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Tinkering Toward
   Technology
    Literacy
       Sylvia Martinez
  President, Generation YES
The dots...
• What is technology literacy?
• Why is it important?
• How do we teach it today? Can we do
  better?
• How does tinkering work as a model of
  learning?
• Bringing it all together
What is technology
    literacy?
•   Computers or more?

•   NAEP says technology literacy should
    cover “the designed world”

•   49 of the 50 states have technology literacy
    goals and standards; more than 80 percent
    of the states have adopted, adapted, or
    referenced ISTE National Education
    Technology Standards (NETS)
SETDA says...

• Technology literacy is “…the ability to
  responsibly use appropriate technology to
  communicate, solve problems, and access,
  manage, integrate, evaluate, and create
  information to improve learning in all
  subject areas and to acquire lifelong
  knowledge and skills in the 21st century.”
3 Interconnected
             Abilities
Knowledge

 •    Vocabulary, recognition, history, tradeoffs, constraints
Critical thinking and decision making

 •    Inquiry, analysis, systemized thinking
Capabilities

 •    skills, information gathering, troubleshooting, fixing
      things, offer solutions, design process
from National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and National Research Council
“Doing” connects them
Why is technology
literacy important?                             or
                                               f
                                           nt s
                                     LB eme er
                                   C ir
                                  N u
                                     q h gr ad
                                   re 8t
                                     a ll

                      tt he
                    ha gy
                   t o
              ed nol d in
          iev ch de
        el te lu
       b f                  lum
   8% y o e inc rricu
  9 d
     u ld b l cu
   st u oo
     sho sch
         e up 2002
       thGall
        -
How do we teach it?
If “doing” is the key connector between
the three aspects of tech literacy, we
need a theory of learning that
emphasizes “doing”
not lecturing... not a checklist... not testing.
Constructionism
  • Seymour Papert - collegue of Jean Piaget
  • Based on constructivisim
  • Children learn by discovering a world
    view piece by piece, building on what
    they already know and can do
  • Making things in the real world cements
    this knowledge
Making things is better than being passive
    Making good things is even better

Knowledge is a consequence of experience

                               Gary Stager
Constructivist/Constructionist
         Resources
• Seymour Papert - Articles and books http://
  www.papert.org/
• Constructivist Consortium http://
  www.constructivistconsortium.org/
• PBS Online Classroom http://
  www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/
  w2-resources.html
From theory to practice

Project-based learning
(PBL)
Project-based Learning
1. PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the
   curriculum
2. PBL projects are focused on questions or problems
   that drive students to encounter (and struggle with)
   the central concepts and principles of a discipline
3. Projects involve students in a constructive investigation
4. Projects are student-driven to a significant degree
5. Projects are realistic, not school-like

  J.W. Thomas - A Review of Research on Project-based Learning (2000)
PBL Resources
• Edutopia (Core topic: project learning)
  http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning
• Buck Institute for Education http://
  www.bie.org/
• Project-based Learning Online http://pbl-
  online.org/
Dots so far...
• Technology literacy is important
• Technology literacy is multi-
  dimentional and “doing” is central
• Constructionism is a theory of
  learning that emphasizes doing
• PBL is a classroom methodology that
  supports constructionism and doing
Tinkering as a form of
                 PBL
•   Bricolage - French for tinkering, using found
    objects, playfulness in creation.
•   Papert defined two styles of problem
    solving: analytical and bricolage
    •   School only honors one style
•   McGyver, Apollo 13
•   DIY, HGTV, Make magazine
"The bricoleur resembles the painter who stands back
between brushstrokes, looks at the canvas, and only
after this contemplation, decides what to do next."
- Sherry Turkle
Tinkering School - TED Talk
                 Gever Tully




