social
  class order.
• With the development of industry, the proletariat
  are not only increase in number, it become
  concentrated in greater mass, its strength grows.
• The increasing improvement of machinery, the
  collision between workmen and bourgeois take the
  character of two class.
• Therefore the worker began to form combination in
  form of trade union against bourgeois to fight for
  their interest.
Sarvodaya Approach by Gandhi
• Sarvodaya principle of truth, trusteeship and non violence.
• Trade union is an institution in which capital and labour are not
  antagonistic bur are supplementary.
• Capitalist being the trustees of the labour welfare of the
  laboring class under them.
• Gandhian approach of trade unionism is not merely related to
  material aspect but to the moral and intellectual aspect.
• He advocated that a trade union strive for all round
  betterment of the working class including training of its
  members in supplementary occupations to avoid risk of
  uncertainty of job.
• Trade union is a moral institution who can uphold the dignity
  of labour by following the principle of equality and trusteeship
Structure of trade union
  • The union of different countries have different
    lines of trade unions depends on socio-economic
    compulsions of industrialization and political and
    economic factors.
                                        TRADE UNION




           On the basis of purpose                     On the basis of Membership structure

Reformist Union                  Revolutionary Union
                                                                •Craft Union
                                                                •Industrial Union
                                                                •Staff union
Business Unionism            Anarchist Union
                                                                •General union
Uplift Unionism              Predatory Union
                              Political Union
                              Guerrilla Union
Reformist Union
• It aim to retain the present structure of capitalist society.
• They want to maintain the usual employee-employer relationship by
  eliminating the competitive system of production.
• They never wish to destroy the current existing social, economic and
  political structure.
 BUSINESS UNIONISM                                            UPLIFT UNIONISM
 Here smooth and cordial relationship          It is also called friendly or ideal
 exist between employee and employer            unionism aim to act as an social,
 All their problems and conflicts are solved   intellectual and moral values of the
 by collective bargaining and peaceful          workers.
 means of demonstration.                        It puts more emphasis on insurance
 Employees seek to achieve economic            benefits, health, education and welfare
 objectives                                     measure.
 It favors voluntary arbitration and avoid
 strikes. Lockout and political actions.
Revolutionary Unions
• It seek to achieve their objectives by destroying the existing capitalist
  structure and replacing with socialist or communist structure.
• They try to destroy the existing economic system by revolutionary
  measure.
• Anarchist Union: such union aim at destroying the present economic
  system by resorting to revolutionary measure.
• Political union: seek to redistribute the wealth by giving effective
  share to the workers. The get power basically through political
  actions only.
• Predatory union: they seek their objectives without sticking to any
  approach.
• Guerrilla Union: they believe in exploitation, violence and non
  cooperation. They are generally non democratic. They don't believe
  in cooperation with their employees.
Membership structure: as par the variation in the composition of
 members
 Craft union: it covers all workers engage in a single occupation
  or craft irrespective of the industries form an union.
• All craft union links together those workers who possess similar
  skills, craft training, apprenticeship and specialization.
• Example: all workers of textile industries.
 Industrial and staff union:
• Unions organized on the basis of an industry rather than craft is
  called industrial union.
• All workers skill, unskilled and semi-skilled working in a
  particular industry regardless of the difference in crafts, skill
  position or gender form together an industrial union
• E.g.. Textile labour association, engineering mazdoor sabha
  Mumbai.
Staff union:
• it’s a combination of craft union and industrial relation
  is called staff union.
• Staff union is mostly formed by the workers of tertiary
  sectors like health, tour and travel industry
General Union:
• It comprises workers of various industries and various
  skills
• Membership is open to all type/class of workers.
• Workers of different industries and different occupation
  formed general union.
• E.g. Jamshedpur trade union.
Structure of Trade union in India
 • In India trade unions are affiliated by two types of organization.
 • The national federation
 • The federation of union
The national Federation is the apex trade union that brings
coordination in the activities of different trade union.
These are politically learned and the leadership to such federation are
provided by politicians.
