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kendriya vidyalayakendriya vidyalaya
baranbaran•
TheThe
fundamenTalfundamenTal
uniT ofuniT of
lifelife
WhaT is cell ?
Cell is structural
and functional
unit of life
discovery of The cell
Robert Hooke – first to see and
identify cork ‘cells’ .
shape and size of
The cells
 Some cells can change their
shapes like amoeba , WBC but
plants and animals cells have
almost fixed shapes .
Smallest cell =PPLG(mycoplasma)
 Largest cell = ostrich egg .
Longest animal cell = nerve cell .
cells organisms are
classified as :-
Unicellular :- made of single cell.
example :- amoeba ,paramecium.
Multicellular :- made up of
many cells .
Examples :- plants , animals and
fungi .
unicellular
mulTicellular
cell is basic uniT of life . Why ?
oIt is the smallest living unit
which makess all body .
oDivison of labour – cell usually
possesses a number of components
called cell organelles .
oEach of organelle perform
functions
i. Clearing waste material
ii. Protein synthesis
cell made up of WhaT ?
A typical cell is made up of
mainly three parts :-
1)Nucleus
2)Cytoplasm
3)Cell membrane .
PlasmaPlasma membrane – cell membranemembrane – cell membrane
 It is outermost delicate covering of cell .
 It is also called selectively permeable
membrane or seme permeable membrane
because it allows entry of selective
substances only.
 It is made up of a bi-lipid layer and
proteins.
Functions:-
It provides shape to contents of cell .
It provides mechanical barriers to the
cells .
It selectively allows the movement of
substances in and out of the cells which
are useful for in functioning of cells .
ATP -> adenosie tri phosphate
DiFFusion
Movement of solute particles from higher
concentration to lower concentration is
called diffusion .
Example : exchange of gases during
respiration.
osmosis
The movement of solvent particles from
lower concentration to higher
concentration in presence of semi
permeable membrane is called osmosis.
example – absorption of water by
roots .
types oF osmotic solutions
1. Hypotonic : The solution which have
lower concentration than others .
2. Hypertonic :- The solution which have
higher concentration than others .
3. Isotonic :- The solution which have equal
concentration than others .
types oF osmosis
Endosmosis :- movement of water inside cell
is called endosmosis .
It takes place when cell is placed in low
concentration solution .
Exosmosis :- movement of water out from
the cell is called exosmosis .
It takes place when cell is placed in high
concentration solution .
cell wall
Rigid , semi elastic , semi transparent
and protective covering present outside
the plasma membrane in plant cells ,
fungi and prokaryotic .
Made up of cellulose in plants , fungal
cellulose and chitim in fungi .
Functions
It provides shapes to the cells .
It provides mechanical strength to plants .
Protects against pathogens and mechanical
injury .
Growth of the cell wall determines the
growth of cells .
Cell wall prevents bursting of cell on
endosmosis.
nucleus
1. It is dense protoplasmic body that
contains hereditary information
present in the cell .
2. It generally lies in central position .
3. In plants its lies toward periphery .
chromatin material
• Thread like material made of DNA
and protein present in nucleus is known
as chromatin material .
chromosomes
Thread like structure which are formed by
condensation of chromatin during cell
division are called chromosomes they refer
as hereditary vehicles .
Chromosomes are made of DNA and
proteins .
cytoplasm
It is a fluid present between nucleus
and cell membrane .
It contains number of special
organelles such as mitochondria , golgi
apparatus etc .
endoplasmic reticulum
 it is a complex network of membrane bound
channels or sheets , tubules and vesicles .
 It is connected to both nuclear membrane and
plasma membrane .
 It has (i) cisternae ,(ii) tubules , (iii) vesicles .
 It act as endoskeleton of cell .
 There are two types of ER .
i. Rough ER
ii.Smooth ER .
smooth er
• Smooth ER mainly consist of tubules
and vesicles .
• Its surface is free from ribosomes .
• Functions :-
Synthesis and secretes lipids and
steroids .
rough e.r.
 It mainly consist of cisternae , tubules and
vesicles.
 Its contains ribosome on its surface .