           http://www.ted.com/talks/
gever_tulley_s_tinkering_school_in_action.html
no set curriculum
no tests
lots of stuff
lots of tools
real tools
immersive
time
how to make things
deep realization that they can figure things out
nothing turns out as planned
every step is valuable
just start building
fully committed to project at hand
success is in the doing
failures are celebrated and analyzed
child-appropriate response to frustration
all materials useful
Can we do this in
    school?
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR)
•   Free access to lots of different kinds of books
•   Minimum censorship. Comic books and magazines are OK; hard
    and easy books fine
•   More often and short is better than long, but rare
                                •   No tests, book reports, logs,
                                    comprehension quizzes
                                •   Comfortable space to read
                                •   The teacher reads too
                                •   For all kids, not a reward or
                                    remediation
                                •   Supplement with interesting
                                    experiences about reading – trips to
                                    library, discuss literature, conferences,
                                    etc. (not skill building)
                                •   Good readers tend to be narrow
                                    readers (they stick to one genre)
                                •   Look for “home run” books
Sustained Technology
      Tinkering
•   Free access to lots of different kinds of
    software and hardware
•   The teacher works on computer projects too
•   No tests, reports, logs, quizzes
•   Comfortable space to read work on
    computer projects
•   Follow their passions
•   Collaboration
Design
has changed in the real world
Waterfall Design
                 Define

        Design

Build

  Implement

                 Test

                    Complete
Spiral design model (Boehm, 1988)
What
happened in
  the 1980s?
What
happened in
  the 1980s?
• Use technology to test ideas
• Take risks
• Reflect, refine
• Assessment = does it work, is it
  interesting, is it beautiful
Connect the dots
research, learning theory, practice, outcomes


             Assessing Technology Literacy:
             The Case for an Authentic
             Project-based Approach
             http://genyes.com/freeresources/
Contact information
• Sylvia Martinez, President
• Generation YES, a non-profit 501c3
• email: sylvia@genyes.org
• URL: www.genyes.org
• Blog: blog.genyes.org
• Twitter: smartinez

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Tinkering towards technology literacy

