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#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The
technical Debt
Trap
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Doc Norton, CEO
doc@wearecto2.com
@DocOnDev
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
what is technical debt?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
OOPSLA ‘92
Shipping first time code is like
going into debt.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Shipping first time code is like
going into debt. A little debt
speeds development so long as
it is paid back promptly with a
rewrite.
– Ward Cunningham
OOPSLA ‘92
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Shipping first time code is like
going into debt. A little debt
speeds development so long as
it is paid back promptly with a
rewrite.
The danger occurs when the
debt is not repaid. Every minute
spent on not-quite-right code
counts as interest on that debt.
– Ward Cunningham
OOPSLA ‘92
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The danger occurs
when the debt is not
repaid. Every minute
spent on not-quite-
right code counts as
interest on that debt.
– Ward Cunningham
OOPSLA ‘92
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The danger occurs
when the debt is not
repaid. Every minute
spent on not-quite-
right code counts as
interest on that debt.
– Ward Cunningham
OOPSLA ‘92
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is
good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is
good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is
a strategic decision
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical debt is
a strategic decision
• Allow for Rapid Delivery
• To Elicit Quick Feedback
• And Correct Design
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt is
an indication of learning
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt is
an indication of learning
• Now know what you need
• Implementation doesn’t match
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt is a metaphor
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
metaphors rock
we reason by analogy
Building on a
weak foundation
Puts pressure on our design
Can’t keep running at this pace
It’s raining men
(hallelujah)
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
metaphorphosis
when metaphors go wrong
Credit CardSHORT-TERM
Long-Term
Return on
Investment
OPERATIONALHOME LOAN
Loan Shark
PRAGMATIC
LEVERAGE
Intentional AUTO LOAN
FRAUDULENT
VOLUNTARY
PYRAMID SCHEME
Prudent
Student Loan
HIGH INTEREST
INADVERTENT
RECKLESS DEBT IN
THE THIRD
QUADRANT
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
metaphorphosis
when metaphors go wrong
“quick and dirty”
- Martin Fowler
“sloppy”
- David Laribee
“just hack it in”
- Steve McConnell
“CUT A LOT OF CORNERS”
- James Shore
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“We must ship now and
deal with
consequences”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
Youtube ‘09
[Many] have explained
the debt metaphor and
confused it with the
idea that you could
write code poorly with
the intention of doing a
good job later.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
Youtube ‘09
confused the
debt metaphor
with the idea that
you could write
code poorly
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
Youtube ‘09
The ability to pay back
debt [...] depends upon
you writing code that is
clean enough to be
able to refactor as you
come to understand
your problem.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
Youtube ‘09
The ability to pay back
debt [...] depends upon
you writing code that is
clean enough to be
able to refactor as you
come to understand
your problem.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
twitter ‘09
Dirty code is to
technical debt as the
pawn broker is to
financial debt.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
– Ward Cunningham
twitter ‘09
Dirty code is to
technical debt as the
pawn broker is to
financial debt.
Don’t think you are
ever going to get your
code back.
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt?
Ask yourself…
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt?
Ask yourself…
• Is the code clean?
• Is the code tested?
• Is there a learning objective or event?
• Is there a plan for payback?
• Is the business truly informed?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt?
If you say no to even one…
• Is the code clean?
• Is the code tested?
• Is there a learning objective or event?
• Is there a plan for payback?
• Is the business truly informed?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt?
If you say no to even one…
• Is the code clean?
• Is the code tested?
• Is there a learning objective or event?
• Is there a plan for payback?
• Is the business truly informed?
