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CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 9
3
9.1 Concept and definition of Sports
Medicine
9.2 Aims and Scope of Sports Medicine
9.3 Impact of Surfaces and
Environment on Athletes
9.4 Sports Injuries: Classification,
Causes and Prevention
9.5 Management of Injuries
SPORTS MEDICINE
4
9.1 Concept and Definition of Sports
Medicine
5
Sports medicine is a branch of
medical science that deals with the
treatment of injuries related to sports
and games.
It helps in preventing, diagnosing and
treating the sports injuries.
It lays stress on improving sports
performance of sports person.
CONCEPT AND DEFINITION OF SPORTS MEDICINE
6
9.2 Aims and Scope of Sports
Medicine
7
To provide information to sports person
about sports injuries.
To provide knowledge about causes of
injuries due to improper conditioning, faulty
techniques, improper warming up,
environmental factors and improper fitness.
To provide treatment and rehabilitation for
sports injuries. Medical treatments such as
hydro therapy, electro therapy, IR rays
therapy etc. are informed to sportpersons.
To provide knowledge about the preventive
measures of sports injuries.
AIMS OF SPORTS MEDICINE
8
1. Human Anatomy and physiology
2. Sports and First Aid
3. Prevention of accidents in sports
4. Sports Injury Rehabilitation
5. Female and Sports
6. Study of Optimal Load for different age
group
7. Scientific promotion of sports
SCOPE OF SPORTS MEDICINE
9
8. Fitness for Sports
9. Illness caused by environmental,
physiological and psychological
disturbances
10. Specific Nutrition for sports persons
11. New method of detecting the
Doping as well as use and abuse of
drugs
12. Preventive and curative exercises
13. Sports and traumatology
14. Physiotherapy
SCOPE OF SPORTS MEDICINE
10
9.3 Impact of Surfaces and
Environment on Sportspersons
11
 grass
 wooden
 cemented
 artificial turf
 rubber
 synthetic
 clay
 cinder
 sponge
 Broadly categorized in Hard, Soft and
Special Surfaces
 Have different impact on performance of
sportpersons.
TYPES OF SURFACES
Wooden court
12
1.Hard surfaces: Provide instant rebound
which leads to better performance as
compared to soft surfaces. Chances of injuries
are maximum.
2.Soft surfaces : The bounce is not instant as
the contact period is more. The chances of
injuries are less.
3.Special surfaces: Surfaces that are
prepared specifically for certain games.
Wooden surface is used in most of the indoor
games. Special turf is used in Hockey and
synthetic tracks for athletics. Such surfaces
provide good grip & prevent injury and
enhance the sports performance.
IMPACT OF SURFACES ON SPORTS PERSONS
13
1. High Temperature : Most common and
adverse environmental factor. Adversely
impact the performance of sports person.
Heat stroke and heat cramps are common
which can be fatal.
2. Extreme Cold Climate : Causes
hypothermia, frost bite, frost nip. Performance
is adversely affected.
3. High Altitude : As the availability of oxygen
is less, body is forced to produce a greater
number of RBCs to meet the oxygen
requirement. Sun burn, Snow Blindness,
Mountain sickness is common.
IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON SPORTS PERSON
14
4. High Humidity : Adversely affect the sports
performance specially for long distance runner.
5. Air pollution : Adversely affects the
performance and has negative effect on the
health.
6. High Speed Winds : A head wind ( wind in
opposite direction) can slow the runners where
as tail wind provide assistance.
7. Jet Lag : Significant time change upsets the
biological clock of the sports person and can
adversely affects the performance
IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON SPORTS PERSON
15
9.4 Sports Injuries: Classification,
Causes and Prevention
16
Injuries which are common in the field of games and
sports
Happen during practice, training or competition
If appropriate steps are taken by the sports person
the chance of getting injuries can be reduced.
SPORTS INJURIES
17
Sports injuries can be classified as under:
1. Soft Tissue Injuries
2.Bone Injuries
3. Joint Injuries
CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS INJURIES
18
1. Contusion
2. Strain
3. Sprain
4. Abrasion
5. Bruises
Soft Tissue Injuries
19
 Muscle injury occurs due to direct hit, with or without any
sports equipment.
 Blood vessels in the muscles are broken, bleeding may
occur in the muscles .
 Stiffness & swelling common sign.
 Muscle may not respond or may become totally inactive.