 Function
I. To synthesis and secrete protein.
golgi apparatus
• It is double membrane structure made up ofIt is double membrane structure made up of
cisternae , vacuoles and vesicles .cisternae , vacuoles and vesicles .
FUNCTIONS :-FUNCTIONS :-
Golgi apparatus is involved in repair and synthesisGolgi apparatus is involved in repair and synthesis
of cell membrane .of cell membrane .
Lysosomes are formed by Golgi apparatus .Lysosomes are formed by Golgi apparatus .
All types of substances which are to be excreted areAll types of substances which are to be excreted are
packed in vesicle by Golgi apparatus for passage topacked in vesicle by Golgi apparatus for passage to
the outside.the outside.
Takes part in storage, modification and packagingTakes part in storage, modification and packaging
of various biochemical produced by differentof various biochemical produced by different
component of the cells .component of the cells .
lysosomeslysosomes
They are also known as sucidal bags .
They are found in animal cells they lack in
plant cell .
In damaged cell , lysosome burst to release
enzymes for digestion of cellular components .
Functions :-
i. Destruction of foreign particles .
ii.Intracellular digestion .
iii.Removal of cell debris .
lysosome
mitochondria
• It is rod shaped double membrane
organelle .
• Function :-
• It is also called power house of a cell
because in mitochondria energy id
produced through respiration and stored
in the form of ATP .
mitochondria
PLaStidS
Plastids are double membrane structure
present only in plant cell which synthesis
and store organic substances .
There are three types of plastids :-
1.Chloroplast (green color )
2.Chromoplast (other than green )
3.Leucoplast (colorless )
PLaStidS ( functionS )
• Chromoplast provide color to fruits and flowers .
• Leucoplast take part in protein , starch and oil .
• Chloroplast trap solar energy to manufacture
food through photosynthesis .
• Chloroplast are also known as kitchen of the plant
because in chloroplast food is synthesis through
photosynthesis .
PLaStid
VacuoLES -/StorE houSE of cELL
In plant cell vacuoles are large sized and in
animal cell vacuoles are small in size .
In plant cell vacuole is full of cell sap it
provides rigidity and turgidity to plant cell .
Many important substances such as protein ,
ammino acids and sugar are stored in
vacuoles .
PLant cELL
Eukaryotic cell
Thank
you

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The fundamental unit of life - Cell

  • 3. WhaT is cell ? Cell is structural and functional unit of life
  • 4. discovery of The cell Robert Hooke – first to see and identify cork ‘cells’ .
  • 5. shape and size of The cells  Some cells can change their shapes like amoeba , WBC but plants and animals cells have almost fixed shapes . Smallest cell =PPLG(mycoplasma)  Largest cell = ostrich egg . Longest animal cell = nerve cell .
  • 6. cells organisms are classified as :- Unicellular :- made of single cell. example :- amoeba ,paramecium. Multicellular :- made up of many cells . Examples :- plants , animals and fungi .
  • 9. cell is basic uniT of life . Why ? oIt is the smallest living unit which makess all body . oDivison of labour – cell usually possesses a number of components called cell organelles . oEach of organelle perform functions i. Clearing waste material ii. Protein synthesis
  • 10. cell made up of WhaT ? A typical cell is made up of mainly three parts :- 1)Nucleus 2)Cytoplasm 3)Cell membrane .
  • 11. PlasmaPlasma membrane – cell membranemembrane – cell membrane  It is outermost delicate covering of cell .  It is also called selectively permeable membrane or seme permeable membrane because it allows entry of selective substances only.  It is made up of a bi-lipid layer and proteins.
  • 12.
  • 13. Functions:- It provides shape to contents of cell . It provides mechanical barriers to the cells . It selectively allows the movement of substances in and out of the cells which are useful for in functioning of cells . ATP -> adenosie tri phosphate
  • 14. DiFFusion Movement of solute particles from higher concentration to lower concentration is called diffusion . Example : exchange of gases during respiration.
  • 15. osmosis The movement of solvent particles from lower concentration to higher concentration in presence of semi permeable membrane is called osmosis. example – absorption of water by roots .
  • 16. types oF osmotic solutions 1. Hypotonic : The solution which have lower concentration than others . 2. Hypertonic :- The solution which have higher concentration than others . 3. Isotonic :- The solution which have equal concentration than others .
