SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Chapter 6
Thermochemistry
SCechtaiopnte6r.61: Thermochemistry
TO
he
bjN
ea
ct
ti
u
v
re
esof Energy
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Define energy, work, potential energy, kinetic energy, system and
surroundings, endothermic and exothermic.
Be able to identify each of the above.
Understand ΔE = q + w and use the equation to find the sign of E.
Know ΔH = H p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s– H reactants.
Use calorimetry to solve for a variable or estimate a temperature of a
system.
Use Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy of a reaction.
Use Standard enthalpy of formation to solve for enthalpy of reaction: ΔH
= ΣnHre
a
cta
n
ts– ΣnHp
ro
d
u
c
ts.
SCechtaiopnte6r.61: Thermochemistry
T
Th
ae
bN
lea
t
ou
fr
e
Co
of
nE
ten
ne
tr
sg
y


Unit 6: Thermodynamics
Energy
 Types of Energy



Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Chemical Energy
 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
 Thermodynamics


First Law of Thermodynamics
Heat vs. Work
 Enthalpy
 Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
 Change in Enthalpy (ΔH)
 Enthalpy of Reactions (Hrxn)
 System vs. Surroundings in a Chemical Reaction
 Calorimetry



Specific Heat and Heat Capacity
Calorimeters
Bomb Calorimeters
 Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Reactions




Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes
Calculating ΔH Directly
Hess’ Law
Heat of Solution
 Energy Use and the Environment
 Present Sources of Energy
 Energy Consumption
 Environmental Problems Attributed to Fuel Consumption
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy


Capacity to do work or to produce heat.
Law of conservation of energy – energy can
be converted from one form to another but
can be neither created nor destroyed.
 The total energy content of the universe is
constant.
Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Potential energy – energy due to position or
composition.
Kinetic energy – energy due to motion of the
object and depends on the mass of the object
and its velocity.

Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 In the initial position, ball A has a higher
potential energy than ball B.
Initial Position
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 After A has rolled down the hill, the potential energy
lost by A has been converted to random motions of
the components of the hill (frictional heating) and to
the increase in the potential energy of B.
Final Position
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Heat involves the transfer of energy between
two objects due to a temperature difference.
Work – force acting over a distance.
Energy is a state function; work and heat are not


 State Function – property that does not
depend in any way on the system’s past or
future (only depends on present state).
Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 System – part of the universe on which we
wish to focus attention.
Surroundings – include everything else in the
universe.

Chemical Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Endothermic Reaction:


Heat flow is into a system.
Absorb energy from the surroundings.
 Exothermic Reaction:
 Energy flows out of the system.
 Energy gained by the surroundings must be
equal to the energy lost by the system.
Chemical Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
exothermic process? Explain.
CONCEPT CHECK!
Is the freezing of water an endothermic or
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
a) Your hand gets cold when you touch
ice.
b) The ice gets warmer when you touch it.
c) Water boils in a kettle being heated on a
stove.
d) Water vapor condenses on a cold pipe.
e) Ice cream melts.
Exo
Endo
Endo
Exo
Endo
CONCEPT CHECK!
Classify each process as exothermic or
endothermic. Explain. The system is
underlined in each example.
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
CONCEPT CHECK!
For each of the following, define a system and
its surroundings and give the direction of energy
transfer.
a) Methane is burning in a Bunsen burner
in a laboratory.
b) Water drops, sitting on your skin after
swimming, evaporate.
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Which is lower in energy: a mixture of
hydrogen and oxygen gases, or water?
CONCEPT CHECK!
Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react violently to
form water. Explain.
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
Thermodynamics
 The study of energy and its interconversions is
called thermodynamics.
Law of conservation of energy is often called the
first law of thermodynamics.

Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
Internal Energy
• Internal energy E of a system is the sum of the
kinetic and potential energies of all the
“particles” in the system.
 To change the internal energy of a system:
ΔE = q + w
q represents heat
w represents work
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
Work vs Energy Flow
To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode
PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play
Mac Users: CLICK HERE
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Thermodynamic quantities consist of two parts:


Number gives the magnitude of the change.
Sign indicates the direction of the flow.
Internal Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
Internal Energy


Sign reflects the system’s point of view.
Endothermic Process:
 q is positive
 Exothermic Process:
 q is negative
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy


Sign reflects the system’s point of view.
System does work on surroundings:
 w is negative
 Surroundings do work on the system:
 w is positive
Internal Energy
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
 Work = P × A × Δh = PΔV



P is pressure.
A is area.
Δh is the piston moving
a distance.
ΔV is the change in
volume.