 Common in :
Boxing,
Wrestling,
Kabaddi.
CONTUSION
20
 Mild or severe muscle injury.
 In severe case, muscle may rupture.
 In case of complete rupture movement of limb
is not possible due to severe pain.
 May happen during practice or clash.
STRAIN
21
 Ligament injury.
 May occur due to over stretching or tearing of
ligament.
 Occurs at wrist joint and ankle joint.
 Some time fracture is possible along with
sprain.
 Swelling, inflammation,
severe pain & tenderness
are common symptoms.
SPRAIN
22
 Skin Injury.
 Occurs due to friction with any
equipment or a fall over the area where
the bone is close to skin.
 Occurs at upper layer of skin.
ABRASION
23
1.An injury appearing as an area of discoloured
skin ( red to blue or dark purple )on the body
2.Caused by a blow or impact rupturing
underlying blood vessels.
BRUISES
24
BONE INJURIES
1.Simple Fracture
2.Compound Fracture
3.Complicated Fracture
4. Green Stick Fracture
5. Comminuted Fracture
6. Impacted Fracture
7. Depressed Fracture
25
1. Simple Fracture :
A fracture without
any wound .
2. Compound Fracture :
Along with fracture, skin
and muscles are also
damaged. Generally,
the broken bones comes
outside tearing the skin.
BONE INJURIES
26
3. Complicated Fracture :
Along with fracture, internal organs like
tissues, nerves or arteries are damaged.
Such fractures are dangerous and
common in high jump and pole vault.
4. Green Stick Fracture:
Common in children because their
bones are delicate and can bend on
any stress.
BONE INJURIES
27
5. Comminuted Fracture :
When bone is broken into two or
more pieces. Common in cycle
and motorcycle races.
6. Impacted Fracture :
Fractured bone enters into another
bone.
7. Depressed Fracture :
Bones are broken and go down
below there normal level. Usually
found in the skull.
BONE INJURIES
28
JOINT INJURIES
1. Dislocation of Lower Jaw
2. Dislocation of Shoulder Joint
3. Dislocation of Hip Joint
29
1. Dislocation of Lower Jaw:
Occurs when chin strikes to another
object. May also occur when mouth is
opened excessively.
2. Dislocation of Shoulder Joint :
Occurs due to sudden jerk or a fall on
hard surface. The end of humerus comes
out from the socket
3. Dislocation of Hip Joint :
Occurs by putting maximum strength
spontaneously. End of the femur is
displaced from the socket.
JOINT INJURIES
30
 Injuries are somewhat mandatory in sports.
 Effect of the injuries to the athlete is of extreme nature
as it may bring an halt to their sports carrier.
 Taking prevention is always better.
 Time taken in recovery is the loss of time for training.
 A sudden injury may be the reason for withdrawal from
the competition which gives a negative impact on the
future performance of the athlete.
 According to the researches, injury rate can be
reduced upto 25% if appropriate steps are taken during
training and competition.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
31
1. Proper Warm-Up :
 Essential before training and competition.
 Tones up muscles for training and competitions.
 Reduces chances of injuries.
 Routine should be of minimum of 10 minutes.
 Start with gentle exercises to brisk exercises.
 Put more emphasis on muscles which will be
used in the training or competition.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
32
2. Proper Conditioning :
 Injuries are caused by weak muscles not
ready to meet the demand of the sport.
 Use weight and circuit training methods to
improve muscular strength.
 Conditioning improves the Neuro - muscular
co-ordination.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
33
3. Balanced Diet:
 Lack of essential minerals and vitamins such as
calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D etc. make
bones weak.
 Weak bones lead to sports injuries.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
34
4. Proper Knowledge of Sports Skills:
 Proper knowledge of sports skills is very beneficial
and essential for injury prevention.
 Sportsperson should be efficient in performing the
related sports skills.
 One should have deep knowledge of sports skills
and is efficient completely in performing them can
prevent from injuries to great extent.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
35
5. Use of Protective Equipments :
 Using protective equipments is very basic
requirement for the safety of players.
 Stress should be laid down on good quality
of protective equipments.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
36
6. Proper Sports Facilities :
 With proper warm-up and skills etc., proper
facilities for the training and competitions is
also very important for prevention from injuries.
 Outdoor Grounds or indoor halls should be
maintained properly for the training.
 Specially surface, for the particular sport
should be maintained(eg.landing pit for high
jumpers).
