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1945-1965: The Beginning
The term software engineering first
appeared in the late 1950s and early
1960s. Programmers have always known
about civil, electrical, and computer
engineering and debated what engineering
might mean for software.
The NATO Science Committee sponsored
two conferences on software engineering
in 1968 and 1969, which gave the field its
initial boost. Many believe these
conferences marked the official start of the
profession of software engineering.
history 1
1965-1985: The Software Crisis
Software engineering was spurred by the so-called "software
crisis" of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, which identified many of
the problems of software development.
Many software projects ran over budget and schedule. Some
projects caused property damage.
A few projects caused loss of life. The software crisis was
originally defined in terms of productivity, but evolved to
emphasize quality. Some used the term software crisis to refer to
their inability to hire enough qualified programmers.
history 2
•Cost and Budget Overruns: The OS/360 operating system was a classic
example. This decade-long project from the 1960s eventually produced one of
the most complex software systems at the time. OS/360 was one of the first
large (1000 programmers) software projects. Fred Brooks claims in The
Mythical Man Month that he made a multi-million dollar mistake of not
developing a coherent architecture before starting development.
•Property Damage: Software defects can cause property damage. Poor
software security allows hackers to steal identities, costing time, money, and
reputations.
•Life and Death: Software defects can kill. Some embedded systems used in
radiotherapy machines failed so catastrophically that they administered lethal
doses of radiation to patients. The most famous of these failures is the //Therac
25// incident.
history 3
1985-1989: Silver Bullets
For decades, solving the software crisis was
paramount to researchers and companies producing
software tools. Seemingly, they trumpeted every new
technology and practice from the 1970s to the 1990s
as a "silver bullet" to solve the software crisis. Tools,
discipline, formal methods, process, and
professionalism were touted as silver bullets:
history 4
•Tools: Especially emphasized were tools: structured programming, object-
oriented programming, CASE tools, Ada, documentation, and standards were
touted as silver bullets.
•Discipline: Some pundits argued that the software crisis was due to the lack of
discipline of programmers.
•Formal methods: Some believed that if formal engineering methodologies
would be applied to software development, then production of software would
become as predictable an industry as other branches of engineering. They
advocated proving all programs correct.
•Process: Many advocated the use of defined processes and methodologies
like the Capability Maturity Model.
•Professionalism: This led to work on a code of ethics, licenses, and
professionalism.
history 5
In 1986, Fred Brooks published his No Silver
Bullet article, arguing that no individual technology or
practice would ever make a 10-fold improvement in
productivity within 10 years.
Debate about silver bullets raged over the following
decade. Advocates for Ada, components, and
processes continued arguing for years that their
favorite technology would be a silver bullet. Skeptics
disagreed. Eventually, almost everyone accepted that
no silver bullet would ever be found. Yet, claims
about silver bullets pop up now and again, even
today.
history 6
1990-1999: The Internet
The rise of the Internet led to very rapid growth in the demand
for international information display/e-mail systems on the
World Wide Web. Programmers were required to handle
illustrations, maps, photographs, and other images, plus
simple animation, at a rate never before seen, with few well-
known methods to optimize image display/storage (such as the
use of thumbnail images).
history 7
The growth of browser usage, running on the HTML
language, changed the way in which information-display
and retrieval was organized. The widespread network
connections led to the growth and prevention of
international computer viruses on MS Windows
computers, and the vast proliferation of spam e-mail
became a major design issue in e-mail systems, flooding
communication channels and requiring semi-automated
pre-screening. Keyword-search systems evolved into
web-based search engines, and many software systems
had to be re-designed,
history 8
for international searching, depending on search
engine optimization (SEO) techniques. Human natural-
language translation systems were needed to attempt
to translate the information flow in multiple foreign
languages, with many software systems being
designed for multi-language usage, based on design
concepts from human translators. Typical computer-
user bases went from hundreds, or thousands of users,
to, often, many-millions of international users.
history 9
2020-Present: Lightweight Methodologies, Devops, Computing
Capability, Privacy and Security, and BigData
Trends in the earlier years from 2000 to 2020 focused on improving the
efficiency of development processes. Agile methods, model-driven
development, software product lines, Aspect programming, and
experiment trends were process and procedure improvements. These
trends originated within the disciplines of computer science, information
technology, and software engineering (i.e. the STEM hierarchy). In the
following years, 2021 – 2023, these trends continue, but more efficient
software development approaches are called DevOps for Development
and Operations. Also, during these years, trends in other areas have
significant impacts on software engineering – on the types of problems
addressed, on quality goals, especially security and privacy; on
processes and procedures, risks, and the scale of the environment (that
is, infrastructure, data, computing resources, user volume, and diversity).