Work
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
Work
 For an expanding gas, ΔV is a positive quantity
because the volume is increasing. Thus ΔV and
w must have opposite signs:
w = –PΔV
To convert between L·atm and Joules, use 1
L·atm = 101.3 J.

Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy
EXERCISE!
Which of the following performs more work?
a) A gas expanding against a pressure
of 2 atm from 1.0 L to 4.0 L.
b) A gas expanding against a pressure
of 3 atm from 1.0 L to 3.0 L.
They perform the same amount of work.
Section 6.1
The Nature of Energy


|work| > |heat|
|work| < |heat|
b) Work is done on a gas and the process is
exothermic.


|work| > |heat|
|work| < |heat|
Δ E = negative
Δ E = positive
Δ E = positive
Δ E = negative
CONCEPT CHECK!
Determine the sign of ΔE for each of the
following with the listed conditions:
a) An endothermic process that performs work.
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Change in Enthalpy



State function
ΔH = q at constant pressure
ΔH = Hproducts– Hreactants
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
EXERCISE!
Consider the combustion of propane:
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
ΔH = –2221 kJ
Assume that all of the heat comes from the combustion of
propane. Calculate ΔH in which 5.00 g of propane is burned in
excess oxygen at constant pressure.
–252 kJ
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Calorimetry


Science of measuring heat
Specific heat capacity:
 The energy required to raise the temperature of one
gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.
 Molar heat capacity:
 The energy required to raise the temperature of one
mole of substance by one degree Celsius.
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Calorimetry
 If two reactants at the same temperature are mixed and
the resulting solution gets warmer, this means the
reaction taking place is exothermic.
An endothermic reaction cools the solution.

Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
A Coffee–Cup Calorimeter
Made of Two Styrofoam
Cups
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Calorimetry
 Energy released (heat) = m ×s × ΔT
m = mass of solution (g)
s = specific heat capacity (J/°C·g)
ΔT = change in temperature (°C)
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
b) 50°C
c) Between 10°C and 50°C
CONCEPT CHECK!
A 100.0 g sample of water at 90°C is added to a 100.0
g sample of water at 10°C.
The final temperature of the water is:
a) Between 50°C and 90°C
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
c) Between 10°C and 50°C
Calculate the final temperature of the water.
23°C
CONCEPT CHECK!
A 100.0 g sample of water at 90.°C is added to a 500.0 g
sample of water at 10.°C.
The final temperature of the water is:
a) Between 50°C and 90°C
b) 50°C
Section 6.2
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
c) Between 10°C and 50°C
Calculate the final temperature of the water.
18°C
CONCEPT CHECK!
You have a Styrofoam cup with 50.0 g of water at 10.°C. You
add a 50.0 g iron ball at 90. °C to the water. (sH2O= 4.18 J/°C·g
and sFe= 0.45 J/°C·g)
The final temperature of the water is:
a) Between 50°C and 90°C
b) 50°C
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
 In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular
set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same
whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a
series of steps.
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
 This reaction also can be carried out in two distinct steps,
with enthalpy changes designated by ΔH2 and ΔH3.
N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) ΔH2= 180 kJ
2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH3= – 112 kJ
N2(g) + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH1 = 68 kJ
N2(g) + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH2 + ΔH3 = 68 kJ
ΔH1 = ΔH2 + ΔH3 = 68 kJ
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
The Principle of Hess’s Law
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode
PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play
Mac Users: CLICK HERE
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Characteristics of Enthalpy Changes


If a reaction is reversed, the sign of ΔH is also reversed.
The magnitude of ΔH is directly proportional to the
quantities of reactants and products in a reaction. If the
coefficients in a balanced reaction are multiplied by an
integer, the value of ΔH is multiplied by the same
integer.
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Example
 Consider the following data:
 Calculate ΔH for the reaction
3 2 2
2 H2(g)  O2(g) 
2 H2O(g)
2 2
NH (g) 
 1
N (g)  3
H (g) H = 46 kJ
H =  484 kJ
2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g) 
3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g)
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Problem-Solving Strategy
 Work backward from the required reaction, using
the reactants and products to decide how to
manipulate the other given reactions at your
disposal.
Reverse any reactions as needed to give the
required reactants and products.
Multiply reactions to give the correct numbers of
reactants and products.


Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Example
 Reverse the two reactions:
 Desired reaction:
2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g) 
3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g)
2 2 3
2 H2O(g) 
2 H2(g)  O2(g)
2 2
1
N (g)  3
H (g) 
NH (g) H =  46 kJ
H = +484 kJ
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Example
 Multiply reactions to give the correct numbers of
reactants and products:
4( ) 4(H =  46 kJ )
 Desired reaction:
2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g) 
3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g)
2 2 3
1 3
2 2
N (g)  H (g) 
NH (g)
3(2 H2O(g) 2 H2(g)  O2(g) ) 3(H = +484 kJ )
Section 6.3
Hess’s Law
Example
 Final reactions:
2 N2(g)  6 H2(g) 
4 NH3(g)
6 H2O(g) 
6 H2(g)  3 O2(g)
 Desired reaction:
2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g) 
3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g)
ΔH = +1268 kJ
H = 184 kJ
H = +1452 kJ
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Standard Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)
 Change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of
one mole of a compound from its elements with all
substances in their standard states.
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Conventional Definitions of Standard States
 For a Compound



For a gas, pressure is exactly 1 atm.
For a solution, concentration is exactly 1 M.
Pure substance (liquid or solid)
 For an Element
 The form [N2(g), K(s)] in which it exists at 1 atm and
25°C.
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
A Schematic Diagram of the Energy Changes for the Reaction
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
ΔH°reaction= –(–75 kJ) + 0 + (–394 kJ) + (–572 kJ) = –891 kJ
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Problem-Solving Strategy: Enthalpy Calculations
1. When a reaction is reversed, the magnitude of ΔH
remains the same, but its sign changes.
2. When the balanced equation for a reaction is multiplied
by an integer, the value of ΔH for that reaction must be
multiplied by the same integer.
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Problem-Solving Strategy: Enthalpy Calculations
3. The change in enthalpy for a given reaction can be
calculated from the enthalpies of formation of the
reactants and products:
Δ H°rxn = ΣnpHf(products) - ΣnrHf(reactants)
4. Elements in their standard states are not included in the
ΔHreactioncalculations because ΔHf° for an element in its
standard state is zero.
Section 6.4
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Na(s)
H2O(l)
NaOH(aq)
H2(g)
Δ H° = –368 kJ
0
–286
–470
0
EXERCISE!
Calculate Δ H° for the following reaction: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)
→ 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Given the following information:
 Hf° (kJ/mol)
Section 6.5
Present Sources of Energy
 Fossil Fuels
 Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal



Wood
Hydro
Nuclear
Section 6.5
Present Sources of Energy
Energy Sources Used in the United States
Section 6.5
Present Sources of Energy
The Earth’s Atmosphere


Transparent to visible light from the sun.
Visible light strikes the Earth, and part of it is changed to
infrared radiation.
Infrared radiation from Earth’s surface is strongly
absorbed by CO2, H2O, and other molecules present in
smaller amounts in atmosphere.
Atmosphere traps some of the energy and keeps the
Earth warmer than it would otherwise be.


Section 6.5
Present Sources of Energy
The Earth’s Atmosphere
Section 6.6
New Energy Sources



Coal Conversion
Hydrogen as a Fuel
Other Energy Alternatives




Oil shale
Ethanol
Methanol
Seed oil
Section 6.6
New Energy Sources
Chapter 6 Activity

More Related Content

What's hot

2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
poshiyabhavin
 
Phase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
Phase diagrams For Binary MixturesPhase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
Phase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
Jaydeep Vakil
 
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical ThermodynamicsChemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Thermodynamics
LALIT SHARMA
 
Third law of thermodynamics
Third law of thermodynamicsThird law of thermodynamics
Third law of thermodynamics
PRUTHVIRAJ K
 