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
37
7. Unbiased Officiating :
 Officiating specially in teams can play an
important role for prevention of injuries.
 Unbiased officiating maintains a discipline
among the players and reduces the chances of
injuries.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
38
8. Do Not Over train :
 Over training in the beginning for the beginners
causes sports injury.
 Beginners should avoid doing too much too soon.
 If one is training after a long gap of time, it should
be increased wisely otherwise there are more
chances of injuries.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
39
9. Use of Proper technique :
 Using right technique in training and playing of
particular sport, prevent from injuries .
 Wrong techniques may cause tendonitis or
fractures.
 One should always train under expert guidance
and supervision.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
40
10. Obeying the Rules :
 Obeying the rules of particular game during
training and competition prevents from injuries .
 On the other hand if player is not obeying the
rules of the game, he is more likely to get injured .
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
41
11. Proper Cooling Down :
 After every practice session or competition,
cooling down is as important as warming up in
the beginning .
 It should be of light aerobic activity such as
jogging etc. (5-10 min.) followed by stretching
exercises.
 Cooling down helps in removing waste products
such as lactic acid & acid phosphate etc. from the
muscles
 It also helps in alleviating the muscle stiffness
and soreness.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
42
Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries
1. Avoid training when you are tired.
2. Have more carbohydrates when under going
rigorous training.
3. Increase resting time if training time is increased.
4. Increase in training should be preceded by
increase in conditioning (strengthening).
5. Don’t ignore minor injuries as they tend to become
major injuries .
6. If pain is felt during training, stop training session
immediately.
7. Never train hard if stiffness from the previous
session still exists.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
43
Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries
8. Pay attention to hydration and nutrition.
9. Use appropriate training surface.
10. Training and competition area should be free of
hazards.
11. Use safe and appropriate equipments.
12. Introduce new activities gradually.
13. Allow lot of time for warming up and cooling down.
14. Check training and competition schedules
beforehand.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
44
Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries
15. When training on different surfaces , use the proper
footwear.
16. Change to dry clothes after cooling down.
17. Aim for maximum comfort when travelling.
18. Stay away from infectious area when training.
19. Be more vigilant about hygiene in hot weather.
20. If any sign of fatigue before training session, ease
off.
21. Have regular sports massage.
PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
45
9.5 Management of Injuries
46
Basic knowledge of First – Aid is essential.
Immediate First – Aid is required .
In absence of First – Aid, consequence may
be serious for the sports person.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
47
Contusion :
 Cold Compression should be used immediately for
around half an hour.
 Cold Compression should be performed five to six
times daily.
 In case of more swelling at the injured part Anti –
Inflammatory medicine should be given.
 If the swelling still persist, consult the doctor.
 For Rehabilitation, flexibility
exercises should be done carefully.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
48
Strain :
 Strained organ should be kept in comfortable
position.
 Pour cold water for 20 to 30 minutes.
 Ice should not be applied directly (wrap ice in cotton
cloth).
 Light massage should be given after 2 – 3 days.
 Pain killer may be given in case
of severe pain.
 Complete rest for one week.
 Warm water therapy should
be given.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
49
Sprain :
 Injured part should be kept in comfortable
position.
 Cold Compression should be used immediately for 10-
20 minutes and performed 6 to 8 times per day.
 The injured limb should be elevated.
 If pain still persist, painkiller should be given.
 Warm water therapy after 2-3 days.
 Light massage should be given.
 In case of ankle sprain, 8-Type
bandage should be wrapped.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
50
Abrasion :
 Injured part should be washed with clean
water/antiseptic liquid.
 Dressing should be done lightly if Abrasion is serious.
 Anti-Tetanus injection should be taken.
 Painkiller should be given in case of severe pain.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
51
Fracture :
 Try to locate the fracture by touching gently .
 Don’t move fractured limb.
 Use splints and bandages to keep the fractured limb
stable.
 In case of compound fracture don’t wash the wound.
 Use dry and disinfectant bandages.
 For vertebrae fracture, athlete should be lifted
carefully(avoiding bending ,twisting etc.) to the
hospital.
 For ribs fracture, immobilizing bandage should be
applied as it reduces further damage.
 For femur fracture, anesthetics should be given and
affected leg should be immobilized.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
52
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
Fracture :
53
Dislocation of Joints :
 Immobilize the affected limb by bandage.
 Don’t try to adjust the dislocated limb without a doctor.