They act as a coordinating agency for various trade union under their
control.
Various union combines together to form federation of union for the
purpose of gaining more solidarity and strength.
Such federation can take collective action when needed.
INTUC, AITUC, Hind Mazdoor Sabha,Bharatiya Mazdoor
sabha,NATIONAL Labor Organization
All India BANK EMPLOYEE ASSOCIATION, All India Railway Men
association, All India electricity employee association.
Functions of Trade Unions
• As par as the trade union act 1926, to secure better wage
  and living condition for workers.
• To provide confidence to workers
• To imbibe sincerity and discipline in workers.
• To take welfare measure to improve the morale of
  workers.
• Trade unions perform a number of functions in order to
  achieve the objectives. These functions can be broadly
  classified into three categories:
  (i) Militant functions,
  (ii) Fraternal functions
• Militant Functions
  One set of activities performed by trade unions leads to the betterment
  of the position of their members in relation to their employment.
• The aim of such activities is to ensure adequate wages, secure better
  conditions of work and employment, get better treatment from
  employers, etc.
• When the unions fail to accomplish these aims by the method of
  collective bargaining and negotiations, they adopt an approach and put
  up a fight with the management in the form of go-slow tactics, strike,
  boycott, gherao, etc.
• Hence, these functions of the trade unions are known as militant or
  fighting functions. Thus, the militant functions of trade unions can be
  summed up as:

 To achieve higher wages and better working conditions
 To raise the status of workers as a part of industry
 To protect labors against victimization and injustice
• Fraternal Functions
    Another set of activities performed by trade unions aims at rendering help to its
    members in times of need, and improving their efficiency.
•   Trade unions try to foster a spirit of cooperation and promote friendly industrial
    relations and diffuse education and culture among their members.
•   They take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers and generate
    self confidence among them.
•    They also arrange for legal assistance to its members, if necessary.
•   Besides, these, they undertake many welfare measures for their members, e.g.,
    school for the education of children, library, reading-rooms, in-door and out-door
    games, and other recreational facilities.
•   Some trade unions even undertake publication of some magazine or journal.
•   These activities, which may be called fraternal functions, depend on the availability
    of funds, which the unions raise by subscription from members and donations from
    outsiders, and also on their competent and enlightened leadership.
•   Thus, the fraternal functions of trade unions can be summed up as:
    To take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers
   To generate self confidence among workers
   To encourage sincerity and discipline among workers
   To provide opportunities for promotion and growth
   To protect women workers against discrimination
   INTRAMURAL ,EXTRAMURAL AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
 INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: It refer to welfare schemes of unions,
  which are carried on with in the four wall of the organization.
• Improvement in wages, better safety provision,
• Ways are collective bargaining, group discussion, negotiations, strikes
  and boycott.
 EXTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: Perform outside the boundary of the
  organization for the general welfare of members.
• Trade union helps the members by providing educational,
  recreational, housing facilities to the members
 POLITICAL ACTIVITIES: In a democratic country, trade union plays an
  important role in the politics of the country.
• They made their representation to the legislative assembly and
  parliament through general election to safeguard the interest of
  workers.

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Trade union

  • 1.
  • 2. Concept • The trade union came in to being as an agent of workers and working class. • Over the years workers struggled hard to achieve an adequate measure of their protection against exploitation. • With the growth of modern industrial establishment, involving the employment of large no. of workers under the condition of poor bargaining power at individual level, the growth of trade union became necessary.
  • 3. • A continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving the condition of their working lives. • A continuous long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interests of members in their working relationship. • A trade union is any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workmen and employer, or between workmen and workmen, and between employer and employer or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business. • Thus as a whole trade union is an instrument of defense against exploitation and provide a forum for collecting the forces of working class.
  • 4. Characteristics……….. • Trade union are voluntary association of either employee or employer or independent workers • Trade union are generally permanent combination. • Trade union formed by collective actions of workers • Basic objective of any trade union is to promote and protect the economic, social and vocational interest of workers/members • Trade union are adoptable to the changing socio-economic- legal - political environment. • Trade union are designed to eliminate the exploitatation of the workers through workers participation in the management.