  • 1. Tinkering Toward Technology Literacy Sylvia Martinez President, Generation YES
  • 2. The dots... • What is technology literacy? • Why is it important? • How do we teach it today? Can we do better? • How does tinkering work as a model of learning? • Bringing it all together
  • 3. What is technology literacy? • Computers or more? • NAEP says technology literacy should cover “the designed world” • 49 of the 50 states have technology literacy goals and standards; more than 80 percent of the states have adopted, adapted, or referenced ISTE National Education Technology Standards (NETS)
  • 4. SETDA says... • Technology literacy is “…the ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to communicate, solve problems, and access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information to improve learning in all subject areas and to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century.”
  • 5. 3 Interconnected Abilities Knowledge • Vocabulary, recognition, history, tradeoffs, constraints Critical thinking and decision making • Inquiry, analysis, systemized thinking Capabilities • skills, information gathering, troubleshooting, fixing things, offer solutions, design process from National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and National Research Council
  • 7. Why is technology literacy important? or f nt s LB eme er C ir N u q h gr ad re 8t a ll tt he ha gy t o ed nol d in iev ch de el te lu b f lum 8% y o e inc rricu 9 d u ld b l cu st u oo sho sch e up 2002 thGall -
  • 8. How do we teach it?
  • 9. If “doing” is the key connector between the three aspects of tech literacy, we need a theory of learning that emphasizes “doing” not lecturing... not a checklist... not testing.
  • 10. Constructionism • Seymour Papert - collegue of Jean Piaget • Based on constructivisim • Children learn by discovering a world view piece by piece, building on what they already know and can do • Making things in the real world cements this knowledge
  • 11. Making things is better than being passive Making good things is even better Knowledge is a consequence of experience Gary Stager
  • 12. Constructivist/Constructionist Resources • Seymour Papert - Articles and books http:// www.papert.org/ • Constructivist Consortium http:// www.constructivistconsortium.org/ • PBS Online Classroom http:// www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/ w2-resources.html
  • 13. From theory to practice Project-based learning (PBL)
  • 14. Project-based Learning 1. PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the curriculum 2. PBL projects are focused on questions or problems that drive students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and principles of a discipline 3. Projects involve students in a constructive investigation 4. Projects are student-driven to a significant degree 5. Projects are realistic, not school-like J.W. Thomas - A Review of Research on Project-based Learning (2000)
  • 15. PBL Resources • Edutopia (Core topic: project learning) http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning • Buck Institute for Education http:// www.bie.org/ • Project-based Learning Online http://pbl- online.org/
  • 16. Dots so far... • Technology literacy is important • Technology literacy is multi- dimentional and “doing” is central • Constructionism is a theory of learning that emphasizes doing • PBL is a classroom methodology that supports constructionism and doing
  • 17. Tinkering as a form of PBL • Bricolage - French for tinkering, using found objects, playfulness in creation. • Papert defined two styles of problem solving: analytical and bricolage • School only honors one style • McGyver, Apollo 13 • DIY, HGTV, Make magazine
  • 18. "The bricoleur resembles the painter who stands back between brushstrokes, looks at the canvas, and only after this contemplation, decides what to do next." - Sherry Turkle
  • 19. Tinkering School - TED Talk Gever Tully http://www.ted.com/talks/ gever_tulley_s_tinkering_school_in_action.html
  • 20. no set curriculum no tests lots of stuff lots of tools real tools immersive time how to make things deep realization that they can figure things out nothing turns out as planned every step is valuable just start building fully committed to project at hand success is in the doing failures are celebrated and analyzed child-appropriate response to frustration all materials useful
  • 21. Can we do this in school?
  • 22. Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) • Free access to lots of different kinds of books • Minimum censorship. Comic books and magazines are OK; hard and easy books fine • More often and short is better than long, but rare • No tests, book reports, logs, comprehension quizzes • Comfortable space to read • The teacher reads too • For all kids, not a reward or remediation • Supplement with interesting experiences about reading – trips to library, discuss literature, conferences, etc. (not skill building) • Good readers tend to be narrow readers (they stick to one genre) • Look for “home run” books
  • 23. Sustained Technology Tinkering • Free access to lots of different kinds of software and hardware • The teacher works on computer projects too • No tests, reports, logs, quizzes • Comfortable space to read work on computer projects • Follow their passions • Collaboration
  • 24. Design has changed in the real world
  • 25. Waterfall Design Define Design Build Implement Test Complete
  • 26. Spiral design model (Boehm, 1988)
  • 27. What happened in the 1980s?
  • 28. What happened in the 1980s?
  • 29.
  • 30. • Use technology to test ideas • Take risks • Reflect, refine • Assessment = does it work, is it interesting, is it beautiful
  • 31. Connect the dots research, learning theory, practice, outcomes Assessing Technology Literacy: The Case for an Authentic Project-based Approach http://genyes.com/freeresources/
  • 32. Contact information • Sylvia Martinez, President • Generation YES, a non-profit 501c3 • email: sylvia@genyes.org • URL: www.genyes.org • Blog: blog.genyes.org • Twitter: smartinez

Editor's Notes

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  5. each leads to the other\n
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  9. evolution of “business”\nOffice products\nskill testing\nchecklist\n
  10. Seymour Papert - student of Jean Piaget\n Based on constructivisim\n Children learn by discovering a world view piece by piece, building on what they already know and can do\n Making things in the real world cements this knowledge\n
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  14. Thomas\n
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  19. no set curriculum\nno tests\nlots of stuff\nlots of tools\nreal tools\nimmersive\ntime\nhow to make things\ndeep realization that they can figure things out\nnothing turns out as planned\nevery step is valuable\njust start building\nfully committed to project at hand\nsuccess is in the doing\nfailures are celebrated and analyzed\nchild-appropriate response to frustration\nall materials useful\n
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  22. Stephen Krashen\n
  23. I’ve skipped over some hard questions…\n But not everything seems to perfectly translate. In FVR, the students are allowed to read pretty much anything (within reason). But for technology, I certainly would hope that aimless surfing or watching random YouTube videos isn’t what happens.\n Is this being hypocritical? Is this just a way for me to pass judgement on applications that I like and think are “important” vs. ones I deem trivial and a waste of time? If I say, “no games” – am I just doing the same thing as a teacher demanding that kids only read “good” books for SSR, and thereby undermining the process?\n
  24. \n
  25. Old design model\n
  26. New design model.\n
  27. Design changed in the 80‘s - what happened?\n
  28. Design changed in the 80‘s - what happened?\n
  29. Tinkering on a large scale made possible by computers\n
  30. Assessment becomes feedback, guidance in the act of teamwork\n
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