  • 17. types oF osmosis Endosmosis :- movement of water inside cell is called endosmosis . It takes place when cell is placed in low concentration solution . Exosmosis :- movement of water out from the cell is called exosmosis . It takes place when cell is placed in high concentration solution .
  • 18. cell wall Rigid , semi elastic , semi transparent and protective covering present outside the plasma membrane in plant cells , fungi and prokaryotic . Made up of cellulose in plants , fungal cellulose and chitim in fungi .
  • 19. Functions It provides shapes to the cells . It provides mechanical strength to plants . Protects against pathogens and mechanical injury . Growth of the cell wall determines the growth of cells . Cell wall prevents bursting of cell on endosmosis.
  • 20. nucleus 1. It is dense protoplasmic body that contains hereditary information present in the cell . 2. It generally lies in central position . 3. In plants its lies toward periphery .
  • 21.
  • 22. chromatin material • Thread like material made of DNA and protein present in nucleus is known as chromatin material .
  • 23. chromosomes Thread like structure which are formed by condensation of chromatin during cell division are called chromosomes they refer as hereditary vehicles . Chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins .
  • 24.
  • 25. cytoplasm It is a fluid present between nucleus and cell membrane . It contains number of special organelles such as mitochondria , golgi apparatus etc .
  • 26. endoplasmic reticulum  it is a complex network of membrane bound channels or sheets , tubules and vesicles .  It is connected to both nuclear membrane and plasma membrane .  It has (i) cisternae ,(ii) tubules , (iii) vesicles .  It act as endoskeleton of cell .  There are two types of ER . i. Rough ER ii.Smooth ER .
  • 27. smooth er • Smooth ER mainly consist of tubules and vesicles . • Its surface is free from ribosomes . • Functions :- Synthesis and secretes lipids and steroids .
  • 28. rough e.r.  It mainly consist of cisternae , tubules and vesicles.  Its contains ribosome on its surface .  Function I. To synthesis and secrete protein.
  • 29. golgi apparatus • It is double membrane structure made up ofIt is double membrane structure made up of cisternae , vacuoles and vesicles .cisternae , vacuoles and vesicles . FUNCTIONS :-FUNCTIONS :- Golgi apparatus is involved in repair and synthesisGolgi apparatus is involved in repair and synthesis of cell membrane .of cell membrane . Lysosomes are formed by Golgi apparatus .Lysosomes are formed by Golgi apparatus . All types of substances which are to be excreted areAll types of substances which are to be excreted are packed in vesicle by Golgi apparatus for passage topacked in vesicle by Golgi apparatus for passage to the outside.the outside. Takes part in storage, modification and packagingTakes part in storage, modification and packaging of various biochemical produced by differentof various biochemical produced by different component of the cells .component of the cells .
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  • 31. lysosomeslysosomes They are also known as sucidal bags . They are found in animal cells they lack in plant cell . In damaged cell , lysosome burst to release enzymes for digestion of cellular components . Functions :- i. Destruction of foreign particles . ii.Intracellular digestion . iii.Removal of cell debris .
  • 33. mitochondria • It is rod shaped double membrane organelle . • Function :- • It is also called power house of a cell because in mitochondria energy id produced through respiration and stored in the form of ATP .
  • 35. PLaStidS Plastids are double membrane structure present only in plant cell which synthesis and store organic substances . There are three types of plastids :- 1.Chloroplast (green color ) 2.Chromoplast (other than green ) 3.Leucoplast (colorless )
  • 36. PLaStidS ( functionS ) • Chromoplast provide color to fruits and flowers . • Leucoplast take part in protein , starch and oil . • Chloroplast trap solar energy to manufacture food through photosynthesis . • Chloroplast are also known as kitchen of the plant because in chloroplast food is synthesis through photosynthesis .
  • 38. VacuoLES -/StorE houSE of cELL In plant cell vacuoles are large sized and in animal cell vacuoles are small in size . In plant cell vacuole is full of cell sap it provides rigidity and turgidity to plant cell . Many important substances such as protein , ammino acids and sugar are stored in vacuoles .
  • 39.