... then you don’t have Technical Debt
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
mess (noun)
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
mess (noun)
• Disorderly accumulation, heap, or jumble
• A state of embarrassing confusion
• An unpleasant or difficult situation
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
cruft (noun)
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
cruft (noun)
• An unpleasant substance
• The result of shoddy construction
• Redundant, old or improperly written code
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
But, It’s Just
semantics
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
It’s not Just
semantics
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
It’s not Just
semantics
Technical Debt is Good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
It’s not Just
semantics
Technical Debt is GoodQuick and Dirty is Technical Debt
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
It’s not Just
semantics
Quick and Dirty is Good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
It’s not Just
semantics
Quick and Dirty is Good
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“We must ship now and
deal with
consequences”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“Let’s deploy and
gather more
information”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical Debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Technical Debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE
RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE
RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE
RECKLESS AND INADVERTENT
technical debt in other fields
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“Let’s deploy and
gather more
information”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“Let’s deploy and
gather more
information”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
IRRESPONSIBLE
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“Let’s deploy and
gather more
information”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
IRRESPONSIBLE
INCOMPETENT
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
technical debt quadrant
Reckless
Inadvertent
Prudent
Deliberate
“We don’t have time
for design”
“Let’s deploy and
gather more
information”
“Now we know how we
should have done it”
“What’s Layering?”
IRRESPONSIBLE
INCOMPETENT
TECHNICAL
DEBT
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
cruft or debt?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
DataSet aDs, qDs;
aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList();
qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList();
foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) {
DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId
foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) {
foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) {
DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString());
foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) {
foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) {
if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) {
try {
_dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(),
qRow[qColumn].ToString(),
skill);
}
catch { continue; }
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
cruft or debt?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
DataSet aDs, qDs;
aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList();
qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList();
foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) {
DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId
foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) {
foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) {
DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString());
foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) {
foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) {
if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) {
try {
_dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(),
qRow[qColumn].ToString(),
skill);
}
catch { continue; }
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
DataSet aDs, qDs;
aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList();
qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList();
foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) {
DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId
foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) {
foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) {
DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString());
foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) {
foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) {
foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) {
foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) {
if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) {
try {
_dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(),
qRow[qColumn].ToString(),
skill);
}
catch { continue; }
}
} } } } } } } } } } } } }
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
DataSet aDs, qDs, asDs, sqDs;
aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList();
qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList();
foreach (DataRow aRow in aDS.Tables[0].Rows) {
String agentID = aRow[“AgentId”].ToString();
asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(agentID);
foreach (DataRow asRow in asDs.Tables[0].Rows) {
String agentSkill = asRow[“Skill”].ToString();
foreach (DataRow qRow in qDs.Tables[0].Rows) {
queueName = qRow[“QueueName”].ToString();
sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(queueName);
foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqDs.Tables[0].Rows) {
foreach (string skill in sqRow[“Skills”].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) {
if (skill == agentSkill) {
try { _dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(agentID, queueName, skill); }
catch { continue; }
} } } } } }
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
AgentList agents = new AgentList(_dbConnector.UpdateAgentList());
QueueList queues = new QueueList(_dbConnector.GetQueueList());
foreach (Agent agent in agents) {
foreach (Skill agentSkill in agent.skills) {
foreach (Queue queue in queues) {
foreach (Skill queueSkill in queue.skills.Where(x => x == agentSkill)) {
try {_dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(agent.agentID, queue.name, agentSkill); }
catch { continue; }
}
}
}
}
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
if ((customer.state == “AL” && customer.type ==
CustomerType.GENERAL_AGENT && customer.revenue > 100000)
|| (customer.type == CustomerType.RETRO_AGENT &&
(customer.state == “WI” || customer.state == “IL”))
|| (customer.type == CustomerType.FED_MANAGEMENT &&
customer.revenue > 150000)) { ... }
cruft or debt?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
// If customer is Federally Regulated
if ((customer.state == “AL” && customer.type ==
CustomerType.GENERAL_AGENT && customer.revenue > 100000)
|| (customer.type == CustomerType.RETRO_AGENT &&
(customer.state == “WI” || customer.state == “IL”))
|| (customer.type == CustomerType.FED_MANAGEMENT &&
customer.revenue > 150000)) { ... }
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
if (customer.isFederallyRegulated()) { ... }
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
double getSpeed() {
switch (_type) {
case EUROPEAN:
return getBaseSpeed();
case AFRICAN:
return getBaseSpeed() - getLoadFactor() * _numberOfCoconuts;
case NORWEGIAN_BLUE:
return (_isNailed) ? 0 : getBaseSpeed(_voltage);
}
throw new RuntimeException ("Should be unreachable");
}
http://www.refactoring.com/catalog/replaceConditionalWithPolymorphism.html
cruft or debt?
