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Introduction
The word “sociology” is derived from the Latin word socius (companion) and
the Greek word logos (speech or reason), which together mean “reasoned
speech about companionship”.
The sociologist Dorothy Smith (1926 – ) defines the social as the “ongoing
concerting and coordinating of individuals’ activities”
Smith (1999 ) says Sociology is the systematic study of all those aspects of life
designated by the adjective “social.” These aspects of social life never simply
occur; they are organized processes. They can be the briefest of everyday
interactions—moving to the right to let someone pass on a busy sidewalk, for
example—or the largest and most enduring interactions—such as the billions
of daily exchanges that constitute the circuits of global capitalism.
Think about the T-shirts in your drawer at home. What are the sequences of
linkages and social relationships that link the T-shirts in your chest of drawers
to the dangerous and hyper-exploitive garment factories in rural China or
Bangladesh? These are the type of questions that point to the unique domain
and puzzles of the social that sociology seeks to explore and understand.
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The sociological imagination
The Sociological Imagination is a book written by sociologist C. Wright Mills and
published in 1959. His goal in writing this book was to try to reconcile two
different and abstract concepts of social reality – the "individual" and "society."
In doing so, Mills challenged the dominant ideas within sociology and critiqued
some of the most basic terms and definitions.
The sociological imagination is the ability to see things socially and how they
interact and influence each other. To have a sociological imagination, a person
must be able to pull away from the situation and think from an alternative point
of view.
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SOCIOLOGY AND COMMON SENSE
KNOWLEDGE
Sociological knowledge is different from theological and philosophical
observations. Likewise sociology is different from common sense observations.
The common sense explanations are generally based on what may be called
‘naturalistic’ and/or individualistic explanation. A naturalistic explanation
for behaviour rests on the assumption that one can really identify ‘natural’
reasons for behaviour. Sociology has a body of concepts, methods and data, no
matter how loosely coordinated. This cannot be substituted by common sense
SOCIOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES
Sociology is one of a group of social sciences, which also includes anthropology,
economics, political science and history. The divisions among the various social
sciences are not clearcut, and all share a certain range of common interests,
concepts and methods. It is therefore very important to understand that the
distinctions of the disciplines are to some extent arbitrary and should not
be seen in a straitjacket fashion.
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Sociology in India
A standard western textbook definition of sociology समाज शास्‍तर is “the study
of human groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to the analysis of the
industrialised world” (Giddens 2001).
A standard western definition of social anthropology सामाजजक मानविकी would
be the study of simple societies of non-western and therefore “other” cultures
M. N Srinivas (1966 ) map the trajectory:
In a country such as India, with its size and diversity, regional, linguistic,
religious, sectarian, ethnic (including caste), and between rural an urban areas
there are a myriad ‘others’ In a culture and society such as a india’s ‘the other’
can be encountered literally next door…
No rigid divide exists between sociology and social anthropology in India, a
characteristic feature of the two subjects in many western countries. Perhaps
the very diversity of the modern and traditional, of the village and the
metropolitan in India accounts for this.
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Urban Sociology in India
In 1920 first department of sociology was established at university of
Bombay by Professor Patrick Geddes. Sociology studies in urban context
starts after 1971 census which recorded high rate of growth of urban
population. (109 million ). The Study of Urban sociology got importance
with rising problems of rural urban migration , urban development and
other related areas such as demography , slums, stratification,
education, ethnic conflict and movements , kinship, religion, politics,
economy, social problems and impact of urbanization on rural areas. In
1986 the national commission on urbanization established under
chairmanship of Charles Correa. After UNCHS habitat 1996 Conference
Government of India encourage city studies and network of Local Urban
Observatories (LUOs) and National Urban Observatory (NUO)
programme are start in India.
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Sociological concepts
Sociologists study all aspects and levels of society.
A Society is a group of people whose members interact, reside in a definable
area, and share a culture.
A Culture includes the group’s shared practices, values, beliefs, norms and
artifacts.
Community : The term community is one of the most elusive and vague in
sociology and is by now largely without specific meaning. At the minimum it
refers to a collection of people in a geographical area. Three other elements
may also be present in any usage.
