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TECHINAL REPORT ON
ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Submitted by:-
Bijay Sharma
DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED ELECTRONICS AND
INSTRUMENT
Haldia Institute Of Technology
Hatiberia, PO-HIT; Dist: Midnapore(E), West Bengal, India.
A Technical Report On
Electric vehicle
Submitted by
Bijay Sharma
Roll no: 10305522032
4th semester
Under Supervision of
Ms. Minaxi Day & Ms. Gargi Jana
2
CERTIFICATE
DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED ELECTRONICS AND
INSTRUMENT
Haldia Institute Of Technology
Hatiberia, PO-HIT; Dist: Midnapore(E), West Bengal, India.
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “Electric Vehicle” is a bonafide work carried
out by Bijay Sharma(Roll No. 10305522032), under my supervision. The report is submitted
to the Applied Electronic And Instrumentation Department, Haldia Institute of Technology,
Haldia, Midnapur(E). In my opinion the report in the present form is in partial fulfilment of
the entire requirement as specified by the Haldia Institute Of Technology and as per
regulation of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology.In fact, it has attained the
standard necessary for submission.
Signature of the supervisor
………………………………………
(Dr. Minaxi Dey , Ms. Gargi Jana)
Assistant Professor
Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia.
3
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude and acknowledge to my supervisor Ms.GARGI JANA And Dr.Menaxi
Dey for the encouraging guidance, valuable suggestions and inestimable help she has rendered
during the work period.
I would also like thank to all of my friends for their encouragement and assistantship. Last but not
the least I am thankful to everybody who assisted me during the course of this report- either
directly or indirectly.
Signature of the Candidate
Bijay Sharma
Roll no: 10305522032
4th Semester
Department
Applied Electronics & Instrumentation
Haldia Institute of Technology
Contents
Table of content
1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………06
2. History of EV…………………………………………………………….06-07
3. Main component used in EV…………………………………….07-08
4. Working of EV………………………………………………………………..08
5. Advantage and Disadvantage of EV…………………………….....09
6. Emission…………………………………………………………………………09
7. Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric…10
8. Automobile Industry in India……………………………….......10-11
9. Global warming: ozone layer………………………………………….11
10. Future of the EV……………………………………………………………..12
11. Range of the EV………………………………………………………….....12
12. Types of Electric Vehicles………………………………………………..12
13. Architecture of EV…………………………………………………………..13
14. Challenges related to EV……………………………………………14-16
15. Hybrid Vehicle………………………………………………………………..16
16. Working of hybrid vehicle………………………………………………16
17. Parts of hybrid vehicle…………………………………………………….17
18. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………17-18
19. Reference………………………………………………………………………19
Introduction
An electric vehicle (EV) is a type of vehicle that is powered by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in
rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device. Unlike conventional internal combustion engine vehicles that rely
on gasoline or diesel fuel, electric vehicles use electricity as their primary source of power. This can include fully electric
vehicles (BEVs), which run entirely on electricity, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which combine an electric
motor with a conventional engine and can be charged by plugging into an external power source. EVs are often seen as a
more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional vehicles because they produce zero tailpipe emissions when
powered solely by electricity, reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally,EVs can offer benefits such
as lower operating costs and reduced dependence on fossil fuels.
History Of EV
1.Early Concepts (19th Century):
• Electric vehicles have roots dating back to the 19th
century.
• In the late 1800s, electric cars were popular due to their
simplicity and ease of operation.
2.Rise and Fall (Early to Mid-20th Century):
• Early 20th century saw a surge in electric vehicle
popularity, especially in urban areas.
•Factors such as the invention of the electric starter, mass
production of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, and
the availability of cheap gasoline led to a decline in electric
vehicle use.
3. Renewed Interest (Late 20th Century):
•Environmental concerns, oil crises, and advancements in
battery technology reignited interest in electric vehicles.
• Prototypes and experimental electric cars were developed
by various manufacturers during the 1970s and 1980s.
6
7
4. Mainstream Introduction (Late 20th to Early 21st Century):
• In the late 1990s, Toyota launched the Prius, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which achieved commercial success.
•In 2008, Tesla Motors released the Roadster, an all-electric sports car, which demonstrated the potential for
high-performance electric vehicles.
5. Government Support and Market Growth (21st Century):
• Governments worldwide started offering incentives and subsidies to promote electric vehicle adoption.
•Advancements in battery technology, including lithium-ion batteries, led to increased range and performance of
electric vehicles.
• Major automakers began introducing electric vehicles into their lineups, contributing to market growth.
6. Current Trends and Future Outlook:
• Electric vehicles continue to gain popularity due to advancements in technology, increased charging infrastructure,
and environmental consciousness.
• Governments are setting targets to phase out internal combustion engine vehicles in favor of electric vehicles.
•Innovations such as solid-state batteries and wireless charging hold promise for further improving electric vehicle
performance and convenience.
Main Components Used in EV
1. TractionBattery Pack
Traction battery pack is also known as Electric vehicle battery (EVB). It powers the electric motors of an electric
vehicle. The battery acts as an electrical storage system. It stores energy in the form DC current. The range will be
higher with increasing kW of the battery. The life and operation of the battery depends on its design. The lifetime of a
traction battery pack is estimated to be 200,000 miles.
2. DC-DC Converter
The traction battery pack delivers a constant voltage. But different components of electric vehicle has different
requirements. The dc to dc converter distributes the output power that is coming from the battery to a required
level. It also provides the voltage required to charge the auxiliary battery.
