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Photosynthesis is how green plants
and other photosynthetic
organisms use the power of
sunlight to synthesize their own
food from carbon dioxide and
water.
photosynthesis 1
Photosynthesis harnesses sunlight
by using green pigment chlorophyll
and generates oxygen as a
byproduct.
The food and oxygen created by
these autotrophs (organisms that
make their own food)
indirectly nourish and energize the
whole earth.
photosynthesis 2
Photosynthesis is essentially how
plants make their own food.
It's a complex but fascinating
process that powers entire
ecosystems.
•Light capture:
• Plants use sunlight as
• the energy source to fuel the process.
•Pigment power
•: Chlorophyll,
•the green pigment in plants, absorbs the sunlight.
•Ingredients:
• Plants take in water and carbon dioxide (from the air) as raw materials.
photosynthesis 3
•The kitchen:
• Photosynthesis
• happens inside organelles called chloroplasts.
•Products:
• Using light energy, plants convert water and CO2 into
• glucose (a type of sugar) and release oxygen as a byproduct.
•Importance:
• This sugar fuels the plant's growth and development,
• and the released oxygen is vital for most life on Earth.
photosynthesis 4
Photosynthesis is fundamental
to life on Earth. Plants are
called producers because they
can make their own food, and
other organisms (consumers)
rely on them for energy. The
released oxygen is also used
by many organisms for
respiration.
photosynthesis 5
Solar Dependence and Food Production
Some organisms can carry out photosynthesis, whereas others
cannot.
An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food.
The Greek roots of the word autotroph mean "self" (auto)
"feeder" (troph).
photosynthesis 6
Plants are the best-known
autotrophs,
but others exist
including certain types of
bacteria and algae (Oceanic
algae contribute enormous
quantities of food and oxygen
to global food chains.
photosynthesis 7
Plants are also photoautotrophs,
a type of autotroph that uses
sunlight and carbon from carbon
dioxide to synthesize chemical
energy in the form of
carbohydrates.
All organisms carrying out
photosynthesis require sunlight.
photosynthesis 8
Plants, algae, and certain bacteria,
called cyanobacteria, are
photoautotrophs that can carry out
photosynthesis.
photosynthesis 9
Heterotrophs are organisms
incapable of photosynthesis that
must therefore obtain energy and
carbon from food by consuming
other organisms.
The Greek roots of the
word heterotroph mean
"other" (hetero) "feeder" (troph),
meaning that their food comes
from other organisms. Even if the
food organism is another
animal, this food traces its origins
back to autotrophs and the process
of photosynthesis.
photosynthesis 10
Humans are heterotrophs, as are all animals. Heterotrophs depend on
autotrophs, either directly or indirectly.
Deer and wolves are heterotrophs.
A deer obtains energy by eating plants.
A wolf eating a deer obtains energy that originally came from the plants
eaten by that deer.
The energy in the plant came from photosynthesis, and therefore it is
the only autotroph in this example Using this reasoning,
all food eaten by humans also links back to autotrophs that carry out
photosynthesis.
photosynthesis 11
The energy stored in carbohydrate
molecules from photosynthesis
passes through the food chain.
The predator that eats these deer
is getting energy that originated in
the photosynthetic vegetation that
the deer consumed.
photosynthesis 12
Main Structures and Summary
of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis requires sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water as
starting reactants After the process
is complete, photosynthesis
releases oxygen and produces
carbohydrate molecules, most
commonly glucose.
These sugar molecules contain the
energy that living things need to
survive.
photosynthesis 13
photosynthesis takes place primarily in leaves,
which consist of many layers of cells and have
differentiated top and bottom sides.
The process of photosynthesis occurs not on
the surface layers of the leaf, but rather in a
middle layer called the mesophyll
The gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
occurs through small, regulated openings
called stomata.
photosynthesis 14
photosynthesis 15
photosynthesis 16
Chloroplasts are the tiny green machines within plant
cells that are responsible for photosynthesis. They are
essentially the "kitchens" of the plant world, where light
energy from the sun is captured and converted into
usable energy for the plant.
Chloroplasts have a unique double-membrane structure
and contain chlorophyll, a pigment that gives plants their
green color.
Chlorophyll is what absorbs the sunlight that fuels
photosynthesis. Inside the chloroplast, there are also
flattened sacs called thylakoids, which contain
chlorophyll and proteins that help convert light energy
into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which
are the energy currencies used by plants.
photosynthesis 17
•Chloroplast envelope: The outer membrane,
•which controls what enters
• and leaves the chloroplast.