(1) Communities may be thought of as collections of people with a particular
social structure; there are, therefore, collections which are not communities.
Such a notion often equates community with rural or pre-industrial society
and may, in addition, treat urban or industrial society as positively destructive.
(2) A sense of belonging or community spirit.
(3) All the daily activities of a community, work and non work, take place
within the geographical area, which is self contained.
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Social Groups
A social group consists of two or more people who interact with one another
and who recognize themselves as a distinct social unit. The definition is simple
enough, but it has significant implications. Frequent interaction leads people to
share values and beliefs. This similarity and the interaction cause them to
identify with one another. Identification and attachment, in turn, stimulate
more frequent and intense interaction. Each group maintains solidarity with all
to other groups and other types of social systems.
Groups are among the most stable and enduring of social units. They are
important both to their members and to the society at large. Through
encouraging regular and predictable behavior, groups form the foundation
upon which society rests. Thus, a family, a village, a political party a trade union
is all social groups. These, it should be noted are different from social classes,
status groups or crowds, which not only lack structure but whose members are
less aware or even unaware of the existence of the group. These have been
called quasi-groups or groupings. Nevertheless, the distinction between social
groups and quasi-groups is fluid and variable since quasi-groups very often give
rise to social groups, as for example, social classes give rise to political parties.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Primary Groups | Secondary Group
If all groups are important to their members and to society, some groups are
more important than others. Early in the twentieth century, Charles H. Cooley
gave the name, primary groups, to those groups that he said are characterized
by intimate face-to-face association and those are fundamental in the
development and continued adjustment of their members. He identified three
basic primary groups, the family, the child's play group, and the
neighborhoods or community among adults.
A primary group is typically a small social group(small-scale society) whose
members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are
marked by members' concern for one another, in shared activities and culture.
Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups
Secondary groups, characterized by anonymous, impersonal, and
instrumental relationships, have become much more numerous. People move
frequently, often from one section of the country to another and they change
from established relationships and promoting widespread loneliness.
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Institutions
A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized
around the preservation of a basic societal value. Obviously, the sociologist
does not define institutions in the same way as does the person on the street.
Lay persons are likely to use the term "institution" very loosely, for churches,
hospitals, jails, and many other things as institutions.
Sociologists often reserve the term "institution" to describe normative
systems that operate in five basic areas of life, which may be designated as
the primary institutions.
(1) In determining Kinship;
(2) in providing for the legitimate use of power;
(3) in regulating the distribution of goods and services; (
(4) in transmitting knowledge from one generation to the next; and
(5) in regulating our relation to the supernatural.
In shorthand form, or as concepts, these five basic institutions are called the
family, government, economy, education and religion.
All social group posses Institution
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Classification of Institutions
Institutions are classified into
(i) Primary institutions
(ii) Secondary institutions.
As societies grew in size and complexity, institutions became progressive and more
differentiated. Accordingly, a large number of institutions are evolved to cater to the
secondary needs of people. They may be called secondary institutions.
The secondary institutions of
• Economics are property, trading, credit, banking etc.
• Religion are church, temple, mosque, totem, taboo etc.
• Education are school, college, university etc.
• Government are interest groups, party system, democracy etc.
Sumner classification of institutions are :
• the crescive institutions
• the enacted institutions.
Those that evolved or developed naturally, unconsciously and even spontaneously are called
by him cursive. Those institutions that are consciously and purposefully and in a planned way
established are referred to by him as enacted.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Family
A family is the most primary institution and family and marriage are the most
pervasive social institution. The sex relationship is the most primary and an
essential foundation of relationship. In a family there is a sense of
belongingness. The institution of family rests on the "consciousness of kind”
Virtually everyone, in all societies, is brought up in a family which is the first
nursery of socialisation and education.
There is a great variation in the family and marriage patterns across different
cultures. The social web of family institution gets extended with its vast
connection with other kin, whom one is permitted to marry.
And the family relationships are recognised within wider kinship groups.