3. Electricmotor
Electric traction motor is the main components of electric vehicles. The motor converts the electrical energy into
kinetic energy. This energy rotates the wheels. Electric motor is the main components of electric vehicle that
differentiates an electric car from conventional cars. An important feature of an electric motor is the regenerative
braking mechanism. This mechanism slows down the vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, and
storing it for future use. There are basically two types of motors DC and AC motors
4. PowerInverter
It coverts DC power from the batteries to AC power. It also converts the AC current generated during regenerative
braking into DC current. This is further used to recharge the batteries. The inverter can change the speed of the
Working of an EV
When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer activates and
provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it is
supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The
controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the
potentiometers, regulates the power accordingly, takes the power from
the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The motor receives the
power (voltage) from the controller and uses this power to rotate the
transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and causes the
car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors the accelerator
pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to the motor. If the
driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller delivers zero
volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controller chops the
battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an average
voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage
5. Charge Port
The charge port connects the electric vehicle to an external supply. It charges the battery pack. The charge port is
sometimes located in the front or rear part of electric vehicle components.
6. Onboard charger
Onboard charger is used to convert the AC supply received from the charge port to DC supply. The on-board
charger is located and installed inside the car. It monitors various battery characteristics and controls the current
flowing inside the battery pack.
7. Controller
Power electronics controller determines the working of an electric car. It performs the regulation of electrical
energy from the batteries to the electric motors. The pedal set by the driver determines the speed of the car and
frequency of variation of voltage that is input to the motor. It also controls the torque produced.
8. Auxiliary batteries
Auxiliary batteries are the source of electrical energy for the accessories in electric vehicles. In the absence of the
main battery, the auxiliary batteries will continue to charge the car. It prevents the voltage drop, produced during
engine start from affecting the electrical system.
9. Thermalsystem(cooling)
The thermal management system is responsible for maintaining an operating temperature for the main components of
electric vehicle (EV) such as, electric motor, controller etc. It functions during charging as well to obtain maximum
performance. It uses a combination of thermoelectric cooling, forced air cooling, and liquid cooling.
10. Transmission
The gearbox transfers the mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels. The advantage of electric cars is that
they do not require multi-speed transmissions. The transmission efficiency should be high to avoid power loss
Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV
The greatest challenge EVs face deal with the rechargeable battery. Most EVs can only go
about 100–200 miles before recharging; fully recharging the battery pack can take four to
eight hours. Battery packs are heavy, expensive, may need to be replaced, and take up
considerable vehicle space [5]. Overall, the electric vehicle has more advantages than
disadvantages. Advantages include no tailpipe emissions, which leads to a reduction in global
warming and unhealthy people
Emission
Emissions Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are
considered to be ninety seven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe
emissions that can place particulate matter into the air
Automative industry In India
Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry
Further information: Electric vehicle industry in India
During April 2012, the Indian government planned to
unveil the road map for the development of domestic
electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.[ A
discussion between the various stakeholders, including
Government, industry, and academia, was expected to
take place during 23–24 February.[ The final contours of
the policy would have been formed after this set of
discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance,
Road Transport, and Power are involved in developing a
broad framework for the sector. Along with these
ministries, auto industry executives, such as and
Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-chairman, Toyota Kirloskar),
were involved in this task.
1
0
Comparison of Combustion Engine,
Hybrid and Electric
[The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the
sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17.] The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported
components such as the battery and electric motor, and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year
2017, Anbased Electric Vehicles manufacturing company called AVERA[New & Renewable Energy
started electric scooters manufacturing and are ready to launch their two models of scooters by the end of
December 2018.
Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry
Further information: Electric vehicle industry in India
During April 2012, the Indian government planned to unveil the road map for the development of domestic
electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.
A discussion between the various stakeholders, including Government, industry, and academia, was
expected to take place during 23–24 February.[ The final contours of the policy would have been formed
after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport, and Power are
involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries, auto industry
executives, such as and Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-chairman, Toyota Kirloskar), were involved in this
task.[The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the
sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17.
The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor,
and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year 2017, Anbased Electric Vehicles manufacturing
company called AVERA[New & Renewable Energy started electric scooters manufacturingand are ready
to launch their two models of scooters by the end of December 2018.
Electric cars are seen as economical long-term investments, as one doesn't need to purchase gas, but
needs only to recharge the battery, using renewable energy sources.
According to the electric cars produce half as much CO2 emissions as compared to a gas-powered
car.[According to the economic times, 60% of Indian customers expect fuel prices to go up in the next 12
months and 58% expect to buy a new car in the same time frame. Most consumers are looking to buy a
car which gives good mileage. According to the same source, 68% of Asian drivers expect higher mileage
from their cars due to the higher fuel prices.
This has encouraged 38% of Indian automobile consumers to switch to electric or hybrid cars.Due to this
change in the market, many companies, such as Toyota, have planned to introduce electric vehicles in
India; and Suzuki has tested almost 50 electric prototypes in India already, according to Mashable In
2019, Hyundai launched India's first electric car, the Kona Electric
Global Warming: Ozone Layer
The process of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, also known as global warming,
diminishes the Earth’s ozone layer, which is what occurs at this time. A factor that makes
electric vehicles clean is their ability to use half the number of parts a gasoline powered
vehicle does, including gasoline and oil.