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
class Swallow ...
double getSpeed() { return getBaseSpeed(); }
end class
class EuropeanSwallow ...
end class
class AfricanSwallow ...
double getSpeed() { return super.getSpeed - coconutLoad(); }
double coconutLoad() { return getLoadFactor() * _numberOfCoconuts; }
end class
class NorwegianSwallow ...
double getSpeed() { return (_isNailed) ? 0 : getBaseSpeed(_voltage); }
end class
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
cruft is a bad decision
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
cruft is a bad decision
• You are a professional developer
• You’re going to create unintentional cruft
• You have to clean up the existing cruft
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The Trap
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The Trap
• Precedent for speed over quality
• Expectation of increased velocity
• Cruft slows you down
• Must write more cruft to keep up
• Ask permission to do your job correctly
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
failing strategies
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
failing strategies
The Technical Debt Trap
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
winning strategy
Clean Constantly
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
winning strategy
Clean Constantly
• Never make an intentional mess
• Monitor your “Technical Debt”
• Follow the Boy Scout Rule
• Remember quality is your responsibility
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
winning strategy
Clean Constantly
• Never make an intentional mess
• Monitor your “Technical Debt”
• Follow the Boy Scout Rule
• Remember quality is your responsibility
• NEVER ask permission to do your job correctly
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Monitor your cruft
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Monitor your cruft
• Code Coverage
• Code Complexity
• Coupling
• Maintainability
• Monitor Trends, Not Points
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
review
Technical Debt
Cruft
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
review
Technical Debt
• A strategic design decision
• Requires business to be informed
• Includes a pay-back plan
Cruft
• Happens
• Needs to be monitored and cleaned
• Is NOT Technical Debt
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
review
Technical Debt
• A strategic design decision
• Requires business to be informed
• Includes a pay-back plan
Cruft
• Happens
• Needs to be monitored and cleaned
• Is NOT Technical Debt
NEVER
ask
perm
issio
n
to
do
yo
ur
jo
b
co
rrectly
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
comments
or
questions?
Doc Norton, CEO
doc@wearecto2.com
@DocOnDev
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
Thank You!
Doc Norton, CEO
doc@wearecto2.com
@DocOnDev
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
The
technical Debt
Trap
#DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev
• OOPSLA 92 Paper - http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?
id=157715, http://c2.com/doc/oopsla92.html
• Ward Cunningham Technical Debt Video - http://
www.youtube.com/watch?
v=pqeJFYwnkjE&feature=player_embedded
• Ward Cunningham Twitter - http://twitter.com/
WardCunningham/status/3742903303
• Technical Debt Quadrant - http://martinfowler.com/
bliki/TechnicalDebtQuadrant.html
• James Shore - http://jamesshore.com/Blog/
CardMeeting/Voluntary-Technical-Debt.html
• Martin Fowler - http://www.martinfowler.com/bliki/
TechnicalDebt.html
• David Larabee - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
magazine/ee819135.aspx
• Steve McConnell - http://blogs.construx.com/blogs/
stevemcc/archive/2007/11/01/technical-debt-2.aspx
• Jon Stewart - http://big.assets.huffingtonpost.com/
JonConfused.gif
• Cruft Example 1 - http://thedailywtf.com/Series/
2010/3/CodeSOD.aspx
• Debt Threshold - http://blog.castsoftware.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/04/Technical-Debt-Software-
Quality1.jpg
• Hardening Sprints - http://blog.castsoftware.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/04/Technical-Debt-Software-
Quality1.jpg

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The Technical Debt Trap

  • 1. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The technical Debt Trap
  • 2. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Doc Norton, CEO doc@wearecto2.com @DocOnDev
  • 3. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev what is technical debt?
  • 4. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham OOPSLA ‘92 Shipping first time code is like going into debt.