Sociologists and Anthropologists identify those families as nuclear families
which consists of wife and husband living together in a household with their
own or adopted offsprings. The extended family (Joint Family) may be a group
of a few generations living within the same dwelling unit. It may include grand
parents and great grand parents, bothers and their wives. sisters and their
husbands, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews
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Family
A family in which a person is born is called the family of orientation and the family in
which a person enters as an adult and within a new generation of children is brought
up is called a family of procreation. There is another dimension of family.
When the bridegroom moves to live with bride's parents, it is called matrilocal family.
Contrary to this, when bride moves to live with bridegrooms family it is called
patrilocal family.
A matrifocal family structure is one where mothers head families and fathers play a
less important role in the home and in bringing up children. Opposite to this in
patrifocal family is headed and centred on Father or Patriarch.
Monogamy : The family where an individual male marries ii single female is called a
monogamous marriage. But polygamy is a type of marriage which allows a husband or
wife to have more than one spouse. Polygamy is of two kinds-polygyny and polyandry.
In polygyny a man marries more than one women
polyandry in which a woman may have more than one husband.
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Government
A Government is an institution entrusted with making and enforcing the rules of a
society as well as with regulating relations with other societies. In order to be
considered a government, a ruling body must be recognized as such by the people it
purports to govern. A person or group that considers itself the leading body of a
society has no power if the members of the society do not recognize the person or
group as such.
Types of Governments
Most of the world’s governments fall into one of four categories: monarchy,
democracy, authoritarianism, or totalitarianism.
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Religion
Religion describes the beliefs, values, and practices related to sacred or spiritual
concerns.
Religion is a social institution because it includes beliefs and practices that serve the
needs of society. Religion is also an example of a cultural universal because it is found
in all societies in one form or another.
Barkan and Greenwood 2003 says
Religious experience refers to the conviction or sensation that one is connected to
“the divine.” This type of communion might be experienced when people are praying
or meditating.
Religious beliefs are specific ideas that members of a particular faith hold to be true,
such as that Bharmaji has create world Vishuji run the world etc., or believing in
reincarnation. Another illustration of religious beliefs is that different religions adhere
to certain stories of world creation.
Religious rituals are behaviours or practices that are either required or expected of
the members of a particular group, such as Aarti, Abhishek etc.
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Social norm
The social norm, or simply "norm," is arguably the most important concept in
sociology.
Sociologists believe that norms govern our lives by giving us implicit and explicit
guidance on what to think and believe, how to behave, and how to interact with
others.
We learn norms in a variety of settings and from various people, including our family,
our teachers and peers at school, and members of the media. There are four key types
of norms, with differing levels of scope and reach, significance and importance, and
methods of enforcement. These norms are, in order of increasing significance,
1. Folkways
2. Mores
3. Taboos
4. Laws
1. Folkways
William Graham Sumner (1906) says Folkways are norms that stem from and organize
casual interactions, and emerge out of repetition and routines. We engage in them to
satisfy our daily needs, and they are most often unconscious in operation, though they
are quite useful for the ordered functioning of society.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social norm
2 Mores
Mores are more strict than folkways, as they determine what is considered moral and
ethical behavior; they structure the difference between right and wrong. People feel
strongly about mores, and violating them typically results in disapproval or ostracizing.
As such, mores exact a greater coercive force in shaping our values, beliefs, behavior,
and interactions than do folkways.
Religious doctrines are an example of mores that govern social behavior.
3. Taboos
A taboo is a very strong negative norm; it is a prohibition of certain behavior that is so
strict that violating it results in extreme disgust and even expulsion from the group or
society. Often times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society.
For instance, in some Muslim cultures, eating pork is taboo because the pig is
considered unclean. At the more extreme end, incest and cannibalism are both
considered taboos in most places. (Cannibalism is the act of consuming another
individual of the same species as food.)
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Social norm
4. Laws
A law is a norm that is formally inscribed at the state or federal level and is enforced
by police or other government agents. Laws exist to discourage behavior that would
typically result in injury or harm to another person, including violations of property
rights. Those who enforce laws have been given legal right by a government to control
behavior for the good of society at large. When someone violates a law, a state
authority will impose a sanction, which can be as light as a payable fine or as severe as
imprisonment.