Future of the EV
Future of the EV Future electric cars will most likely carry lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries that are now
becoming popular in other countries. The LiFePO4 batteries are rechargeable and powerful and are being used in
electric bikes and scooters. Electric cars will most likely adopt this technology in the future. Another technology that
is likely for future electric cars is the increased use of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors for storing and delivering
electrical charge. Many of these batteries are currently being used in conjunction with hybrid car prototypes, so
these are expected in the electric car future markets as well. Argueta - 8 If the developers of future electric cars can
create vehicles with a range of 300 miles per charge, a charging time of five to ten minutes, and safety in operating
the vehicles, the market is wide open for them. Researchers are working on improved battery technologies to
increase driving range and decrease recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine the
future of EVs
What is the Range of EVs?
Range of an electric vehicle is nothing but the distance a vehicle can travel in one full charge. It is a
crucial factor for buyers to consider while buying a new EV. This is an important factor to consider
as EVis a new technology and the infrastructure surrounding it is still developing, especially in a
country like India.
There are various factors that can affect the range of an EV. Few examples are:
1.Battery capacity
2.Weight of vehicle
3.Type of vehicle, ex. car, truck
4.Aerodynamics of vehicle
5.Weather conditions
6.Terrain of driving
7.Driving behaviors
Types of Electric Vehicles
There are 3 main types of vehicles designed for different driving needs:
1.Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
BEVs run 100% on electricity stored in onboard batteries, powering the electric motor and
drivetrain. Most BEVs today have a range of 150–300 miles per charge. They produce no tailpipe
emissions, are cheap to operate, and require little maintenance.
Popular BEV Models: Tesla Model 3, Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Bolt
2.Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
PHEvs have both electric motors and gasoline engines. They can drive approx. 10–50 miles purely
on electric power before the gas engine kicks in. This provides emission-free commuting while
eliminating range anxiety on longer trips.
Popular PHEV Models: Toyota Prius Prime, Hyundai Ioniq, Kia Niro PHEV
3.Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
FCEVs use hydrogen fuel cells instead of large batteries to power the electric motors. Hydrogen
from the tank mixes with oxygen to produce electricity. FCEVs can be refueled in 5 minutes and
have a 300+-mile range. However, hydrogen infrastructure is still in its early stages.
Popular FCEV Model: Toyota Mirai
In a nutshell, BEVs are 100% electric, PHEVs are gas-electric hybrids, and FCEVs run on hydrogen-
based electricity.
1
2
Architecture of EV
Times are changing fast and we’re surrounded by more electric vehicles than we would’ve
expected a few years ago. While we know most things about IC engine cars - how they work,
what systems are involved, the standard set of do's and don'ts etc., we tend to overlook a lot
of similar things in electric vehicles probably because they're pretty straightforward to drive.
However, IMO, EVs are far from that. There's a lot of technology involved and the level of
complexity is also high. With such an influx of EVs in our market, it’s about time we also got
ourselves acquainted with the technology to make better decisions. To be specific, I am
referring to electric vehicle architecture.
There are 3 main components in an EV – the battery, the motor and the controller/charger.
The battery is what stores the energy and the motor is what uses that energy to drive the
wheels of the car.
The controller/charger converts the energy from the battery into a usable form to power the
motor. In more technical terms, the power grid from your house or a charging station is usually
an AC.
The lithium-ion battery can store electric energy in DC form. So while charging, there’s usually
an AC/DC converter that will convert the power grid's AC into DC and store it in the car’s
battery.
The DC fast chargers that you see, usually have the AC/DC converter inbuilt, which is how they
can charge the car’s battery faster. The controller typically sits on top of the motor
10
11
Challenges related to EV:
1. Purchase Cost
The EV industry’s biggest challenge is vehicle purchase cost. Electric vehicles are more expensive
to build than gasoline-powered ones, primarily because of battery technology. EV batteries must hold
a massive charge to provide the minimum range for most owners, requiring expensive raw materials
to manufacture.
Even when discounting battery costs, there is such a massive supply of gas-powered vehicles in the U.S.
that they are comparatively cheap. Although EVs may be less expensive to operate than their gasoline
counterparts, first, they have to be bought –and currently, there are few models on the market with a
sticker price of less than $30,000 (not including government tax credits). Used models that go for half or
less of the new-car MSRP tend to be older models with much less battery range.
2.Range Anxiety
Range anxiety is real. Americans are used to jumping in their cars and going wherever they
want (and however far) without worrying about finding a gas station for a quick fill-up when
needed.
But people are worried about how far they can travel in an EV before finding a charging
station and then having to wait through a long charging session. This challenge is
particularly a concern during the winter when there can be a significant reduction in an EV’s
regular battery range due to below-freezing temperatures.
Most EVs sold can go between 200-300 miles on a single charge in temperate weather
conditions. That is plenty when you consider that Americans drive an average of 36 miles per
day (about 13,500 miles per year). But for those long days on the road, weekend getaways,
driving vacations, or just freezing weather, an EV owner may need a charge every 3-4 hours.
3.Limited Selection
Ten years ago, EV models in the U.S. were limited to the Nissan Leaf 24kWh, Tesla Roadster 1.0,and
the Mitsubishi iMIEV. Selection is rapidly increasing now as manufacturers ramp up. As of 2022,
there were 28 EV models available in America from 18manufacturers.
There is still a limited selection of EVs compared to gasoline-powered cars, and most auto
manufacturers offer only a few models. Sedans, hatchbacks, and SUVs are becoming more available.