 Athlete should be taken to hospital on stretcher.
MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES

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Sports Medicine

  • 3. 3 9.1 Concept and definition of Sports Medicine 9.2 Aims and Scope of Sports Medicine 9.3 Impact of Surfaces and Environment on Athletes 9.4 Sports Injuries: Classification, Causes and Prevention 9.5 Management of Injuries SPORTS MEDICINE
  • 4. 4 9.1 Concept and Definition of Sports Medicine
  • 5. 5 Sports medicine is a branch of medical science that deals with the treatment of injuries related to sports and games. It helps in preventing, diagnosing and treating the sports injuries. It lays stress on improving sports performance of sports person. CONCEPT AND DEFINITION OF SPORTS MEDICINE
  • 6. 6 9.2 Aims and Scope of Sports Medicine
  • 7. 7 To provide information to sports person about sports injuries. To provide knowledge about causes of injuries due to improper conditioning, faulty techniques, improper warming up, environmental factors and improper fitness. To provide treatment and rehabilitation for sports injuries. Medical treatments such as hydro therapy, electro therapy, IR rays therapy etc. are informed to sportpersons. To provide knowledge about the preventive measures of sports injuries. AIMS OF SPORTS MEDICINE
  • 8. 8 1. Human Anatomy and physiology 2. Sports and First Aid 3. Prevention of accidents in sports 4. Sports Injury Rehabilitation 5. Female and Sports 6. Study of Optimal Load for different age group 7. Scientific promotion of sports SCOPE OF SPORTS MEDICINE
  • 9. 9 8. Fitness for Sports 9. Illness caused by environmental, physiological and psychological disturbances 10. Specific Nutrition for sports persons 11. New method of detecting the Doping as well as use and abuse of drugs 12. Preventive and curative exercises 13. Sports and traumatology 14. Physiotherapy SCOPE OF SPORTS MEDICINE
  • 10. 10 9.3 Impact of Surfaces and Environment on Sportspersons
  • 11. 11  grass  wooden  cemented  artificial turf  rubber  synthetic  clay  cinder  sponge  Broadly categorized in Hard, Soft and Special Surfaces  Have different impact on performance of sportpersons. TYPES OF SURFACES Wooden court
  • 12. 12 1.Hard surfaces: Provide instant rebound which leads to better performance as compared to soft surfaces. Chances of injuries are maximum. 2.Soft surfaces : The bounce is not instant as the contact period is more. The chances of injuries are less. 3.Special surfaces: Surfaces that are prepared specifically for certain games. Wooden surface is used in most of the indoor games. Special turf is used in Hockey and synthetic tracks for athletics. Such surfaces provide good grip & prevent injury and enhance the sports performance. IMPACT OF SURFACES ON SPORTS PERSONS
  • 13. 13 1. High Temperature : Most common and adverse environmental factor. Adversely impact the performance of sports person. Heat stroke and heat cramps are common which can be fatal. 2. Extreme Cold Climate : Causes hypothermia, frost bite, frost nip. Performance is adversely affected. 3. High Altitude : As the availability of oxygen is less, body is forced to produce a greater number of RBCs to meet the oxygen requirement. Sun burn, Snow Blindness, Mountain sickness is common. IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON SPORTS PERSON
  • 14. 14 4. High Humidity : Adversely affect the sports performance specially for long distance runner. 5. Air pollution : Adversely affects the performance and has negative effect on the health. 6. High Speed Winds : A head wind ( wind in opposite direction) can slow the runners where as tail wind provide assistance. 7. Jet Lag : Significant time change upsets the biological clock of the sports person and can adversely affects the performance IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON SPORTS PERSON
  • 15. 15 9.4 Sports Injuries: Classification, Causes and Prevention
  • 16. 16 Injuries which are common in the field of games and sports Happen during practice, training or competition If appropriate steps are taken by the sports person the chance of getting injuries can be reduced. SPORTS INJURIES
  • 17. 17 Sports injuries can be classified as under: 1. Soft Tissue Injuries 2.Bone Injuries 3. Joint Injuries CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 18. 18 1. Contusion 2. Strain 3. Sprain 4. Abrasion 5. Bruises Soft Tissue Injuries
  • 19. 19  Muscle injury occurs due to direct hit, with or without any sports equipment.  Blood vessels in the muscles are broken, bleeding may occur in the muscles .  Stiffness & swelling common sign.  Muscle may not respond or may become totally inactive.  Common in : Boxing, Wrestling, Kabaddi. CONTUSION
  • 20. 20  Mild or severe muscle injury.  In severe case, muscle may rupture.  In case of complete rupture movement of limb is not possible due to severe pain.  May happen during practice or clash. STRAIN
  • 21. 21  Ligament injury.  May occur due to over stretching or tearing of ligament.  Occurs at wrist joint and ankle joint.  Some time fracture is possible along with sprain.  Swelling, inflammation, severe pain & tenderness are common symptoms. SPRAIN