•Stroma: The fluid-filled region inside
• the chloroplast where most of
•the chemical reactions of photosynthesis take place.
photosynthesis 18
•Thylakoid membrane: A
system of flattened sacs
• within the stroma
• that contain chlorophyll and
proteins
• involved in the light-
dependent reactions of
photosynthesis.
•Granum: A stack of thylakoid
membranes.
•Thylakoid lumen: The space
inside the thylakoid membranes.
Chloroplasts are essential for life on Earth.
They are the primary producers in most ecosystems,
meaning they are the organisms that capture sunlight
and use it to produce energy-rich organic molecules
(food) through photosynthesis. All other organisms
on Earth, directly or indirectly,
rely on producers for their energy.
In addition to producing food for plants,
photosynthesis also releases oxygen gas (O₂) as a
byproduct. This oxygen is vital for most organisms,
including animals, for cellular respiration.
photosynthesis 19
In all autotrophic eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes
place inside an organelle called a chloroplast. In
plants, chloroplast-containing cells exist in the
mesophyll.
Chloroplasts have a double (inner and outer)
membrane. Within the chloroplast is a third
membrane that forms stacked, disc-shaped structures
called thylakoids.
Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are molecules
of chlorophyll, a pigment (a molecule that absorbs
light) through which the entire process of
photosynthesis begins.
photosynthesis 20
Chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of
plants.
The thylakoid membrane encloses an internal
space called the thylakoid space.
Other types of pigments are also involved in
photosynthesis, but chlorophyll is by far the most
important.
a stack of thylakoids is called a granum, and the
space surrounding the granum is
called stroma (not to be confused with stomata,
the openings on the leaves).
photosynthesis 21
The Two Parts of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the
light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle.
In the light-dependent reactions, which take
place at the thylakoid membrane,
chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and
then converts it into chemical energy with the
use of water.
The light-dependent reactions release oxygen
from the hydrolysis of water as a byproduct
photosynthesis 22
In the Calvin cycle, which takes place in the
stroma
the chemical energy derived from the light-
dependent reactions drives both the capture
of carbon in carbon dioxide molecules and
the subsequent assembly of sugar
molecules. The two reactions use carrier
molecules to transport the energy from one
to the other.
photosynthesis 23
The carriers that move
energy from the light-dependent
reactions to the Calvin cycle
reactions can be thought of
as "full" because they bring energy.
After the energy is released, the
"empty" energy carriers return to
the light-dependent reactions to
obtain more energy.
photosynthesis 24

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photosynthesis lecture1 introduction.pdf

  • 1. Photosynthesis is how green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the power of sunlight to synthesize their own food from carbon dioxide and water. photosynthesis 1
  • 2. Photosynthesis harnesses sunlight by using green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct. The food and oxygen created by these autotrophs (organisms that make their own food) indirectly nourish and energize the whole earth. photosynthesis 2
  • 3. Photosynthesis is essentially how plants make their own food. It's a complex but fascinating process that powers entire ecosystems. •Light capture: • Plants use sunlight as • the energy source to fuel the process. •Pigment power •: Chlorophyll, •the green pigment in plants, absorbs the sunlight. •Ingredients: • Plants take in water and carbon dioxide (from the air) as raw materials. photosynthesis 3
  • 4. •The kitchen: • Photosynthesis • happens inside organelles called chloroplasts. •Products: • Using light energy, plants convert water and CO2 into • glucose (a type of sugar) and release oxygen as a byproduct. •Importance: • This sugar fuels the plant's growth and development, • and the released oxygen is vital for most life on Earth. photosynthesis 4
  • 5. Photosynthesis is fundamental to life on Earth. Plants are called producers because they can make their own food, and other organisms (consumers) rely on them for energy. The released oxygen is also used by many organisms for respiration. photosynthesis 5
  • 6. Solar Dependence and Food Production Some organisms can carry out photosynthesis, whereas others cannot. An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food. The Greek roots of the word autotroph mean "self" (auto) "feeder" (troph). photosynthesis 6
  • 7. Plants are the best-known autotrophs, but others exist including certain types of bacteria and algae (Oceanic algae contribute enormous quantities of food and oxygen to global food chains. photosynthesis 7
  • 8. Plants are also photoautotrophs, a type of autotroph that uses sunlight and carbon from carbon dioxide to synthesize chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. All organisms carrying out photosynthesis require sunlight. photosynthesis 8
  • 9. Plants, algae, and certain bacteria, called cyanobacteria, are photoautotrophs that can carry out photosynthesis. photosynthesis 9