To get a handle on all these trends, we look at the impact on the models
used in software engineering, which will indicate what changes might
come in the practice of software engineering
history 10
Trends from 2000 – 2020 continued along with many new
trends. They are listed below, along with the software
engineering models they impact:
Impact on environment and computing process models:
•DEVOPS – the set of organizational practices and tools to
improve organizational capability to deliver more efficient
applications and services.
•Cloud Computing – over-the-network delivery to clients of
computing services and information technology resources from
a network of servers.
history 11
•Quantum Computing – computing using a quantum computer based on
quantum physics; its unit of storage is the qubit. N – qubits can hold 2**n
digital bits, which get super big very quickly.
•Access and Authentication Tools – practices and tools to manage and
control access to organization digital resources and identification of
authorized users
•Cyber-Security – technology to protect systems, networks, devices, and
data from attack
•Social Platforms – internet systems that enable virtual relationships and
sharing of all types of digital data among individuals, groups, businesses,
organizations, and communities, introducing a very large number of inter-
connections and complex web relationships
•Big Data – the amount of data that is too large to be practically processed
by traditional methods
history 12
Impact on architecture models and database
models:
•Distributed and Decentralized Systems – a
system distributed over the internet without
centralized control software.
•Block Chain – a distributed, decentralized
control algorithm first used for bitcoin
management; now generalized, to refer to a
distributed database of lists of transactions
stored on a peer-to-peer network of servers.
•New Database Systems – NOSQL database
models for representing and processing
unstructured data, multiple data types, and
large amounts of data
history 13
Impact on programming language models:
•New Languages – JavaScript and Java are popular
languages for mobile applications, Python for web
applications, data analysis, and data visualization.
Newer languages have features that emphasize
support for web programming, such as minimal code
and no run-time overhead, and are compatible with
Java and JavaScript; Kotlin is an example.
•Software Application Libraries – specialized
programming libraries, for example, for data analysis,
data visualization, business automation, verification
and validation, sound and image recognition and
processing, and machine learning. The above
summary of current trends and the models they
impact indicates which models are likely to be
impacted, which, in turn, will indicate which
processes, procedures, and tools might change.
history 14
Current Trends in Software Engineering
Software engineering is a young discipline and is still developing. The
directions in which software engineering is developing include:
Aspects
Aspects help software engineers deal with quality attributes by
providing tools to add or remove boilerplate code from many areas in
the source code. Aspects describe how all objects or functions should
behave in particular circumstances. For example, aspects can add
debugging, logging, or locking control into all objects of particular
types. Researchers are currently working to understand how to use
aspects to design general-purpose code. Related concepts include
generative programming and templates.
history 15
Agile
Agile software development guides software development projects
that evolve rapidly with changing expectations and competitive
markets. Proponents of this method believe that heavy, document-
driven processes (like TickIT , CMM, and ISO 9000) are fading in
importance. Some people believe that companies and agencies
export many of the jobs that can be guided by heavy-weight
processes. Related concepts include extreme programming, scrum,
and lean software development.
Experimental
Experimental software engineering is a branch of software
engineering interested in devising experiments on software, in
collecting data from the experiments, and in devising laws and
theories from this data. Proponents of this method advocate that the
nature of software is such that we can advance the knowledge of
software through experiments only.