Second law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamicsSecond law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Dr. Rohit Singh Lather, Ph.D.
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
Rawat DA Greatt
 
Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equationPartial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
Sunny Chauhan
 
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy VChem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
Lumen Learning
 
Heat and heat capacity
Heat  and heat capacity Heat  and heat capacity
Heat and heat capacity
K. Shahzad Baig
 
2nd law of thermodynamic
2nd law of thermodynamic2nd law of thermodynamic
2nd law of thermodynamic
Manthan Kanani
 
Entropy
EntropyEntropy
Entropy
Aakash Singh
 
Introduction to thermodynamics
Introduction to thermodynamicsIntroduction to thermodynamics
Introduction to thermodynamics
VeeramanikandanM1
 
Entropy
EntropyEntropy
Lecture 14 maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
Lecture 14   maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacitiesLecture 14   maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
Lecture 14 maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
Albania Energy Association
 
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamicchemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
FarhadAlsaeid
 
S. Khadke
S. KhadkeS. Khadke
S. Khadke
saikhadke
 
2. fluids 2
2. fluids 22. fluids 2
2. fluids 2
secrurie2
 
Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
Chemical Reactions: ThermochemistryChemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
ulcerd
 
Second law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamicsSecond law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
sachin chaurasia
 

What's hot (20)

2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy
 
Phase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
Phase diagrams For Binary MixturesPhase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
Phase diagrams For Binary Mixtures
 
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical ThermodynamicsChemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Thermodynamics
 
Third law of thermodynamics
Third law of thermodynamicsThird law of thermodynamics
Third law of thermodynamics
 
Second law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamicsSecond law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Thermochemistry
 
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equationPartial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
Partial gibbs free energy and gibbs duhem equation
 
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy VChem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
Chem 2 - Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Molar Entropy V
 
Heat and heat capacity
Heat  and heat capacity Heat  and heat capacity
Heat and heat capacity
 
2nd law of thermodynamic
2nd law of thermodynamic2nd law of thermodynamic
2nd law of thermodynamic
 
Entropy
EntropyEntropy
Entropy
 
Introduction to thermodynamics
Introduction to thermodynamicsIntroduction to thermodynamics
Introduction to thermodynamics
 
Entropy
EntropyEntropy
Entropy
 
Lecture 14 maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
Lecture 14   maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacitiesLecture 14   maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
Lecture 14 maxwell-boltzmann distribution. heat capacities
 
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamicchemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
chemical kinetics-kinetic vs thermodynamic
 
S. Khadke
S. KhadkeS. Khadke
S. Khadke
 
2. fluids 2
2. fluids 22. fluids 2
2. fluids 2
 
Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
Chemical Reactions: ThermochemistryChemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry
 
Second law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamicsSecond law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
 

Similar to thermochemistry.pptx

Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Thermochemistry
Lumen Learning
 
Honour Chemistry Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
Honour Chemistry                               Unit 4 Thermoc.docxHonour Chemistry                               Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
Honour Chemistry Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
wellesleyterresa
 
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
Cleophas Rwemera
 
New chm 151_unit_9_power_points
New chm 151_unit_9_power_pointsNew chm 151_unit_9_power_points
New chm 151_unit_9_power_points
caneman1
 
06 thermochemistry
06 thermochemistry06 thermochemistry
06 thermochemistry
mohamed_elkayal
 
Thermochem
ThermochemThermochem
Thermochem
chem.dummy
 
Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Thermochemistry
DrgholamabbasChehard
 
Sandrogreco Chapt06
Sandrogreco Chapt06Sandrogreco Chapt06
Sandrogreco Chapt06
Profª Cristiana Passinato
 
005 lecture f
005 lecture f005 lecture f
005 lecture f
Eng Mahamed
 
Clean ch06 lecture_7e
Clean ch06 lecture_7eClean ch06 lecture_7e
Clean ch06 lecture_7e
Christopher Liu
 
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
noahawad
 
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptxAP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
MadeBramasta
 
Ch07
Ch07Ch07
Chemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamicsChemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics
Rawat DA Greatt
 
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptxThermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
MosaTeffo
 
C H5
C H5C H5
C H5
spathman
 
chemistry-enthalpy power point
chemistry-enthalpy power pointchemistry-enthalpy power point
chemistry-enthalpy power point
Shmiley3000
 