  • 5. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Shipping first time code is like going into debt. A little debt speeds development so long as it is paid back promptly with a rewrite. – Ward Cunningham OOPSLA ‘92
  • 6. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Shipping first time code is like going into debt. A little debt speeds development so long as it is paid back promptly with a rewrite. The danger occurs when the debt is not repaid. Every minute spent on not-quite-right code counts as interest on that debt. – Ward Cunningham OOPSLA ‘92
  • 7. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The danger occurs when the debt is not repaid. Every minute spent on not-quite- right code counts as interest on that debt. – Ward Cunningham OOPSLA ‘92
  • 8. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The danger occurs when the debt is not repaid. Every minute spent on not-quite- right code counts as interest on that debt. – Ward Cunningham OOPSLA ‘92
  • 9. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is
  • 10. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is good
  • 11. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is good
  • 12. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is good
  • 13. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is a strategic decision
  • 14. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical debt is a strategic decision • Allow for Rapid Delivery • To Elicit Quick Feedback • And Correct Design
  • 15. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt is an indication of learning
  • 16. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt is an indication of learning • Now know what you need • Implementation doesn’t match
  • 17. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt is a metaphor
  • 18. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev metaphors rock we reason by analogy Building on a weak foundation Puts pressure on our design Can’t keep running at this pace It’s raining men (hallelujah)
  • 19. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev metaphorphosis when metaphors go wrong Credit CardSHORT-TERM Long-Term Return on Investment OPERATIONALHOME LOAN Loan Shark PRAGMATIC LEVERAGE Intentional AUTO LOAN FRAUDULENT VOLUNTARY PYRAMID SCHEME Prudent Student Loan HIGH INTEREST INADVERTENT RECKLESS DEBT IN THE THIRD QUADRANT
  • 20. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev metaphorphosis when metaphors go wrong “quick and dirty” - Martin Fowler “sloppy” - David Laribee “just hack it in” - Steve McConnell “CUT A LOT OF CORNERS” - James Shore
  • 21. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “We must ship now and deal with consequences” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?”
  • 22. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham Youtube ‘09 [Many] have explained the debt metaphor and confused it with the idea that you could write code poorly with the intention of doing a good job later.
  • 23. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham Youtube ‘09 confused the debt metaphor with the idea that you could write code poorly
  • 24. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham Youtube ‘09 The ability to pay back debt [...] depends upon you writing code that is clean enough to be able to refactor as you come to understand your problem.
  • 25. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham Youtube ‘09 The ability to pay back debt [...] depends upon you writing code that is clean enough to be able to refactor as you come to understand your problem.
  • 26. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham twitter ‘09 Dirty code is to technical debt as the pawn broker is to financial debt.
  • 27. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev – Ward Cunningham twitter ‘09 Dirty code is to technical debt as the pawn broker is to financial debt. Don’t think you are ever going to get your code back.
  • 28. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt? Ask yourself…
  • 29. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt? Ask yourself… • Is the code clean? • Is the code tested? • Is there a learning objective or event? • Is there a plan for payback? • Is the business truly informed?
  • 30. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt? If you say no to even one… • Is the code clean? • Is the code tested? • Is there a learning objective or event? • Is there a plan for payback? • Is the business truly informed?
  • 31. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt? If you say no to even one… • Is the code clean? • Is the code tested? • Is there a learning objective or event? • Is there a plan for payback? • Is the business truly informed? ... then you don’t have Technical Debt
  • 32. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev mess (noun)
  • 33. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev mess (noun) • Disorderly accumulation, heap, or jumble • A state of embarrassing confusion • An unpleasant or difficult situation
  • 34. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev cruft (noun)
  • 35. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev cruft (noun) • An unpleasant substance • The result of shoddy construction • Redundant, old or improperly written code
  • 36. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev But, It’s Just semantics
  • 37. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev It’s not Just semantics
  • 38. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev It’s not Just semantics Technical Debt is Good
  • 39. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev It’s not Just semantics Technical Debt is GoodQuick and Dirty is Technical Debt
  • 40. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev It’s not Just semantics Quick and Dirty is Good
  • 41. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev It’s not Just semantics Quick and Dirty is Good
  • 42. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “We must ship now and deal with consequences” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?”
  • 43. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “Let’s deploy and gather more information” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?”
  • 44. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt in other fields
  • 45. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt in other fields
  • 46. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical Debt in other fields
  • 47. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Technical Debt in other fields
  • 48. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt in other fields
  • 49. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE technical debt in other fields
  • 50. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE technical debt in other fields
  • 51. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE RECKLESS AND DELIBERATE RECKLESS AND INADVERTENT technical debt in other fields
  • 52. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “Let’s deploy and gather more information” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?”