  • 5. Why UNION??? • Trade union emerged due to group psychology • Trade union is an organizing centre, it provide the locus for collecting the forces for working class. • Trade union provide job security to the employees. • Trade union can negotiate with management on the industrial conflicts. • Right of workers i.e. wages and condition of work are protected by the trade union.
  • 6. THEORIES /APPROCHES OF Trade Union Industrial Democracy Approach by Webbs: The trade union is the extension of principle of democracy in the sphere of industry. They sought a solution for industrial conflict by equality and collective agreement. Trying to transform industrial autocracy to democracy Trade union as a means by which worker can cope up with the stronger political and economic power.
  • 7. Social psychological approach Robert Hoxie • Trade union have emerged due to group psychology, social psychological environment rather than economic reason. • Unionism affects not only production but also the established rights(employer’s rights to run his business, worker’s right to work, )ethical standard, distribution of wages, and law and order.
  • 8. Capitalism approach by Tannenbaum • The fundamental cause of exploitation of workers is the use of machine. • The machines threatens the security of individuals workers and they react in self defense., through the union to attempt to control the machine. • So trade unions are the byproducts of an industrial society in which automation (machine) has destroyed the old way of life and robbed the workers of his identity, purpose and creativity. • So trade-union are the spontaneous reaction of the growth of capitalism
  • 9. Anti capitalism Approach by Marx • Marx said that trade union is an instrument for destroying the capitalist class. • Trade union is necessary to bring about revolutionary and fundamental changes in social class order. • With the development of industry, the proletariat are not only increase in number, it become concentrated in greater mass, its strength grows. • The increasing improvement of machinery, the collision between workmen and bourgeois take the character of two class. • Therefore the worker began to form combination in form of trade union against bourgeois to fight for their interest.
  • 10. Sarvodaya Approach by Gandhi • Sarvodaya principle of truth, trusteeship and non violence. • Trade union is an institution in which capital and labour are not antagonistic bur are supplementary. • Capitalist being the trustees of the labour welfare of the laboring class under them. • Gandhian approach of trade unionism is not merely related to material aspect but to the moral and intellectual aspect. • He advocated that a trade union strive for all round betterment of the working class including training of its members in supplementary occupations to avoid risk of uncertainty of job. • Trade union is a moral institution who can uphold the dignity of labour by following the principle of equality and trusteeship
  • 11. Structure of trade union • The union of different countries have different lines of trade unions depends on socio-economic compulsions of industrialization and political and economic factors. TRADE UNION On the basis of purpose On the basis of Membership structure Reformist Union Revolutionary Union •Craft Union •Industrial Union •Staff union Business Unionism Anarchist Union •General union Uplift Unionism Predatory Union Political Union Guerrilla Union
  • 12. Reformist Union • It aim to retain the present structure of capitalist society. • They want to maintain the usual employee-employer relationship by eliminating the competitive system of production. • They never wish to destroy the current existing social, economic and political structure. BUSINESS UNIONISM UPLIFT UNIONISM Here smooth and cordial relationship It is also called friendly or ideal exist between employee and employer unionism aim to act as an social, All their problems and conflicts are solved intellectual and moral values of the by collective bargaining and peaceful workers. means of demonstration. It puts more emphasis on insurance Employees seek to achieve economic benefits, health, education and welfare objectives measure. It favors voluntary arbitration and avoid strikes. Lockout and political actions.
  • 13. Revolutionary Unions • It seek to achieve their objectives by destroying the existing capitalist structure and replacing with socialist or communist structure. • They try to destroy the existing economic system by revolutionary measure. • Anarchist Union: such union aim at destroying the present economic system by resorting to revolutionary measure. • Political union: seek to redistribute the wealth by giving effective share to the workers. The get power basically through political actions only. • Predatory union: they seek their objectives without sticking to any approach. • Guerrilla Union: they believe in exploitation, violence and non cooperation. They are generally non democratic. They don't believe in cooperation with their employees.