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Social Role
Social roles refer to the set of behaviors that are expected of individuals within social
institutions. Society is like a stage and individuals are like actors within a society
whereby, they have to play different roles within different social institutions. Each
individual hold different status within distinct institutions of society. Roles are
positions in a social group. Father, mother, son, daughter, are examples of roles within
the family
A role is a comprehensive pattern of behaviour that is socially recognized, providing a
means of identifying and placing an individual in a society.
Role conflict occurs when members of the group have different definitions or
expectations of someone occupying a role. Role conflict can occur, for example, when
a parent coaches a cricket team that includes that parent's son. The role of the parent
can conflict with the role of the coach who needs to be objective when determining
the positions and batting lineup, for example, along with the need to interact with all
the children equally.
Role strain
When individual is stressed out due to excessive responsibilities associated with his
statuses within different instructions of society is called role strain.
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Social Status
In all of the many social groups that we as individuals belong to, we have a status and
a role to fulfill.
Status is our relative social position within a group, while a role is the part our society
expects us to play in a given status.
Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of status, achieved status and ascribed status.
Achieved Status
An achieved status is one that is acquired on the basis of merit; it is a position that is
earned or chosen and reflects a person's skills, abilities, and efforts. Being a
professional athlete, for example, is an achieved status, as is being a lawyer, college
professor, or even a criminal.
Ascribed Status
An ascribed status, on the other hand, is beyond an individual's control. It is not
earned, but rather is something people are either born with or had no control over.
Examples of ascribed status include sex, race, and age. Children usually have more
ascribed statuses than adults, since they do not usually have a choice in most
matters.
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Social Status : Indian caste system
In India, ascribed, rather than achieved, social status has been strongly reinforced for
more than 3,000 years and permeates most areas of life even today. As a result,
social mobility has been very difficult to achieve until recent generations. Even now,
it is limited for those at the bottom of society. At the heart of the Indian ascription
system are castes These are carefully ranked, rigidly hereditary social divisions of
society.
INDIAN CASTES TRADITIONAL ROLE IN SOCIETY
1. Brahman priests and teachers
2. Kshatriya rulers, warriors, and landowners
3. Vaishya farmers, merchants and artisans
4. Shudra serfs or laborers
5. Scheduled castes (Harijan ,Dalit ) "polluted" laborers
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Class and Caste
Class
The society is stratified in various class groups-by sex, age, race, ethnicity, primitive
and modern, rich and poor. Such stratifications are spontaneous formation expressive
of social attitudes based on social or financial status. Status is a symbol which stands
for the elite and the masses, the rich and the poor. the ruler and the ruled. the
educated and the uneducated.
Caste
Whereas, a caste is a closed class or social group. There are no purely free-entry
classes, nor purely closed castes. Thus there is some mobility within a caste-
structured society. Members of inferior castes always seek to move upwards.
Membership of caste is compulsory arid it is not matter of choice
.
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Social Interaction
Social interaction is the process of reciprocal influence exercised by individuals
over one another during social encounters. Usually it refers to face-to-face
encounters in which people are physically present with one another for a
specified duration.
Society is created by humans and human interaction, which they
call habitualization. Habitualization describes how “any action that is repeated
frequently becomes cast into a pattern, which can then be … performed again in
the future in the same manner and with the same economical effort”
Social interaction is in crucial respects symbolic interaction–interaction which is
mediated by the exchange and interpretation of symbols.
In symbolic interaction, people contrive to reach a mutual understanding of each
other and of the tasks at hand through the exchange and interpretation of
symbols. Only on this basis can a coordinated action be accomplished.
The process of communication is the central quality of the human social
environment.
Social interaction depends on communication.
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Social System
Social System is dynamic complexity of various group and institution.
A social system is an interdependent set of cultural and structural elements that can
be thought of as a unit.
A social system may be defined as a plurality of individuals interacting with each
other according to shared cultural norms and meanings.
Structure of Social System
Durkheim says “ we may consider social norms and values as ‘things’ and hence
parts of the social structure”.
Radcliffe-Brown has defined social structure :
“The components of social structure are human beings, the structure itself being an
arrangement of persons in relationship institutionally defined and regulated”.