  • 10. Heterotrophs are organisms incapable of photosynthesis that must therefore obtain energy and carbon from food by consuming other organisms. The Greek roots of the word heterotroph mean "other" (hetero) "feeder" (troph), meaning that their food comes from other organisms. Even if the food organism is another animal, this food traces its origins back to autotrophs and the process of photosynthesis. photosynthesis 10
  • 11. Humans are heterotrophs, as are all animals. Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs, either directly or indirectly. Deer and wolves are heterotrophs. A deer obtains energy by eating plants. A wolf eating a deer obtains energy that originally came from the plants eaten by that deer. The energy in the plant came from photosynthesis, and therefore it is the only autotroph in this example Using this reasoning, all food eaten by humans also links back to autotrophs that carry out photosynthesis. photosynthesis 11
  • 12. The energy stored in carbohydrate molecules from photosynthesis passes through the food chain. The predator that eats these deer is getting energy that originated in the photosynthetic vegetation that the deer consumed. photosynthesis 12
  • 13. Main Structures and Summary of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as starting reactants After the process is complete, photosynthesis releases oxygen and produces carbohydrate molecules, most commonly glucose. These sugar molecules contain the energy that living things need to survive. photosynthesis 13
  • 14. photosynthesis takes place primarily in leaves, which consist of many layers of cells and have differentiated top and bottom sides. The process of photosynthesis occurs not on the surface layers of the leaf, but rather in a middle layer called the mesophyll The gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through small, regulated openings called stomata. photosynthesis 14
  • 17. Chloroplasts are the tiny green machines within plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis. They are essentially the "kitchens" of the plant world, where light energy from the sun is captured and converted into usable energy for the plant. Chloroplasts have a unique double-membrane structure and contain chlorophyll, a pigment that gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is what absorbs the sunlight that fuels photosynthesis. Inside the chloroplast, there are also flattened sacs called thylakoids, which contain chlorophyll and proteins that help convert light energy into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which are the energy currencies used by plants. photosynthesis 17
  • 18. •Chloroplast envelope: The outer membrane, •which controls what enters • and leaves the chloroplast. •Stroma: The fluid-filled region inside • the chloroplast where most of •the chemical reactions of photosynthesis take place. photosynthesis 18 •Thylakoid membrane: A system of flattened sacs • within the stroma • that contain chlorophyll and proteins • involved in the light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis. •Granum: A stack of thylakoid membranes. •Thylakoid lumen: The space inside the thylakoid membranes.
  • 19. Chloroplasts are essential for life on Earth. They are the primary producers in most ecosystems, meaning they are the organisms that capture sunlight and use it to produce energy-rich organic molecules (food) through photosynthesis. All other organisms on Earth, directly or indirectly, rely on producers for their energy. In addition to producing food for plants, photosynthesis also releases oxygen gas (O₂) as a byproduct. This oxygen is vital for most organisms, including animals, for cellular respiration. photosynthesis 19
  • 20. In all autotrophic eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside an organelle called a chloroplast. In plants, chloroplast-containing cells exist in the mesophyll. Chloroplasts have a double (inner and outer) membrane. Within the chloroplast is a third membrane that forms stacked, disc-shaped structures called thylakoids. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are molecules of chlorophyll, a pigment (a molecule that absorbs light) through which the entire process of photosynthesis begins. photosynthesis 20
  • 21. Chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of plants. The thylakoid membrane encloses an internal space called the thylakoid space. Other types of pigments are also involved in photosynthesis, but chlorophyll is by far the most important. a stack of thylakoids is called a granum, and the space surrounding the granum is called stroma (not to be confused with stomata, the openings on the leaves). photosynthesis 21
  • 22. The Two Parts of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle. In the light-dependent reactions, which take place at the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and then converts it into chemical energy with the use of water. The light-dependent reactions release oxygen from the hydrolysis of water as a byproduct photosynthesis 22
  • 23. In the Calvin cycle, which takes place in the stroma the chemical energy derived from the light- dependent reactions drives both the capture of carbon in carbon dioxide molecules and the subsequent assembly of sugar molecules. The two reactions use carrier molecules to transport the energy from one to the other. photosynthesis 23
  • 24. The carriers that move energy from the light-dependent reactions to the Calvin cycle reactions can be thought of as "full" because they bring energy. After the energy is released, the "empty" energy carriers return to the light-dependent reactions to obtain more energy. photosynthesis 24