Cognitions A belief, opinion, or attitude, or piece of knowledge about anything (persons, objects, issues, ourselves . . . .)
Relations between Cognitions Our thoughts may be related to each other in different ways 1. No relationship - The thoughts are irrelevant to each other. Your thoughts about ice cream and World Peace.
2. Consonance - The thoughts are consistent with each other. I like the teacher and I like the subject. 3. Dissonance - The thoughts are inconsistent with each other. I smoke, yet I know smoking causes cancer.
We Don’t like Dissonance and we will do what ever is necessary to get rid of dissonance!!!
Conflict -- We experience conflict when making decisions. -- The More similar our alternatives, the more dissonance we experience. -- Persuasive messages try to decrease this conflict.
Decision -- We make our choice between competing alternatives.
Dissonance -- After we make decisions we always question those decisions -- Our decision is both positive and negative. The alternative decision may also seem positive (grass is always greener on the other side syndrome)
Regret -- If the initial alternatives are re-evaluated as being more similar than we first thought. -- This causes discomfort
Dissonance Reduction -- When we experience dissonance we try to reduce it -- How we do it is coming up right now!!!
Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) 1. Do a boring task 2. When the next subject comes in, tell them it was a lot of fun. 3. Two Groups (One earned $1 the other earned $20) 4. Result = Justification – we are less dissonant if we can justify our behavior
IMPLICATIONS Saturn Cult: does follow-up calls after you have bought a car.