Functions of Social System:
1. Adaptation:
The problems of adapting the social system to its physical and social environments.
The most important problems in this respect are procuring resources needed for its
activities, providing for protection against physical and social threats, and developing
information relating to these.
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Social System
2. Goal Attainment:
The organisational problem of
effecting co-ordination in any
collective tasks directed outside the
system itself.
3. Integration:
The internal problem of maintaining
satisfying relations among the
interacting, members and avoiding
disrupting conflicts. For small groups,
this concerns inter-personal relations.
For larger organisation, it concerns
inter-group relations.
4. Latent Pattern Maintenance:
The internal organisational problem of
ordering activity patterns of the system, and
also of adjusting the role demands on
members, so that these are compatible with
their other role commitments. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social Structure
Elements of social structure
In social structure the human beings organize themselves into associating of
pursuit of some object or objects. This can be fulfilled if the social structure is
based on some principles.
(i) Normative System : This presents the society with ideals and values. The
people attach emotional importance to these norms. The institutions and
associations are interrelated according to these norms. The individuals
perform their roles in accordance with the accepted norms of society.
(ii) Position system : this refer to the status and roles of the individuals. The
desires, aspirations and expectations of individuals are varied, multiple and
unlimited. So, theses can be fulfilled only by if the members of society are
assigned different role according to their capacities and capabilities.
(iii) Sanction system : The integration and coordination of different parts of
social structure depend upon conformity of social norms. The non-
conformists are punished by the society. The effectiveness of social structure
depends on effectiveness of its sanction system.
(iv) The system of anticipated responses : The anticipated response system calls
upon the individuals to participate in the social system. His preparation sets
the social structure in motion.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social Structure
V). Action system : It is the object or goal to be arrived at by social structure. The whole
social structure revolves around it. The action is the root cause which weaves the web
social relationships and sets the social structure in motion.
Types of social structure :
Talcott Parsons has described 4 principal types of social structure.
1. The universalistic achievement pattern : This is combination of value patterns which
sometimes are opposed to the value of social structure built mostly about kinship,
community , class and race. The choice of goal by the individual must be accordance with
the universalistic values. His pursuits are defined by universalistic moral norms. Such a
system is dynamically developing norms. Such a system is dynamically developing system
with an encouragement for initiative.
2. Universalistic ascriptions pattern-under this type of social structure the elements of
value-orientation are dominated by the elements of ascription. Therefore in such a social
structure strong emphasis is laid on the status of the individual rather than on his specific
achievements. The emphasis is on what an individual is rather than on what he has done.
Status is ascribed to the group rather than to the individuals. The individual derives his
status from his group. In this type of social structure all resources are mobilized in the
interest of the collective ideal.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Types of social structure
3. Particularistic-Achievement Pattern-This type combines achievement values with
particularim. The primary criterion of valued achievement is found not in universalistic
terms such as conformity to a generalized ideal or efficiency but these are focussed on
certain points of reference within the relational system itself or are inherent in the
situation. The emphasis on achievement leads to the conception of a proper pattern of
adaption which is a product of human achievement and which are maintained by
continuous efforts.
4. Particularistic-Ascriptive pattern- In this type also the social structure is organized
around the relational reference points notably those of kinship and local community but it
differs from the particularistic achievement type in as much as the relational values are
taken as given and passively adapted to rather than make for an actively organized system.
The structure tends to be traditionalistic and emphasis is laid on its stability.
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Social structure & Spatial Structure
Social structure is a phenomenon that is closely associated with space. The structure of a
society is physically exhibited in spatial forms and patterns. In other words, social
structure is reflected in space. From ancient times, it can be observed .that social
structure has had definite spatial patterns. The group belonging to the upper caste or the
group that was predominant, occupied the area that surrounded the nucleus. In this case,
the nucleus can be a temple, mosque or a church. The other groups were distributed
around this central area based on the caste and the status they enjoyed in the society.
This can be seen in both urban and rural communities, However it is much stronger in
rural Communities. Spatial distribution of population in rural communities is influenced by
castes and one tends to see clusters of population belonging to the same caste and social
structure in a particular location.