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdfCh 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
CharbelRahme2
 
Ch. 5 thermochemistry
Ch. 5 thermochemistryCh. 5 thermochemistry
Ch. 5 thermochemistry
ewalenta
 
Thermochemistry ok1294993378
Thermochemistry   ok1294993378Thermochemistry   ok1294993378
Thermochemistry ok1294993378
Navin Joshi
 

Similar to thermochemistry.pptx (20)

Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Thermochemistry
 
Honour Chemistry Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
Honour Chemistry                               Unit 4 Thermoc.docxHonour Chemistry                               Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
Honour Chemistry Unit 4 Thermoc.docx
 
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
New chm-151-unit-9-power-points-140227172226-phpapp01
 
New chm 151_unit_9_power_points
New chm 151_unit_9_power_pointsNew chm 151_unit_9_power_points
New chm 151_unit_9_power_points
 
06 thermochemistry
06 thermochemistry06 thermochemistry
06 thermochemistry
 
Thermochem
ThermochemThermochem
Thermochem
 
Thermochemistry
ThermochemistryThermochemistry
Thermochemistry
 
Sandrogreco Chapt06
Sandrogreco Chapt06Sandrogreco Chapt06
Sandrogreco Chapt06
 
005 lecture f
005 lecture f005 lecture f
005 lecture f
 
Clean ch06 lecture_7e
Clean ch06 lecture_7eClean ch06 lecture_7e
Clean ch06 lecture_7e
 
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
Notes for Unit 17 of AP Chemistry (Thermodynamics)
 
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptxAP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
AP_Chem_Thermodynamics.pptx
 
Ch07
Ch07Ch07
Ch07
 
Chemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamicsChemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptxThermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
Thermodynamics STUDENT NOTES.pptx
 
C H5
C H5C H5
C H5
 
chemistry-enthalpy power point
chemistry-enthalpy power pointchemistry-enthalpy power point
chemistry-enthalpy power point
 
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdfCh 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
Ch 8 - Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry.pdf
 
Ch. 5 thermochemistry
Ch. 5 thermochemistryCh. 5 thermochemistry
Ch. 5 thermochemistry
 
Thermochemistry ok1294993378
Thermochemistry   ok1294993378Thermochemistry   ok1294993378
Thermochemistry ok1294993378
 

More from AliceRivera13

Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptxMomentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
AliceRivera13
 
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxxCONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxcapacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxthermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxcapacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxEstimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxxphysical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
AliceRivera13
 
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxxsamplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
physics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
physics121_lecture05.ppttttttttttttttttttttttphysics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
physics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
AliceRivera13
 
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.ppttttttttttttttttttPHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
AliceRivera13
 
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptxCHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
AliceRivera13
 
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptxpe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
AliceRivera13
 
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxxGeneral Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxnormaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
AliceRivera13
 

More from AliceRivera13 (20)

Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptxMomentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
Momentum and Impulse _ Grade 9 Science Quarter 4 Week 3 Lesson (1).pptx
 
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxxCONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
CONTEMPORARY ARTS PRODUCTION.pptxxxxxxxxxxx
 
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxcapacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxthermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
thermochemistry.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxxcapacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
capacitors with dielectrics.pptxxxxxxxxxx
 
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxEstimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
Estimation of parameters.pptxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxxphysical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
 
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
8.PRINCIPLE-OF-FIRE-FIGHTING-10-phases-of-fire.ppt
 
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
SHS MOCK EXAM GEN PHYS.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxxsamplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
samplingandsamplingdistributions.pptxxxxxxxxx
 
physics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
physics121_lecture05.ppttttttttttttttttttttttphysics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
physics121_lecture05.pptttttttttttttttttttttt
 
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.ppttttttttttttttttttPHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
PHYS632_C2_23_Electric.pptttttttttttttttttt
 
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptxCHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
CHAPTER TEST ON INTERMOLECULAR FORCES LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS.pptx
 
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptxpe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
pe-4lesson1-recreationalactivities-230206052823-3853a29d.pptx
 
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ELECTRIC FLUX.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
ojtpresentation.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PHYS_2326_012209 (1).pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxxGeneral Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
General Physics 1 Week 1 ppt.pptxxxxxxxx
 