  • 14. Membership structure: as par the variation in the composition of members  Craft union: it covers all workers engage in a single occupation or craft irrespective of the industries form an union. • All craft union links together those workers who possess similar skills, craft training, apprenticeship and specialization. • Example: all workers of textile industries.  Industrial and staff union: • Unions organized on the basis of an industry rather than craft is called industrial union. • All workers skill, unskilled and semi-skilled working in a particular industry regardless of the difference in crafts, skill position or gender form together an industrial union • E.g.. Textile labour association, engineering mazdoor sabha Mumbai.
  • 15. Staff union: • it’s a combination of craft union and industrial relation is called staff union. • Staff union is mostly formed by the workers of tertiary sectors like health, tour and travel industry General Union: • It comprises workers of various industries and various skills • Membership is open to all type/class of workers. • Workers of different industries and different occupation formed general union. • E.g. Jamshedpur trade union.
  • 16. Structure of Trade union in India • In India trade unions are affiliated by two types of organization. • The national federation • The federation of union The national Federation is the apex trade union that brings coordination in the activities of different trade union. These are politically learned and the leadership to such federation are provided by politicians. They act as a coordinating agency for various trade union under their control. Various union combines together to form federation of union for the purpose of gaining more solidarity and strength. Such federation can take collective action when needed. INTUC, AITUC, Hind Mazdoor Sabha,Bharatiya Mazdoor sabha,NATIONAL Labor Organization All India BANK EMPLOYEE ASSOCIATION, All India Railway Men association, All India electricity employee association.
  • 17. Functions of Trade Unions • As par as the trade union act 1926, to secure better wage and living condition for workers. • To provide confidence to workers • To imbibe sincerity and discipline in workers. • To take welfare measure to improve the morale of workers. • Trade unions perform a number of functions in order to achieve the objectives. These functions can be broadly classified into three categories: (i) Militant functions, (ii) Fraternal functions
  • 18. • Militant Functions One set of activities performed by trade unions leads to the betterment of the position of their members in relation to their employment. • The aim of such activities is to ensure adequate wages, secure better conditions of work and employment, get better treatment from employers, etc. • When the unions fail to accomplish these aims by the method of collective bargaining and negotiations, they adopt an approach and put up a fight with the management in the form of go-slow tactics, strike, boycott, gherao, etc. • Hence, these functions of the trade unions are known as militant or fighting functions. Thus, the militant functions of trade unions can be summed up as:  To achieve higher wages and better working conditions  To raise the status of workers as a part of industry  To protect labors against victimization and injustice
  • 19. • Fraternal Functions Another set of activities performed by trade unions aims at rendering help to its members in times of need, and improving their efficiency. • Trade unions try to foster a spirit of cooperation and promote friendly industrial relations and diffuse education and culture among their members. • They take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers and generate self confidence among them. • They also arrange for legal assistance to its members, if necessary. • Besides, these, they undertake many welfare measures for their members, e.g., school for the education of children, library, reading-rooms, in-door and out-door games, and other recreational facilities. • Some trade unions even undertake publication of some magazine or journal. • These activities, which may be called fraternal functions, depend on the availability of funds, which the unions raise by subscription from members and donations from outsiders, and also on their competent and enlightened leadership. • Thus, the fraternal functions of trade unions can be summed up as: To take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers  To generate self confidence among workers  To encourage sincerity and discipline among workers  To provide opportunities for promotion and growth  To protect women workers against discrimination  INTRAMURAL ,EXTRAMURAL AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
  • 20.  INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: It refer to welfare schemes of unions, which are carried on with in the four wall of the organization. • Improvement in wages, better safety provision, • Ways are collective bargaining, group discussion, negotiations, strikes and boycott.  EXTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: Perform outside the boundary of the organization for the general welfare of members. • Trade union helps the members by providing educational, recreational, housing facilities to the members  POLITICAL ACTIVITIES: In a democratic country, trade union plays an important role in the politics of the country. • They made their representation to the legislative assembly and parliament through general election to safeguard the interest of workers.