Important characteristic that is to be found in urban communities is that spatial locations
are also influenced by economic factors rather then by castes . The setting of a group of
people belonging to a particular type of social structure at a particular location at a point
of time ensures that the subsequent generations belonging to the same social structure
would settle at the same location.
Thus social structure and spatial forms and patterns are irrevocably intertwined with
one another with the physical representation of the former giving rise to the latterhttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Socio-cultural profile of Indian
society
Features of Indian Society- Rural
Among the earliest human groups, gathering was the main source of food.
Gradually man acquired the skill and knowledge in agriculture. With the
development of agriculture, people began to lead a settled life and human
communities became more stationary. The emergence of village signified
that man has passed from nomadic mode of collective life to the settled
one. India is a land of villages. A great majority of villages are small with
only around five hundred population each. Mahatma Gandhi’s view that
India lives in villages still holds good, at least from the demographic point of
view.
The village social life has its own peculiar characteristics. The village social
life norms strengthen the authoritarian and hierarchical norms in
administration. The village social life, which is based on the hierarchical
exchange relations greatly influence the behavior of civil servants in public
organizations. Usually, a village has less than five thousand individuals.
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Features of Indian Society- Rural
In recent years, the communal organisations have become very
active in social life resulting in communal clashes in different parts
of the country. The villages form the units of the Rural Society.
These rural societies have their own structure. The structure
formed out of the following units:-
1) Family
2) Caste System
3) Internal Organisation
4) Religion
5) Economic System.
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Features of Indian Society- Rural
The major features of rural society are given below:
1. Small size of village community,
2. Intimate relations,
3. Jajmani System,
4. Isolation,
5.Social homogeneity,
6. Informal Social Control,
7. Dominance of Joint Family,
8. Status of Rural Women,
9. Occupation,
10. Role of neighborhood,
11. Faith in religion,
12. Self Sufficiency,
13.Widespread caste system,
14. Simplicity,
15. Feelings,
16. Fellow feelings,
17. Conservatism,
18.Observance of moral norms,
19. Poverty,
20. Illiteracy,
21. Desire for Independence,
22.Dominance of primary relations,
23. Social Homogeneity,
24. Occupations,
25. Preservers of the Ancient culture
of the society,
26. Legal Self Government,
27. Change in the Villages.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Features of Indian Society- Rural
In our social set-up an Indian village plays not only a prominent but
also a predominant role because about 68% of our total population
resides in villages. In the primitive village community there are two
peculiar features first, the part played by kinship and seconds its
collectivist basis. The bond of kinship and close ties of the
inhabitants with the land developed a high sense of community
feeling in the primitive village community
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Features of Indian Society- Urban
The nature of urban society as represented in thoughts of urban
theorists of modern city greatly has contrasting indifferences in
their views. Every place has its distinctive urban characteristic
determined by variables as mix of power, space, market and
cultural practices.
As a result of development in science and technology, there has been
industrial development. Due to industrial development there is
urbanization as a result of which urban societies created. Every
country has its own urban society. Every village possesses some
elements of the city while every city carries some feature of the
villages. Different criteria are used to decide a community as
urban. Some of them are, for example, population, legal limits,
types of occupations, social organizations.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Features of Indian Society- Urban
Meaning of Urban Society
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast
human feature in comparison to area surrounding it. Urban areas
are created and further developed by the process of urbanization.
Urban areas are places which satisfied the following criteria:
1. A minimum population of 5,000.
2. At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non
agricultural pursuits
3. A density of population of a least 400 persons per sq.km.
The growth of large cities that contain the bulk of a society’s
population is very recent development. Urbanization is a part of
development process.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Features of Indian Society- Urban
Major Features of Urban Society:
The major features of urban society are given below:
1. Social Heterogeneity,
2. Secondary Relations,
3. Anonymity,
4. Secondary Control,
5. Largescale Division of Labour and Specialization,
6. Large-scale social mobility,
7. Individuation,
8.Voluntary Association,
9. Social Reference,
10. Unstable Family,
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Features of Indian Society- Urban
11. Special Segregation,
12. Lack of community feeling,
13. Lack of unity in family,
14. Moral Laxity,
15. Unbalanced personality,
16. High incidence of crime,
17. Social disorganization,
18. Peculiarities of marital life,
19. Dynamic life,
20. Voluntary associations are formed quickly,
21. Artificial life.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
FORMS OF DIVERSITY IN INDIA
Unity implies oneness or a sense of we-ness, it holds tightly together the
various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a dovetailed
manner through the bonds of contrived structures, norms and values.