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxnormaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
normaldistribution.pptxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 

Recently uploaded

ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Krisztián Száraz
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Ashokrao Mane college of Pharmacy Peth-Vadgaon
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptxWhat is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
christianmathematics
 
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
Ashish Kohli
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
taiba qazi
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Dr. Vinod Kumar Kanvaria
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
Peter Windle
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs in detailed.
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptxWhat is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
What is the purpose of studying mathematics.pptx
 
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
Aficamten in HCM (SEQUOIA HCM TRIAL 2024)
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
 
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Empowering Researchers and Faculty, In...
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in EducationA Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
A Strategic Approach: GenAI in Education
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 

thermochemistry.pptx

  • 2. SCechtaiopnte6r.61: Thermochemistry TO he bjN ea ct ti u v re esof Energy • • • • • • • Define energy, work, potential energy, kinetic energy, system and surroundings, endothermic and exothermic. Be able to identify each of the above. Understand ΔE = q + w and use the equation to find the sign of E. Know ΔH = H p r o d u c t s– H reactants. Use calorimetry to solve for a variable or estimate a temperature of a system. Use Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy of a reaction. Use Standard enthalpy of formation to solve for enthalpy of reaction: ΔH = ΣnHre a cta n ts– ΣnHp ro d u c ts.
  • 3. SCechtaiopnte6r.61: Thermochemistry T Th ae bN lea t ou fr e Co of nE ten ne tr sg y   Unit 6: Thermodynamics Energy  Types of Energy    Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Chemical Energy  Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions  Thermodynamics   First Law of Thermodynamics Heat vs. Work  Enthalpy  Exothermic and Endothermic Processes  Change in Enthalpy (ΔH)  Enthalpy of Reactions (Hrxn)  System vs. Surroundings in a Chemical Reaction  Calorimetry    Specific Heat and Heat Capacity Calorimeters Bomb Calorimeters  Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Reactions     Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes Calculating ΔH Directly Hess’ Law Heat of Solution  Energy Use and the Environment  Present Sources of Energy  Energy Consumption  Environmental Problems Attributed to Fuel Consumption
  • 4. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy   Capacity to do work or to produce heat. Law of conservation of energy – energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed.  The total energy content of the universe is constant. Energy
  • 5. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Potential energy – energy due to position or composition. Kinetic energy – energy due to motion of the object and depends on the mass of the object and its velocity.  Energy
  • 6. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  In the initial position, ball A has a higher potential energy than ball B. Initial Position
  • 7. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  After A has rolled down the hill, the potential energy lost by A has been converted to random motions of the components of the hill (frictional heating) and to the increase in the potential energy of B. Final Position
  • 8. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Heat involves the transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference. Work – force acting over a distance. Energy is a state function; work and heat are not    State Function – property that does not depend in any way on the system’s past or future (only depends on present state). Energy
  • 9. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  System – part of the universe on which we wish to focus attention. Surroundings – include everything else in the universe.  Chemical Energy
  • 10. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Endothermic Reaction:   Heat flow is into a system. Absorb energy from the surroundings.  Exothermic Reaction:  Energy flows out of the system.  Energy gained by the surroundings must be equal to the energy lost by the system. Chemical Energy
  • 11. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy exothermic process? Explain. CONCEPT CHECK! Is the freezing of water an endothermic or
  • 12. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy a) Your hand gets cold when you touch ice. b) The ice gets warmer when you touch it. c) Water boils in a kettle being heated on a stove. d) Water vapor condenses on a cold pipe. e) Ice cream melts. Exo Endo Endo Exo Endo CONCEPT CHECK! Classify each process as exothermic or endothermic. Explain. The system is underlined in each example.