However, people looking for a truck or minivan still need more choices.
4. Difficulty Finding a Technician
Most car owners find that having their vehicle serviced by a dealer can be significantly more
expensive than using a qualified independent maintenance and repair shop.
With the EV industry still comparatively small, there are relatively few trained EV repair technicians
and even fewer qualified independent shops. Working on an EV beyond tires, brakes, light bulbs,
and audio components can be dangerous for an untrained technician, which means most EV
owners rely on their EV dealer for service.
Fortunately, EVs need less maintenance than gasoline-powered cars. But if an expensive component
needs replacing (such as the battery pack, which typically runs $5,000 and up depending on the EV
model), there is currently little competition to help keep costs down.
5. Charging Infrastructure
The scarcity of charging stations in many areas of the country is increasing the incidence of
range anxiety. The federal government is working to help improve the situation through
the passage of the infrastructure act in 2021,which provides $7.5 billion in new funding for
EV charging stations and related infrastructure.
The Act will fund an equitable network of 500,000 EV chargers across 75,000 miles of
designated corridors across the U.S., benefiting rural communities as much as more highly
populated areas. The plan dictates a charging station every 50 miles along the interstate
and no more than a mile off the highway. Projects relying at least partly on this funding
have already been approved in all 50 states.
6 . Charger Compatibility
Level 2 chargers are mostly coordinated, with all automakers
except Tesla using the same type of charging port (Tesla drivers
need an adapter). However, there are three different types of DC
fast chargers:
•SAE Combined Charging System (CCS):
•used by most manufacturers
•CHAdeMO:used by Nissan and Mitsubishi
•Tesla Supercharger: used solely by Tesla vehicles
If only because it is different than the universal access to fuel
stations enjoyed by gasoline-powered vehicles, these
compatibility differences can be an obstacle to widespread EV
adoption.
12
7. Grid Capacity
Changing to EVs means millions of people will rely on the electric
grid in new ways, and grid capacity will need to increase to avoid
strain. Experts vary on how much additional power we’ll need,
but the U.S. Department of Energy has predicted a in electricity
consumption by 2050,primarily due to EVs.
The Energy Institute at the University of Texas assessed the
electrical demand needed if each state converted all personal
cars, trucks, and SUVs to plug-in EVs. They found that statewide
energy consumption would increase by a low of Most states fell
in the 20-30 percent range. Only some states have excess
capacity to meet increased demand with existing infrastructure.
Hybrid vehicle
The hybrid vehicle (HV) is powered by both a gasoline engine and electric motor. The HV runs using power
from an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The engine provides most of the vehicle’s power,
and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as accelerating and passing [4]. The
hybrid vehicle operates on a gasoline and electric energy principle. A hybrid car features a small fuel-efficient
gas engine combined with an electric motor that assists the engine when accelerating. The electric motor is
powered by batteries that recharge automatically while you drive [4]. Five main parts make up the hybrid
vehicle: the battery, internal combustion engine (ICE), generator, power split device, and electric motor.
Working of Hybrid
When the driver steps on the pedal the generator converts energy from the engine into electricity
and stores it in the battery. The battery then provides power to the electric motor. The internal
combustion engine and electric motor work simultaneously and each provide power to the power
split device. The power split device combines both powers and uses it to turn the transmission. The
transmission then turns the wheels and propels the vehicle. The energy used when braking is
converted into electricity and stored in the battery. When braking, the electric motor is reversed so
that, instead of using electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create
electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle down. When the
vehicle is stopped, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is
not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxiliary systems, such as the air conditioning
and dashboard displays.
13
Parts of Hybrid vehicle
Battery.
The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank,
which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as
draw energy from them.
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).
The hybrid car has an ICE, also known as a gasoline engine, much like the ones found on most cars. However, the engine
on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. Receives its energy
from the fuel tank where the gasoline is stored.
Generator.
The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power for the battery.
Power Split Device.
The power-split-device resides between the two motors and together with the two motors creates a type of continuously
variable transmission.
Conclusion
The EV stands at the forefront of technological innovation, poised to revolutionize industries, reshape societies,
and enhance the quality of life for individuals around the globe. Through the interconnection of billions of devices,
sensors, and systems,EV has unlocked unprecedented opportunities for data-driven insights, automation, and
efficiency across diverse domains.
As we conclude our exploration EV technology, several key insights emerge:
Firstly, EV has permeated virtually every aspect of modern life, from smart homes and cities to industrial
automation and healthcare. Its applications are as varied as they are impactful, driving improvements in energy
efficiency, resource management, and public safety.
Secondly, while the potential benefits of EV are immense, so too are the challenges. Data privacy concerns,
security vulnerabilities, and ethical considerations loom large, demanding careful attention and robust solutions.
As EV deployments continue to scale, addressing these challenges will be paramount to ensuring trust, reliability,
and societal acceptance
Thirdly, EV is not a static technology but a dynamic ecosystem constantly evolving in response to emerging trends
and advancements. Edge computing, artificial intelligence, 5G connectivity, and blockchain integration are just a
few of the transformative technologies shaping the future of IoT, promising to unlock new capabilities and
possibilities.
In conclusion, the journey into the world of EV has been both enlightening and inspiring. It has underscored the
immense potential of technology to drive positive change and empower individuals and communities. However, it
has also highlighted the need for responsible innovation, ethical stewardship, and collaborative efforts to overcome
the myriad challenges that lie ahead.