  • 53. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “Let’s deploy and gather more information” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?” IRRESPONSIBLE
  • 54. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “Let’s deploy and gather more information” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?” IRRESPONSIBLE INCOMPETENT
  • 55. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev technical debt quadrant Reckless Inadvertent Prudent Deliberate “We don’t have time for design” “Let’s deploy and gather more information” “Now we know how we should have done it” “What’s Layering?” IRRESPONSIBLE INCOMPETENT TECHNICAL DEBT
  • 56. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev cruft or debt?
  • 57. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev DataSet aDs, qDs; aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList(); qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList(); foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) { DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) { foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) { DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString()); foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) { foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) { if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) { try { _dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(), qRow[qColumn].ToString(), skill); } catch { continue; } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } cruft or debt?
  • 58. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev DataSet aDs, qDs; aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList(); qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList(); foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) { DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) { foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) { DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString()); foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) { foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) { if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) { try { _dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(), qRow[qColumn].ToString(), skill); } catch { continue; } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }
  • 59. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev DataSet aDs, qDs; aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList(); qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList(); foreach (DataTable aTable in aDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow aRow in aTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn aColumn in aTable.Columns) { DataSet asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(aRow[aColumn].ToString());//AgentId foreach (DataTable asTable in asDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow asRow in asTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn asColumn in asTable.Columns) { foreach (DataTable qTable in qDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow qRow in qTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn qColumn in qTable.Columns) { DataSet sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(qRow[qColumn].ToString()); foreach (DataTable sqTable in sqDs.Tables) { foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqTable.Rows) { foreach (DataColumn sqColumn in sqTable.Columns) { foreach (string skill in sqRow[sqColumn].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) { if (skill == asRow[asColumn].ToString()) { try { _dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(aRow[aColumn].ToString(), qRow[qColumn].ToString(), skill); } catch { continue; } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }
  • 60. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev DataSet aDs, qDs, asDs, sqDs; aDs = _dbConnector.UpdateAgentList(); qDs = _dbConnector.GetQueueList(); foreach (DataRow aRow in aDS.Tables[0].Rows) { String agentID = aRow[“AgentId”].ToString(); asDs = _dbConnector.GetAgentSkills(agentID); foreach (DataRow asRow in asDs.Tables[0].Rows) { String agentSkill = asRow[“Skill”].ToString(); foreach (DataRow qRow in qDs.Tables[0].Rows) { queueName = qRow[“QueueName”].ToString(); sqDs = _dbConnector.GetSkillsForQueue(queueName); foreach (DataRow sqRow in sqDs.Tables[0].Rows) { foreach (string skill in sqRow[“Skills”].ToString().Split(paramDelimStr)) { if (skill == agentSkill) { try { _dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(agentID, queueName, skill); } catch { continue; } } } } } } }
  • 61. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev AgentList agents = new AgentList(_dbConnector.UpdateAgentList()); QueueList queues = new QueueList(_dbConnector.GetQueueList()); foreach (Agent agent in agents) { foreach (Skill agentSkill in agent.skills) { foreach (Queue queue in queues) { foreach (Skill queueSkill in queue.skills.Where(x => x == agentSkill)) { try {_dbConnector.SetAgentQueueSkill(agent.agentID, queue.name, agentSkill); } catch { continue; } } } } }
  • 63. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev if ((customer.state == “AL” && customer.type == CustomerType.GENERAL_AGENT && customer.revenue > 100000) || (customer.type == CustomerType.RETRO_AGENT && (customer.state == “WI” || customer.state == “IL”)) || (customer.type == CustomerType.FED_MANAGEMENT && customer.revenue > 150000)) { ... } cruft or debt?