Model-driven
Model-driven design develops textual and graphical models as
primary design artifacts. Development tools are available that use
model transformation and code generation to generate well-organized
code fragments that serve as a basis for producing complete
applications.
history 16
Software product lines
Software product lines are a
systematic way to
produce families of software
systems instead of creating a
succession of completely
individual products. This method
emphasizes extensive,
systematic, formal code reuse to
try to industrialize the software
development process.
history 17

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software engineering history2.pptx

  • 1. 1945-1965: The Beginning The term software engineering first appeared in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Programmers have always known about civil, electrical, and computer engineering and debated what engineering might mean for software. The NATO Science Committee sponsored two conferences on software engineering in 1968 and 1969, which gave the field its initial boost. Many believe these conferences marked the official start of the profession of software engineering. history 1
  • 2. 1965-1985: The Software Crisis Software engineering was spurred by the so-called "software crisis" of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, which identified many of the problems of software development. Many software projects ran over budget and schedule. Some projects caused property damage. A few projects caused loss of life. The software crisis was originally defined in terms of productivity, but evolved to emphasize quality. Some used the term software crisis to refer to their inability to hire enough qualified programmers. history 2
  • 3. •Cost and Budget Overruns: The OS/360 operating system was a classic example. This decade-long project from the 1960s eventually produced one of the most complex software systems at the time. OS/360 was one of the first large (1000 programmers) software projects. Fred Brooks claims in The Mythical Man Month that he made a multi-million dollar mistake of not developing a coherent architecture before starting development. •Property Damage: Software defects can cause property damage. Poor software security allows hackers to steal identities, costing time, money, and reputations. •Life and Death: Software defects can kill. Some embedded systems used in radiotherapy machines failed so catastrophically that they administered lethal doses of radiation to patients. The most famous of these failures is the //Therac 25// incident. history 3
  • 4. 1985-1989: Silver Bullets For decades, solving the software crisis was paramount to researchers and companies producing software tools. Seemingly, they trumpeted every new technology and practice from the 1970s to the 1990s as a "silver bullet" to solve the software crisis. Tools, discipline, formal methods, process, and professionalism were touted as silver bullets: history 4
  • 5. •Tools: Especially emphasized were tools: structured programming, object- oriented programming, CASE tools, Ada, documentation, and standards were touted as silver bullets. •Discipline: Some pundits argued that the software crisis was due to the lack of discipline of programmers. •Formal methods: Some believed that if formal engineering methodologies would be applied to software development, then production of software would become as predictable an industry as other branches of engineering. They advocated proving all programs correct. •Process: Many advocated the use of defined processes and methodologies like the Capability Maturity Model. •Professionalism: This led to work on a code of ethics, licenses, and professionalism. history 5
  • 6. In 1986, Fred Brooks published his No Silver Bullet article, arguing that no individual technology or practice would ever make a 10-fold improvement in productivity within 10 years. Debate about silver bullets raged over the following decade. Advocates for Ada, components, and processes continued arguing for years that their favorite technology would be a silver bullet. Skeptics disagreed. Eventually, almost everyone accepted that no silver bullet would ever be found. Yet, claims about silver bullets pop up now and again, even today. history 6
  • 7. 1990-1999: The Internet The rise of the Internet led to very rapid growth in the demand for international information display/e-mail systems on the World Wide Web. Programmers were required to handle illustrations, maps, photographs, and other images, plus simple animation, at a rate never before seen, with few well- known methods to optimize image display/storage (such as the use of thumbnail images). history 7
  • 8. The growth of browser usage, running on the HTML language, changed the way in which information-display and retrieval was organized. The widespread network connections led to the growth and prevention of international computer viruses on MS Windows computers, and the vast proliferation of spam e-mail became a major design issue in e-mail systems, flooding communication channels and requiring semi-automated pre-screening. Keyword-search systems evolved into web-based search engines, and many software systems had to be re-designed, history 8
  • 9. for international searching, depending on search engine optimization (SEO) techniques. Human natural- language translation systems were needed to attempt to translate the information flow in multiple foreign languages, with many software systems being designed for multi-language usage, based on design concepts from human translators. Typical computer- user bases went from hundreds, or thousands of users, to, often, many-millions of international users. history 9