  • 13. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy CONCEPT CHECK! For each of the following, define a system and its surroundings and give the direction of energy transfer. a) Methane is burning in a Bunsen burner in a laboratory. b) Water drops, sitting on your skin after swimming, evaporate.
  • 14. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Which is lower in energy: a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases, or water? CONCEPT CHECK! Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react violently to form water. Explain.
  • 15. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy Thermodynamics  The study of energy and its interconversions is called thermodynamics. Law of conservation of energy is often called the first law of thermodynamics. 
  • 16. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy Internal Energy • Internal energy E of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the “particles” in the system.  To change the internal energy of a system: ΔE = q + w q represents heat w represents work
  • 17. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy Work vs Energy Flow To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • 18. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Thermodynamic quantities consist of two parts:   Number gives the magnitude of the change. Sign indicates the direction of the flow. Internal Energy
  • 19. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy Internal Energy   Sign reflects the system’s point of view. Endothermic Process:  q is positive  Exothermic Process:  q is negative
  • 20. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy   Sign reflects the system’s point of view. System does work on surroundings:  w is negative  Surroundings do work on the system:  w is positive Internal Energy
  • 21. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy  Work = P × A × Δh = PΔV    P is pressure. A is area. Δh is the piston moving a distance. ΔV is the change in volume.  Work
  • 22. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy Work  For an expanding gas, ΔV is a positive quantity because the volume is increasing. Thus ΔV and w must have opposite signs: w = –PΔV To convert between L·atm and Joules, use 1 L·atm = 101.3 J. 
  • 23. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy EXERCISE! Which of the following performs more work? a) A gas expanding against a pressure of 2 atm from 1.0 L to 4.0 L. b) A gas expanding against a pressure of 3 atm from 1.0 L to 3.0 L. They perform the same amount of work.
  • 24. Section 6.1 The Nature of Energy   |work| > |heat| |work| < |heat| b) Work is done on a gas and the process is exothermic.   |work| > |heat| |work| < |heat| Δ E = negative Δ E = positive Δ E = positive Δ E = negative CONCEPT CHECK! Determine the sign of ΔE for each of the following with the listed conditions: a) An endothermic process that performs work.
  • 25. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry Change in Enthalpy    State function ΔH = q at constant pressure ΔH = Hproducts– Hreactants
  • 26. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry EXERCISE! Consider the combustion of propane: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l) ΔH = –2221 kJ Assume that all of the heat comes from the combustion of propane. Calculate ΔH in which 5.00 g of propane is burned in excess oxygen at constant pressure. –252 kJ
  • 27. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry Calorimetry   Science of measuring heat Specific heat capacity:  The energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.  Molar heat capacity:  The energy required to raise the temperature of one mole of substance by one degree Celsius.
  • 28. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry Calorimetry  If two reactants at the same temperature are mixed and the resulting solution gets warmer, this means the reaction taking place is exothermic. An endothermic reaction cools the solution. 
  • 29. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry A Coffee–Cup Calorimeter Made of Two Styrofoam Cups
  • 30. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry Calorimetry  Energy released (heat) = m ×s × ΔT m = mass of solution (g) s = specific heat capacity (J/°C·g) ΔT = change in temperature (°C)
  • 31. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry b) 50°C c) Between 10°C and 50°C CONCEPT CHECK! A 100.0 g sample of water at 90°C is added to a 100.0 g sample of water at 10°C. The final temperature of the water is: a) Between 50°C and 90°C
  • 32. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry c) Between 10°C and 50°C Calculate the final temperature of the water. 23°C CONCEPT CHECK! A 100.0 g sample of water at 90.°C is added to a 500.0 g sample of water at 10.°C. The final temperature of the water is: a) Between 50°C and 90°C b) 50°C
  • 33. Section 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry c) Between 10°C and 50°C Calculate the final temperature of the water. 18°C CONCEPT CHECK! You have a Styrofoam cup with 50.0 g of water at 10.°C. You add a 50.0 g iron ball at 90. °C to the water. (sH2O= 4.18 J/°C·g and sFe= 0.45 J/°C·g) The final temperature of the water is: a) Between 50°C and 90°C b) 50°C
  • 34. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law  In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps.