  • 64. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev // If customer is Federally Regulated if ((customer.state == “AL” && customer.type == CustomerType.GENERAL_AGENT && customer.revenue > 100000) || (customer.type == CustomerType.RETRO_AGENT && (customer.state == “WI” || customer.state == “IL”)) || (customer.type == CustomerType.FED_MANAGEMENT && customer.revenue > 150000)) { ... }
  • 65. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev if (customer.isFederallyRegulated()) { ... }
  • 66. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev double getSpeed() { switch (_type) { case EUROPEAN: return getBaseSpeed(); case AFRICAN: return getBaseSpeed() - getLoadFactor() * _numberOfCoconuts; case NORWEGIAN_BLUE: return (_isNailed) ? 0 : getBaseSpeed(_voltage); } throw new RuntimeException ("Should be unreachable"); } http://www.refactoring.com/catalog/replaceConditionalWithPolymorphism.html cruft or debt?
  • 67. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev class Swallow ... double getSpeed() { return getBaseSpeed(); } end class class EuropeanSwallow ... end class class AfricanSwallow ... double getSpeed() { return super.getSpeed - coconutLoad(); } double coconutLoad() { return getLoadFactor() * _numberOfCoconuts; } end class class NorwegianSwallow ... double getSpeed() { return (_isNailed) ? 0 : getBaseSpeed(_voltage); } end class
  • 68. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev cruft is a bad decision
  • 69. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev cruft is a bad decision • You are a professional developer • You’re going to create unintentional cruft • You have to clean up the existing cruft
  • 70. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The Trap
  • 71. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The Trap • Precedent for speed over quality • Expectation of increased velocity • Cruft slows you down • Must write more cruft to keep up • Ask permission to do your job correctly
  • 72. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev failing strategies
  • 73. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev failing strategies
  • 75. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev winning strategy Clean Constantly
  • 76. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev winning strategy Clean Constantly • Never make an intentional mess • Monitor your “Technical Debt” • Follow the Boy Scout Rule • Remember quality is your responsibility
  • 77. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev winning strategy Clean Constantly • Never make an intentional mess • Monitor your “Technical Debt” • Follow the Boy Scout Rule • Remember quality is your responsibility • NEVER ask permission to do your job correctly
  • 78. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Monitor your cruft
  • 79. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Monitor your cruft • Code Coverage • Code Complexity • Coupling • Maintainability • Monitor Trends, Not Points
  • 80. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev review Technical Debt Cruft
  • 81. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev review Technical Debt • A strategic design decision • Requires business to be informed • Includes a pay-back plan Cruft • Happens • Needs to be monitored and cleaned • Is NOT Technical Debt
  • 82. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev review Technical Debt • A strategic design decision • Requires business to be informed • Includes a pay-back plan Cruft • Happens • Needs to be monitored and cleaned • Is NOT Technical Debt NEVER ask perm issio n to do yo ur jo b co rrectly
  • 83. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev comments or questions? Doc Norton, CEO doc@wearecto2.com @DocOnDev
  • 84. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev Thank You! Doc Norton, CEO doc@wearecto2.com @DocOnDev
  • 85. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev The technical Debt Trap
  • 86. #DevBootcamp / #TechnicalDebtTrap / @DocOnDev • OOPSLA 92 Paper - http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm? id=157715, http://c2.com/doc/oopsla92.html • Ward Cunningham Technical Debt Video - http:// www.youtube.com/watch? v=pqeJFYwnkjE&feature=player_embedded • Ward Cunningham Twitter - http://twitter.com/ WardCunningham/status/3742903303 • Technical Debt Quadrant - http://martinfowler.com/ bliki/TechnicalDebtQuadrant.html • James Shore - http://jamesshore.com/Blog/ CardMeeting/Voluntary-Technical-Debt.html • Martin Fowler - http://www.martinfowler.com/bliki/ TechnicalDebt.html • David Larabee - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/ magazine/ee819135.aspx • Steve McConnell - http://blogs.construx.com/blogs/ stevemcc/archive/2007/11/01/technical-debt-2.aspx • Jon Stewart - http://big.assets.huffingtonpost.com/ JonConfused.gif • Cruft Example 1 - http://thedailywtf.com/Series/ 2010/3/CodeSOD.aspx • Debt Threshold - http://blog.castsoftware.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/04/Technical-Debt-Software- Quality1.jpg • Hardening Sprints - http://blog.castsoftware.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/04/Technical-Debt-Software- Quality1.jpg