  • 10. 2020-Present: Lightweight Methodologies, Devops, Computing Capability, Privacy and Security, and BigData Trends in the earlier years from 2000 to 2020 focused on improving the efficiency of development processes. Agile methods, model-driven development, software product lines, Aspect programming, and experiment trends were process and procedure improvements. These trends originated within the disciplines of computer science, information technology, and software engineering (i.e. the STEM hierarchy). In the following years, 2021 – 2023, these trends continue, but more efficient software development approaches are called DevOps for Development and Operations. Also, during these years, trends in other areas have significant impacts on software engineering – on the types of problems addressed, on quality goals, especially security and privacy; on processes and procedures, risks, and the scale of the environment (that is, infrastructure, data, computing resources, user volume, and diversity). To get a handle on all these trends, we look at the impact on the models used in software engineering, which will indicate what changes might come in the practice of software engineering history 10
  • 11. Trends from 2000 – 2020 continued along with many new trends. They are listed below, along with the software engineering models they impact: Impact on environment and computing process models: •DEVOPS – the set of organizational practices and tools to improve organizational capability to deliver more efficient applications and services. •Cloud Computing – over-the-network delivery to clients of computing services and information technology resources from a network of servers. history 11
  • 12. •Quantum Computing – computing using a quantum computer based on quantum physics; its unit of storage is the qubit. N – qubits can hold 2**n digital bits, which get super big very quickly. •Access and Authentication Tools – practices and tools to manage and control access to organization digital resources and identification of authorized users •Cyber-Security – technology to protect systems, networks, devices, and data from attack •Social Platforms – internet systems that enable virtual relationships and sharing of all types of digital data among individuals, groups, businesses, organizations, and communities, introducing a very large number of inter- connections and complex web relationships •Big Data – the amount of data that is too large to be practically processed by traditional methods history 12
  • 13. Impact on architecture models and database models: •Distributed and Decentralized Systems – a system distributed over the internet without centralized control software. •Block Chain – a distributed, decentralized control algorithm first used for bitcoin management; now generalized, to refer to a distributed database of lists of transactions stored on a peer-to-peer network of servers. •New Database Systems – NOSQL database models for representing and processing unstructured data, multiple data types, and large amounts of data history 13
  • 14. Impact on programming language models: •New Languages – JavaScript and Java are popular languages for mobile applications, Python for web applications, data analysis, and data visualization. Newer languages have features that emphasize support for web programming, such as minimal code and no run-time overhead, and are compatible with Java and JavaScript; Kotlin is an example. •Software Application Libraries – specialized programming libraries, for example, for data analysis, data visualization, business automation, verification and validation, sound and image recognition and processing, and machine learning. The above summary of current trends and the models they impact indicates which models are likely to be impacted, which, in turn, will indicate which processes, procedures, and tools might change. history 14
  • 15. Current Trends in Software Engineering Software engineering is a young discipline and is still developing. The directions in which software engineering is developing include: Aspects Aspects help software engineers deal with quality attributes by providing tools to add or remove boilerplate code from many areas in the source code. Aspects describe how all objects or functions should behave in particular circumstances. For example, aspects can add debugging, logging, or locking control into all objects of particular types. Researchers are currently working to understand how to use aspects to design general-purpose code. Related concepts include generative programming and templates. history 15
  • 16. Agile Agile software development guides software development projects that evolve rapidly with changing expectations and competitive markets. Proponents of this method believe that heavy, document- driven processes (like TickIT , CMM, and ISO 9000) are fading in importance. Some people believe that companies and agencies export many of the jobs that can be guided by heavy-weight processes. Related concepts include extreme programming, scrum, and lean software development. Experimental Experimental software engineering is a branch of software engineering interested in devising experiments on software, in collecting data from the experiments, and in devising laws and theories from this data. Proponents of this method advocate that the nature of software is such that we can advance the knowledge of software through experiments only. Model-driven Model-driven design develops textual and graphical models as primary design artifacts. Development tools are available that use model transformation and code generation to generate well-organized code fragments that serve as a basis for producing complete applications. history 16
  • 17. Software product lines Software product lines are a systematic way to produce families of software systems instead of creating a succession of completely individual products. This method emphasizes extensive, systematic, formal code reuse to try to industrialize the software development process. history 17