The sources of diversity in India may be traced through a variety of
ways, the most obvious being the ethnic origins, religions, castes, tribes,
languages, social customs, cultural and sub cultural beliefs, political
philosophies and ideologies, geographical variations etc.
LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY
The high degree of large diversity found in India is due to the existence of
diverse population groups. The greatest variety in languages can be
found in the one of the biggest democracies in the world. Most of these
languages are distinct and have their own distinct form of writing and
speech.
The dictionary defines ‘Diversity’, as variety or different. Languages are
defined as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human
communication. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
FORMS OF DIVERSITY IN INDIA
In India, the tribal communities are smallest in geographical spread and in
population strength. They cover only 8.8% (1991 census) of the Indian
population. Not only we should consider linguistic diversity as a resource
of human kind but also should conceive both the decline in the number
of languages and the emerging trend in having mono linguistic
dominance over small languages as a threat to our plural existence.
The Present situation
Though the situation has improved from the early fifties, there has not
been a significant development. India still faces the problems due to the
diversity in languages. One of the foremost
problems is the lack of a unified language system. Though a national
language was chosen among the 114 officially recognized languages and
216 (Census of 1991) mother tongues in India, only 28% of the
populations speak this language. People in India have a sense of
belonging to a particular language speaking community rather that the
nation as a whole. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY
Religion is a major concern of man. Religion is universal, permanent,
pervasive and perennial interests of man. The institution of religion
is universal. It is found in all the societies, past and present.
Religious beliefs and practices are, however, far from being
uniform. Religious dogmas have influenced and conditioned
economic endeavors, political movements, properly dealings, and
educational tasks. The major religions in India are following:
Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, Parsi,
The basic ideas and faith of the each religion differs.
But they coexistent in Indian society.
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RACIAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA
It is an big task to construct a systematic ethnography of the teeming
millions of Indian population. As per the 1901 census the following
eight different ethnic groups are found here.
1. Pre-Dravidian
2. Dravidian
3. Indo-Aryan
4. Turko-lranian
5. Scytho-Dravidian
6. Arya- Dravidian
7. Mongoloid
8. Mongoloid-Dravidian.
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RACIAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA
India has been described as an ethnological museum. Race formation
is a dynamic process and environmental stimuli have caused many
changes in the ethic types. There is a wide variety of differences in
physical features, complexion and even in language. Often
linguistic terms like Aryan and Dravidian have been applied to
ethnic units.
It is difficult to assume that this vast subcontinent was once a vacuum
and the races have migrated into this ethnological paradise from
faraway places. There have never been attempts to ascertain how
far India bred her own races.
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Urban transformation
The city passed through a number of transformations since its inception in
human history. Transformation implies changes over time; the present
urban fabric is resultant of successive generations of settlers who left their
mark in physical structure as well as political, economic and social
institutions.
India is moving fast towards urbanization. According to 2011 census, 29.5% of
total population lives in urban areas. Growth rate of urban population has
been 2.27% in the year 2010-2011. “India’s urban population will more than
double to over 600 million by 2035 as increasing number of people migrate
to cities because of better infrastructure and employment opportunities.”
Urbanization is not a side effect of economic growth; it is an integral part of the
process. As in most countries, India's urban areas make a major contribution
to the country's economy. Indian cities contribute to about 2/3 of the
economic output, host a growing share of the population and are the main
recipients of FDI and the originators of innovation and technology
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Urban transformation
urban transformation, possibly the largest national urban transformation of the
21st century. This would pose unprecedented challenges to India's growing
cities and towns in providing housing and infrastructure (water, sewerage,
transportation, etc.), and addressing slums. Already, slums now account
for about 26% of all urban population in cities. In Mumbai, more than
half the population lives in slums, many of which are situated near
employment centers in the heart of town, unlike in most other cities in
developing countries.