  • 35. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law  This reaction also can be carried out in two distinct steps, with enthalpy changes designated by ΔH2 and ΔH3. N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) ΔH2= 180 kJ 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH3= – 112 kJ N2(g) + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH1 = 68 kJ N2(g) + 2O2(g) → 2NO2(g) ΔH2 + ΔH3 = 68 kJ ΔH1 = ΔH2 + ΔH3 = 68 kJ
  • 36. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law The Principle of Hess’s Law
  • 37. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • 38. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Characteristics of Enthalpy Changes   If a reaction is reversed, the sign of ΔH is also reversed. The magnitude of ΔH is directly proportional to the quantities of reactants and products in a reaction. If the coefficients in a balanced reaction are multiplied by an integer, the value of ΔH is multiplied by the same integer.
  • 39. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Example  Consider the following data:  Calculate ΔH for the reaction 3 2 2 2 H2(g)  O2(g)  2 H2O(g) 2 2 NH (g)   1 N (g)  3 H (g) H = 46 kJ H =  484 kJ 2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g)  3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g)
  • 40. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Problem-Solving Strategy  Work backward from the required reaction, using the reactants and products to decide how to manipulate the other given reactions at your disposal. Reverse any reactions as needed to give the required reactants and products. Multiply reactions to give the correct numbers of reactants and products.  
  • 41. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Example  Reverse the two reactions:  Desired reaction: 2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g)  3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g) 2 2 3 2 H2O(g)  2 H2(g)  O2(g) 2 2 1 N (g)  3 H (g)  NH (g) H =  46 kJ H = +484 kJ
  • 42. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Example  Multiply reactions to give the correct numbers of reactants and products: 4( ) 4(H =  46 kJ )  Desired reaction: 2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g)  3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g) 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 N (g)  H (g)  NH (g) 3(2 H2O(g) 2 H2(g)  O2(g) ) 3(H = +484 kJ )
  • 43. Section 6.3 Hess’s Law Example  Final reactions: 2 N2(g)  6 H2(g)  4 NH3(g) 6 H2O(g)  6 H2(g)  3 O2(g)  Desired reaction: 2 N2(g)  6 H2O(g)  3 O2(g)  4 NH3(g) ΔH = +1268 kJ H = 184 kJ H = +1452 kJ
  • 44. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation Standard Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)  Change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements with all substances in their standard states.
  • 45. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation Conventional Definitions of Standard States  For a Compound    For a gas, pressure is exactly 1 atm. For a solution, concentration is exactly 1 M. Pure substance (liquid or solid)  For an Element  The form [N2(g), K(s)] in which it exists at 1 atm and 25°C.
  • 46. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation A Schematic Diagram of the Energy Changes for the Reaction CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) ΔH°reaction= –(–75 kJ) + 0 + (–394 kJ) + (–572 kJ) = –891 kJ
  • 47. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation Problem-Solving Strategy: Enthalpy Calculations 1. When a reaction is reversed, the magnitude of ΔH remains the same, but its sign changes. 2. When the balanced equation for a reaction is multiplied by an integer, the value of ΔH for that reaction must be multiplied by the same integer.
  • 48. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation Problem-Solving Strategy: Enthalpy Calculations 3. The change in enthalpy for a given reaction can be calculated from the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products: Δ H°rxn = ΣnpHf(products) - ΣnrHf(reactants) 4. Elements in their standard states are not included in the ΔHreactioncalculations because ΔHf° for an element in its standard state is zero.
  • 49. Section 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation Na(s) H2O(l) NaOH(aq) H2(g) Δ H° = –368 kJ 0 –286 –470 0 EXERCISE! Calculate Δ H° for the following reaction: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) Given the following information:  Hf° (kJ/mol)
  • 50. Section 6.5 Present Sources of Energy  Fossil Fuels  Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal    Wood Hydro Nuclear
  • 51. Section 6.5 Present Sources of Energy Energy Sources Used in the United States
  • 52. Section 6.5 Present Sources of Energy The Earth’s Atmosphere   Transparent to visible light from the sun. Visible light strikes the Earth, and part of it is changed to infrared radiation. Infrared radiation from Earth’s surface is strongly absorbed by CO2, H2O, and other molecules present in smaller amounts in atmosphere. Atmosphere traps some of the energy and keeps the Earth warmer than it would otherwise be.  
  • 53. Section 6.5 Present Sources of Energy The Earth’s Atmosphere
  • 54. Section 6.6 New Energy Sources    Coal Conversion Hydrogen as a Fuel Other Energy Alternatives     Oil shale Ethanol Methanol Seed oil
  • 55. Section 6.6 New Energy Sources Chapter 6 Activity