20
As we stand on the cusp of a new era defined by interconnectedness and
intelligence, let us embrace the opportunities presented by EV while
remaining vigilant guardians of privacy, ethics, and security. By doing so, we
can harness the full potential of EV to create a more sustainable, equitable,
and prosperous future for all.
21
Reference
1. https://yocharge.com/faq/the-main-
components-of-electric-vehicles/
2. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/archite
cture-of-internet-of-things-iot/
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/Electric vehicle
4. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_of_things/
internet_of_things_technology_and_pr otocols.htm
5. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/challe
nges-in-internet-of-things-iot/
6. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/03/ai-is-
fusing-with-the-internet-of-things-to- create-
new-technology-innovations/

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technical report on EV. EVs can offer benefitssuch as lower operating costs and reduced dependence on fossil fuels

  • 1. TECHINAL REPORT ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE Submitted by:- Bijay Sharma
  • 2. DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENT Haldia Institute Of Technology Hatiberia, PO-HIT; Dist: Midnapore(E), West Bengal, India. A Technical Report On Electric vehicle Submitted by Bijay Sharma Roll no: 10305522032 4th semester Under Supervision of Ms. Minaxi Day & Ms. Gargi Jana 2
  • 3. CERTIFICATE DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENT Haldia Institute Of Technology Hatiberia, PO-HIT; Dist: Midnapore(E), West Bengal, India. This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “Electric Vehicle” is a bonafide work carried out by Bijay Sharma(Roll No. 10305522032), under my supervision. The report is submitted to the Applied Electronic And Instrumentation Department, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, Midnapur(E). In my opinion the report in the present form is in partial fulfilment of the entire requirement as specified by the Haldia Institute Of Technology and as per regulation of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology.In fact, it has attained the standard necessary for submission. Signature of the supervisor ……………………………………… (Dr. Minaxi Dey , Ms. Gargi Jana) Assistant Professor Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia. 3
  • 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude and acknowledge to my supervisor Ms.GARGI JANA And Dr.Menaxi Dey for the encouraging guidance, valuable suggestions and inestimable help she has rendered during the work period. I would also like thank to all of my friends for their encouragement and assistantship. Last but not the least I am thankful to everybody who assisted me during the course of this report- either directly or indirectly. Signature of the Candidate Bijay Sharma Roll no: 10305522032 4th Semester Department Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Haldia Institute of Technology
  • 5. Contents Table of content 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………06 2. History of EV…………………………………………………………….06-07 3. Main component used in EV…………………………………….07-08 4. Working of EV………………………………………………………………..08 5. Advantage and Disadvantage of EV…………………………….....09 6. Emission…………………………………………………………………………09 7. Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric…10 8. Automobile Industry in India……………………………….......10-11 9. Global warming: ozone layer………………………………………….11 10. Future of the EV……………………………………………………………..12 11. Range of the EV………………………………………………………….....12 12. Types of Electric Vehicles………………………………………………..12 13. Architecture of EV…………………………………………………………..13 14. Challenges related to EV……………………………………………14-16 15. Hybrid Vehicle………………………………………………………………..16 16. Working of hybrid vehicle………………………………………………16 17. Parts of hybrid vehicle…………………………………………………….17 18. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………17-18 19. Reference………………………………………………………………………19
  • 6. Introduction An electric vehicle (EV) is a type of vehicle that is powered by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device. Unlike conventional internal combustion engine vehicles that rely on gasoline or diesel fuel, electric vehicles use electricity as their primary source of power. This can include fully electric vehicles (BEVs), which run entirely on electricity, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which combine an electric motor with a conventional engine and can be charged by plugging into an external power source. EVs are often seen as a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional vehicles because they produce zero tailpipe emissions when powered solely by electricity, reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally,EVs can offer benefits such as lower operating costs and reduced dependence on fossil fuels. History Of EV 1.Early Concepts (19th Century): • Electric vehicles have roots dating back to the 19th century. • In the late 1800s, electric cars were popular due to their simplicity and ease of operation. 2.Rise and Fall (Early to Mid-20th Century): • Early 20th century saw a surge in electric vehicle popularity, especially in urban areas. •Factors such as the invention of the electric starter, mass production of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, and the availability of cheap gasoline led to a decline in electric vehicle use. 3. Renewed Interest (Late 20th Century): •Environmental concerns, oil crises, and advancements in battery technology reignited interest in electric vehicles. • Prototypes and experimental electric cars were developed by various manufacturers during the 1970s and 1980s. 6
  • 7. 7 4. Mainstream Introduction (Late 20th to Early 21st Century): • In the late 1990s, Toyota launched the Prius, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which achieved commercial success. •In 2008, Tesla Motors released the Roadster, an all-electric sports car, which demonstrated the potential for high-performance electric vehicles. 5. Government Support and Market Growth (21st Century): • Governments worldwide started offering incentives and subsidies to promote electric vehicle adoption. •Advancements in battery technology, including lithium-ion batteries, led to increased range and performance of electric vehicles. • Major automakers began introducing electric vehicles into their lineups, contributing to market growth. 6. Current Trends and Future Outlook: • Electric vehicles continue to gain popularity due to advancements in technology, increased charging infrastructure, and environmental consciousness. • Governments are setting targets to phase out internal combustion engine vehicles in favor of electric vehicles. •Innovations such as solid-state batteries and wireless charging hold promise for further improving electric vehicle performance and convenience. Main Components Used in EV 1. TractionBattery Pack Traction battery pack is also known as Electric vehicle battery (EVB). It powers the electric motors of an electric vehicle. The battery acts as an electrical storage system. It stores energy in the form DC current. The range will be higher with increasing kW of the battery. The life and operation of the battery depends on its design. The lifetime of a traction battery pack is estimated to be 200,000 miles. 2. DC-DC Converter The traction battery pack delivers a constant voltage. But different components of electric vehicle has different requirements. The dc to dc converter distributes the output power that is coming from the battery to a required level. It also provides the voltage required to charge the auxiliary battery. 3. Electricmotor Electric traction motor is the main components of electric vehicles. The motor converts the electrical energy into kinetic energy. This energy rotates the wheels. Electric motor is the main components of electric vehicle that differentiates an electric car from conventional cars. An important feature of an electric motor is the regenerative braking mechanism. This mechanism slows down the vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, and storing it for future use. There are basically two types of motors DC and AC motors 4. PowerInverter It coverts DC power from the batteries to AC power. It also converts the AC current generated during regenerative braking into DC current. This is further used to recharge the batteries. The inverter can change the speed of the