  • 22. 22  Skin Injury.  Occurs due to friction with any equipment or a fall over the area where the bone is close to skin.  Occurs at upper layer of skin. ABRASION
  • 23. 23 1.An injury appearing as an area of discoloured skin ( red to blue or dark purple )on the body 2.Caused by a blow or impact rupturing underlying blood vessels. BRUISES
  • 24. 24 BONE INJURIES 1.Simple Fracture 2.Compound Fracture 3.Complicated Fracture 4. Green Stick Fracture 5. Comminuted Fracture 6. Impacted Fracture 7. Depressed Fracture
  • 25. 25 1. Simple Fracture : A fracture without any wound . 2. Compound Fracture : Along with fracture, skin and muscles are also damaged. Generally, the broken bones comes outside tearing the skin. BONE INJURIES
  • 26. 26 3. Complicated Fracture : Along with fracture, internal organs like tissues, nerves or arteries are damaged. Such fractures are dangerous and common in high jump and pole vault. 4. Green Stick Fracture: Common in children because their bones are delicate and can bend on any stress. BONE INJURIES
  • 27. 27 5. Comminuted Fracture : When bone is broken into two or more pieces. Common in cycle and motorcycle races. 6. Impacted Fracture : Fractured bone enters into another bone. 7. Depressed Fracture : Bones are broken and go down below there normal level. Usually found in the skull. BONE INJURIES
  • 28. 28 JOINT INJURIES 1. Dislocation of Lower Jaw 2. Dislocation of Shoulder Joint 3. Dislocation of Hip Joint
  • 29. 29 1. Dislocation of Lower Jaw: Occurs when chin strikes to another object. May also occur when mouth is opened excessively. 2. Dislocation of Shoulder Joint : Occurs due to sudden jerk or a fall on hard surface. The end of humerus comes out from the socket 3. Dislocation of Hip Joint : Occurs by putting maximum strength spontaneously. End of the femur is displaced from the socket. JOINT INJURIES
  • 30. 30  Injuries are somewhat mandatory in sports.  Effect of the injuries to the athlete is of extreme nature as it may bring an halt to their sports carrier.  Taking prevention is always better.  Time taken in recovery is the loss of time for training.  A sudden injury may be the reason for withdrawal from the competition which gives a negative impact on the future performance of the athlete.  According to the researches, injury rate can be reduced upto 25% if appropriate steps are taken during training and competition. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 31. 31 1. Proper Warm-Up :  Essential before training and competition.  Tones up muscles for training and competitions.  Reduces chances of injuries.  Routine should be of minimum of 10 minutes.  Start with gentle exercises to brisk exercises.  Put more emphasis on muscles which will be used in the training or competition. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 32. 32 2. Proper Conditioning :  Injuries are caused by weak muscles not ready to meet the demand of the sport.  Use weight and circuit training methods to improve muscular strength.  Conditioning improves the Neuro - muscular co-ordination. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 33. 33 3. Balanced Diet:  Lack of essential minerals and vitamins such as calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D etc. make bones weak.  Weak bones lead to sports injuries. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 34. 34 4. Proper Knowledge of Sports Skills:  Proper knowledge of sports skills is very beneficial and essential for injury prevention.  Sportsperson should be efficient in performing the related sports skills.  One should have deep knowledge of sports skills and is efficient completely in performing them can prevent from injuries to great extent. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 35. 35 5. Use of Protective Equipments :  Using protective equipments is very basic requirement for the safety of players.  Stress should be laid down on good quality of protective equipments. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 36. 36 6. Proper Sports Facilities :  With proper warm-up and skills etc., proper facilities for the training and competitions is also very important for prevention from injuries.  Outdoor Grounds or indoor halls should be maintained properly for the training.  Specially surface, for the particular sport should be maintained(eg.landing pit for high jumpers). PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 37. 37 7. Unbiased Officiating :  Officiating specially in teams can play an important role for prevention of injuries.  Unbiased officiating maintains a discipline among the players and reduces the chances of injuries. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 38. 38 8. Do Not Over train :  Over training in the beginning for the beginners causes sports injury.  Beginners should avoid doing too much too soon.  If one is training after a long gap of time, it should be increased wisely otherwise there are more chances of injuries. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 39. 