  • 8. Working of an EV When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer activates and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulates the power accordingly, takes the power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The motor receives the power (voltage) from the controller and uses this power to rotate the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and causes the car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to the motor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controller chops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an average voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage 5. Charge Port The charge port connects the electric vehicle to an external supply. It charges the battery pack. The charge port is sometimes located in the front or rear part of electric vehicle components. 6. Onboard charger Onboard charger is used to convert the AC supply received from the charge port to DC supply. The on-board charger is located and installed inside the car. It monitors various battery characteristics and controls the current flowing inside the battery pack. 7. Controller Power electronics controller determines the working of an electric car. It performs the regulation of electrical energy from the batteries to the electric motors. The pedal set by the driver determines the speed of the car and frequency of variation of voltage that is input to the motor. It also controls the torque produced. 8. Auxiliary batteries Auxiliary batteries are the source of electrical energy for the accessories in electric vehicles. In the absence of the main battery, the auxiliary batteries will continue to charge the car. It prevents the voltage drop, produced during engine start from affecting the electrical system. 9. Thermalsystem(cooling) The thermal management system is responsible for maintaining an operating temperature for the main components of electric vehicle (EV) such as, electric motor, controller etc. It functions during charging as well to obtain maximum performance. It uses a combination of thermoelectric cooling, forced air cooling, and liquid cooling. 10. Transmission The gearbox transfers the mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels. The advantage of electric cars is that they do not require multi-speed transmissions. The transmission efficiency should be high to avoid power loss
  • 9. Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV The greatest challenge EVs face deal with the rechargeable battery. Most EVs can only go about 100–200 miles before recharging; fully recharging the battery pack can take four to eight hours. Battery packs are heavy, expensive, may need to be replaced, and take up considerable vehicle space [5]. Overall, the electric vehicle has more advantages than disadvantages. Advantages include no tailpipe emissions, which leads to a reduction in global warming and unhealthy people Emission Emissions Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be ninety seven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air
  • 10. Automative industry In India Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry Further information: Electric vehicle industry in India During April 2012, the Indian government planned to unveil the road map for the development of domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.[ A discussion between the various stakeholders, including Government, industry, and academia, was expected to take place during 23–24 February.[ The final contours of the policy would have been formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport, and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries, auto industry executives, such as and Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-chairman, Toyota Kirloskar), were involved in this task. 1 0 Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric
  • 11. [The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17.] The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor, and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year 2017, Anbased Electric Vehicles manufacturing company called AVERA[New & Renewable Energy started electric scooters manufacturing and are ready to launch their two models of scooters by the end of December 2018. Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry Further information: Electric vehicle industry in India During April 2012, the Indian government planned to unveil the road map for the development of domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country. A discussion between the various stakeholders, including Government, industry, and academia, was expected to take place during 23–24 February.[ The final contours of the policy would have been formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport, and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries, auto industry executives, such as and Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-chairman, Toyota Kirloskar), were involved in this task.[The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17. The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor, and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year 2017, Anbased Electric Vehicles manufacturing company called AVERA[New & Renewable Energy started electric scooters manufacturingand are ready to launch their two models of scooters by the end of December 2018. Electric cars are seen as economical long-term investments, as one doesn't need to purchase gas, but needs only to recharge the battery, using renewable energy sources. According to the electric cars produce half as much CO2 emissions as compared to a gas-powered car.[According to the economic times, 60% of Indian customers expect fuel prices to go up in the next 12 months and 58% expect to buy a new car in the same time frame. Most consumers are looking to buy a car which gives good mileage. According to the same source, 68% of Asian drivers expect higher mileage from their cars due to the higher fuel prices. This has encouraged 38% of Indian automobile consumers to switch to electric or hybrid cars.Due to this change in the market, many companies, such as Toyota, have planned to introduce electric vehicles in India; and Suzuki has tested almost 50 electric prototypes in India already, according to Mashable In 2019, Hyundai launched India's first electric car, the Kona Electric Global Warming: Ozone Layer The process of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, also known as global warming, diminishes the Earth’s ozone layer, which is what occurs at this time. A factor that makes electric vehicles clean is their ability to use half the number of parts a gasoline powered vehicle does, including gasoline and oil.
  • 12. Future of the EV Future of the EV Future electric cars will most likely carry lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries that are now becoming popular in other countries. The LiFePO4 batteries are rechargeable and powerful and are being used in electric bikes and scooters. Electric cars will most likely adopt this technology in the future. Another technology that is likely for future electric cars is the increased use of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors for storing and delivering electrical charge. Many of these batteries are currently being used in conjunction with hybrid car prototypes, so these are expected in the electric car future markets as well. Argueta - 8 If the developers of future electric cars can create vehicles with a range of 300 miles per charge, a charging time of five to ten minutes, and safety in operating the vehicles, the market is wide open for them. Researchers are working on improved battery technologies to increase driving range and decrease recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine the future of EVs What is the Range of EVs? Range of an electric vehicle is nothing but the distance a vehicle can travel in one full charge. It is a crucial factor for buyers to consider while buying a new EV. This is an important factor to consider as EVis a new technology and the infrastructure surrounding it is still developing, especially in a country like India. There are various factors that can affect the range of an EV. Few examples are: 1.Battery capacity 2.Weight of vehicle 3.Type of vehicle, ex. car, truck 4.Aerodynamics of vehicle 5.Weather conditions 6.Terrain of driving 7.Driving behaviors Types of Electric Vehicles There are 3 main types of vehicles designed for different driving needs: 1.Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) BEVs run 100% on electricity stored in onboard batteries, powering the electric motor and drivetrain. Most BEVs today have a range of 150–300 miles per charge. They produce no tailpipe emissions, are cheap to operate, and require little maintenance. Popular BEV Models: Tesla Model 3, Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Bolt 2.Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) PHEvs have both electric motors and gasoline engines. They can drive approx. 10–50 miles purely on electric power before the gas engine kicks in. This provides emission-free commuting while eliminating range anxiety on longer trips. Popular PHEV Models: Toyota Prius Prime, Hyundai Ioniq, Kia Niro PHEV 3.Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) FCEVs use hydrogen fuel cells instead of large batteries to power the electric motors. Hydrogen from the tank mixes with oxygen to produce electricity. FCEVs can be refueled in 5 minutes and have a 300+-mile range. However, hydrogen infrastructure is still in its early stages. Popular FCEV Model: Toyota Mirai In a nutshell, BEVs are 100% electric, PHEVs are gas-electric hybrids, and FCEVs run on hydrogen- based electricity. 1 2
  • 13. Architecture of EV Times are changing fast and we’re surrounded by more electric vehicles than we would’ve expected a few years ago. While we know most things about IC engine cars - how they work, what systems are involved, the standard set of do's and don'ts etc., we tend to overlook a lot of similar things in electric vehicles probably because they're pretty straightforward to drive. However, IMO, EVs are far from that. There's a lot of technology involved and the level of complexity is also high. With such an influx of EVs in our market, it’s about time we also got ourselves acquainted with the technology to make better decisions. To be specific, I am referring to electric vehicle architecture. There are 3 main components in an EV – the battery, the motor and the controller/charger. The battery is what stores the energy and the motor is what uses that energy to drive the wheels of the car. The controller/charger converts the energy from the battery into a usable form to power the motor. In more technical terms, the power grid from your house or a charging station is usually an AC. The lithium-ion battery can store electric energy in DC form. So while charging, there’s usually an AC/DC converter that will convert the power grid's AC into DC and store it in the car’s battery. The DC fast chargers that you see, usually have the AC/DC converter inbuilt, which is how they can charge the car’s battery faster. The controller typically sits on top of the motor 10
  • 14. 11 Challenges related to EV: 1. Purchase Cost The EV industry’s biggest challenge is vehicle purchase cost. Electric vehicles are more expensive to build than gasoline-powered ones, primarily because of battery technology. EV batteries must hold a massive charge to provide the minimum range for most owners, requiring expensive raw materials to manufacture. Even when discounting battery costs, there is such a massive supply of gas-powered vehicles in the U.S. that they are comparatively cheap. Although EVs may be less expensive to operate than their gasoline counterparts, first, they have to be bought –and currently, there are few models on the market with a sticker price of less than $30,000 (not including government tax credits). Used models that go for half or less of the new-car MSRP tend to be older models with much less battery range. 2.Range Anxiety Range anxiety is real. Americans are used to jumping in their cars and going wherever they want (and however far) without worrying about finding a gas station for a quick fill-up when needed. But people are worried about how far they can travel in an EV before finding a charging station and then having to wait through a long charging session. This challenge is particularly a concern during the winter when there can be a significant reduction in an EV’s regular battery range due to below-freezing temperatures. Most EVs sold can go between 200-300 miles on a single charge in temperate weather conditions. That is plenty when you consider that Americans drive an average of 36 miles per day (about 13,500 miles per year). But for those long days on the road, weekend getaways, driving vacations, or just freezing weather, an EV owner may need a charge every 3-4 hours. 3.Limited Selection Ten years ago, EV models in the U.S. were limited to the Nissan Leaf 24kWh, Tesla Roadster 1.0,and the Mitsubishi iMIEV. Selection is rapidly increasing now as manufacturers ramp up. As of 2022, there were 28 EV models available in America from 18manufacturers. There is still a limited selection of EVs compared to gasoline-powered cars, and most auto manufacturers offer only a few models. Sedans, hatchbacks, and SUVs are becoming more available. However, people looking for a truck or minivan still need more choices. 4. Difficulty Finding a Technician Most car owners find that having their vehicle serviced by a dealer can be significantly more expensive than using a qualified independent maintenance and repair shop. With the EV industry still comparatively small, there are relatively few trained EV repair technicians and even fewer qualified independent shops. Working on an EV beyond tires, brakes, light bulbs, and audio components can be dangerous for an untrained technician, which means most EV owners rely on their EV dealer for service. Fortunately, EVs need less maintenance than gasoline-powered cars. But if an expensive component needs replacing (such as the battery pack, which typically runs $5,000 and up depending on the EV model), there is currently little competition to help keep costs down.