39 9. Use of Proper technique :  Using right technique in training and playing of particular sport, prevent from injuries .  Wrong techniques may cause tendonitis or fractures.  One should always train under expert guidance and supervision. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 40. 40 10. Obeying the Rules :  Obeying the rules of particular game during training and competition prevents from injuries .  On the other hand if player is not obeying the rules of the game, he is more likely to get injured . PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 41. 41 11. Proper Cooling Down :  After every practice session or competition, cooling down is as important as warming up in the beginning .  It should be of light aerobic activity such as jogging etc. (5-10 min.) followed by stretching exercises.  Cooling down helps in removing waste products such as lactic acid & acid phosphate etc. from the muscles  It also helps in alleviating the muscle stiffness and soreness. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 42. 42 Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries 1. Avoid training when you are tired. 2. Have more carbohydrates when under going rigorous training. 3. Increase resting time if training time is increased. 4. Increase in training should be preceded by increase in conditioning (strengthening). 5. Don’t ignore minor injuries as they tend to become major injuries . 6. If pain is felt during training, stop training session immediately. 7. Never train hard if stiffness from the previous session still exists. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 43. 43 Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries 8. Pay attention to hydration and nutrition. 9. Use appropriate training surface. 10. Training and competition area should be free of hazards. 11. Use safe and appropriate equipments. 12. Introduce new activities gradually. 13. Allow lot of time for warming up and cooling down. 14. Check training and competition schedules beforehand. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 44. 44 Tips for Preventing Sports Injuries 15. When training on different surfaces , use the proper footwear. 16. Change to dry clothes after cooling down. 17. Aim for maximum comfort when travelling. 18. Stay away from infectious area when training. 19. Be more vigilant about hygiene in hot weather. 20. If any sign of fatigue before training session, ease off. 21. Have regular sports massage. PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES
  • 46. 46 Basic knowledge of First – Aid is essential. Immediate First – Aid is required . In absence of First – Aid, consequence may be serious for the sports person. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 47. 47 Contusion :  Cold Compression should be used immediately for around half an hour.  Cold Compression should be performed five to six times daily.  In case of more swelling at the injured part Anti – Inflammatory medicine should be given.  If the swelling still persist, consult the doctor.  For Rehabilitation, flexibility exercises should be done carefully. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 48. 48 Strain :  Strained organ should be kept in comfortable position.  Pour cold water for 20 to 30 minutes.  Ice should not be applied directly (wrap ice in cotton cloth).  Light massage should be given after 2 – 3 days.  Pain killer may be given in case of severe pain.  Complete rest for one week.  Warm water therapy should be given. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 49. 49 Sprain :  Injured part should be kept in comfortable position.  Cold Compression should be used immediately for 10- 20 minutes and performed 6 to 8 times per day.  The injured limb should be elevated.  If pain still persist, painkiller should be given.  Warm water therapy after 2-3 days.  Light massage should be given.  In case of ankle sprain, 8-Type bandage should be wrapped. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 50. 50 Abrasion :  Injured part should be washed with clean water/antiseptic liquid.  Dressing should be done lightly if Abrasion is serious.  Anti-Tetanus injection should be taken.  Painkiller should be given in case of severe pain. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 51. 51 Fracture :  Try to locate the fracture by touching gently .  Don’t move fractured limb.  Use splints and bandages to keep the fractured limb stable.  In case of compound fracture don’t wash the wound.  Use dry and disinfectant bandages.  For vertebrae fracture, athlete should be lifted carefully(avoiding bending ,twisting etc.) to the hospital.  For ribs fracture, immobilizing bandage should be applied as it reduces further damage.  For femur fracture, anesthetics should be given and affected leg should be immobilized. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES
  • 53. 53 Dislocation of Joints :  Immobilize the affected limb by bandage.  Don’t try to adjust the dislocated limb without a doctor.  Athlete should be taken to hospital on stretcher. MANAGEMENT OF INJURIES