  • 15. 5. Charging Infrastructure The scarcity of charging stations in many areas of the country is increasing the incidence of range anxiety. The federal government is working to help improve the situation through the passage of the infrastructure act in 2021,which provides $7.5 billion in new funding for EV charging stations and related infrastructure. The Act will fund an equitable network of 500,000 EV chargers across 75,000 miles of designated corridors across the U.S., benefiting rural communities as much as more highly populated areas. The plan dictates a charging station every 50 miles along the interstate and no more than a mile off the highway. Projects relying at least partly on this funding have already been approved in all 50 states. 6 . Charger Compatibility Level 2 chargers are mostly coordinated, with all automakers except Tesla using the same type of charging port (Tesla drivers need an adapter). However, there are three different types of DC fast chargers: •SAE Combined Charging System (CCS): •used by most manufacturers •CHAdeMO:used by Nissan and Mitsubishi •Tesla Supercharger: used solely by Tesla vehicles If only because it is different than the universal access to fuel stations enjoyed by gasoline-powered vehicles, these compatibility differences can be an obstacle to widespread EV adoption. 12
  • 16. 7. Grid Capacity Changing to EVs means millions of people will rely on the electric grid in new ways, and grid capacity will need to increase to avoid strain. Experts vary on how much additional power we’ll need, but the U.S. Department of Energy has predicted a in electricity consumption by 2050,primarily due to EVs. The Energy Institute at the University of Texas assessed the electrical demand needed if each state converted all personal cars, trucks, and SUVs to plug-in EVs. They found that statewide energy consumption would increase by a low of Most states fell in the 20-30 percent range. Only some states have excess capacity to meet increased demand with existing infrastructure. Hybrid vehicle The hybrid vehicle (HV) is powered by both a gasoline engine and electric motor. The HV runs using power from an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The engine provides most of the vehicle’s power, and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as accelerating and passing [4]. The hybrid vehicle operates on a gasoline and electric energy principle. A hybrid car features a small fuel-efficient gas engine combined with an electric motor that assists the engine when accelerating. The electric motor is powered by batteries that recharge automatically while you drive [4]. Five main parts make up the hybrid vehicle: the battery, internal combustion engine (ICE), generator, power split device, and electric motor. Working of Hybrid When the driver steps on the pedal the generator converts energy from the engine into electricity and stores it in the battery. The battery then provides power to the electric motor. The internal combustion engine and electric motor work simultaneously and each provide power to the power split device. The power split device combines both powers and uses it to turn the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and propels the vehicle. The energy used when braking is converted into electricity and stored in the battery. When braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle down. When the vehicle is stopped, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxiliary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays. 13
  • 17. Parts of Hybrid vehicle Battery. The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The hybrid car has an ICE, also known as a gasoline engine, much like the ones found on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. Receives its energy from the fuel tank where the gasoline is stored. Generator. The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power for the battery. Power Split Device. The power-split-device resides between the two motors and together with the two motors creates a type of continuously variable transmission. Conclusion The EV stands at the forefront of technological innovation, poised to revolutionize industries, reshape societies, and enhance the quality of life for individuals around the globe. Through the interconnection of billions of devices, sensors, and systems,EV has unlocked unprecedented opportunities for data-driven insights, automation, and efficiency across diverse domains. As we conclude our exploration EV technology, several key insights emerge: Firstly, EV has permeated virtually every aspect of modern life, from smart homes and cities to industrial automation and healthcare. Its applications are as varied as they are impactful, driving improvements in energy efficiency, resource management, and public safety. Secondly, while the potential benefits of EV are immense, so too are the challenges. Data privacy concerns, security vulnerabilities, and ethical considerations loom large, demanding careful attention and robust solutions. As EV deployments continue to scale, addressing these challenges will be paramount to ensuring trust, reliability, and societal acceptance Thirdly, EV is not a static technology but a dynamic ecosystem constantly evolving in response to emerging trends and advancements. Edge computing, artificial intelligence, 5G connectivity, and blockchain integration are just a few of the transformative technologies shaping the future of IoT, promising to unlock new capabilities and possibilities. In conclusion, the journey into the world of EV has been both enlightening and inspiring. It has underscored the immense potential of technology to drive positive change and empower individuals and communities. However, it has also highlighted the need for responsible innovation, ethical stewardship, and collaborative efforts to overcome the myriad challenges that lie ahead.
  • 18. 20 As we stand on the cusp of a new era defined by interconnectedness and intelligence, let us embrace the opportunities presented by EV while remaining vigilant guardians of privacy, ethics, and security. By doing so, we can harness the full potential of EV to create a more sustainable, equitable, and prosperous future for all.
  • 19. 21 Reference 1. https://yocharge.com/faq/the-main- components-of-electric-vehicles/ 2. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/archite cture-of-internet-of-things-iot/ 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Electric vehicle 4. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_of_things/ internet_of_things_technology_and_pr otocols.htm 5. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/challe nges-in-internet-of-things-iot/ 6. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/03/ai-is- fusing-with-the-internet-of-things-to- create- new-technology-innovations/