Due to rapid urbanization and population growth crime has become one of
the most serious social problems. To tackle and reduce the negative effects
of crime on human beings, grater regulatory controls are needed which
require more participation of individuals and community. Crime is
influenced by multiplicity of factors such as economic, social and
governmental as well as physical elements Safety and security are basic
human needs.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Urban transformation
PLACE BASED CRIME PREVENTION
Human behaviour takes place in space, and the spatial layout of the
environment provides various opportunities for social interaction. The
interaction between people can create safe or unsafe communities which are a
foundational part of society’s welfare.
DEFENSIBLE SPACES
This theory was established by Ar. Oscar Newman in 1972. It assures a definite
relationship of crime rates with urban design. According to the defensible
spaces theory, physical layout of communities can make occupants control
the areas. It creates the physical appearance of a social bond that defends
itself Newman named the related physical strategies in terms of crime
prevention as “target hardening”.
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Traditions and Modernity
Indian society as Dhurjati Prasad Mukerji (D. P.) envisages is the result of the
interaction between tradition and modernity. The encounter of tradition with
modernization created certain cultural contradictions, adaptations and in
some cases situations of conflict
Indian traditions are the resultants of certain historical processes. They actually
construct the structure of Indian culture. These traditions belong to several
ideologies such as Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, tribals and western modernity.
Dhirendra Nath Majumdar (1903-1960) says that Life is a process of
adjustment and in its unfolding, it has thrown out individuals who are misfit
and the latter have both helped and hindered cultural progress; the misfits are
misfits in the context of a dynamic setting, and if only, the misfits could be
fitted into the structure of life, the process that is life will continue to unfold
itself, adjust and march as to man’s destiny through an integration and
synthesis that constitute the core of the dynamics of culture change and
culture crises.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Traditions and Modernity
A K Desai thinks that when traditions are linked with economic relations, the
change in the latter would eventually change the traditions. It is in this context
that he thinks that caste will disintegrate with the creation of new social and
material conditions, such as industries, economic freedom, education, etc. His
definition of tradition is a watershed. He does not trace it from caste, religion
and ritual.
Tradition has a tendency to become entropic and inward looking. This is true
of many local level traditions and sub traditions are stamped out and disappear
without leaving much of a trace. Modernity, however, means different things in
the North India and the South India. Thus modernity indicates a type of
society that is more developed relative to other societies.
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Neighbourhoods: Traditional and
Modern
In Sociology, neighbourhood is a localities in urban areas which are
characterized by a common sense of identity and usually a common life style.
Traditional neighbourhoods denote old parts of the city. In many American
studies, these parts are referred to as ‘inner city areas.’ Immigrant population
with low quality of amenities and dilapidated or deteriorating housing
conditions, no governmental investment, marks these localities. As the city
grows the lower middle classes move out of the inner city areas and the new
immigrants move in theses dwellings with low rent. Architecturally, inner city
areas show traditional styles and forms of using space. They facilitate older
styles of interactions and social networks.
Middle classes and the rich population on the other hand inhabit outer city
areas. These localities have more amenities, large plots of land, more services
and are scarcely populated. These are more modern neighbourhoods with up-
market styles and forms of spatial use. In some cities the traditional
neighbourhoods have been preserved as architectural heritage sites.
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Aspects of Modernity
Some aspects of modernity include:
 emergence of nation-state and nationhood
 industrialisation and capitalism
 democracy
 increasing influence of science and technology
 the phenomena of urbanisation
 expansion of mass media
There are, however, other defining characteristics of modernity which include
disenchantment with the world
 secularisation
 rationalisation
 commodification
 mass society
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Giddens Modernity
Giddens position conflicts with the contention that society has entered into a
post modern world. Thus modernity witnesses tremendous increases in the
scope, pace and depth of change relative to systems that preceded it. Further
the path or trajectory of change is not linear, going forward step by step. For
Giddens modernity implies
 capitalism
 industrialism
 surveillance programs and activities
 military power
Giddens theory of structuration and its basic components adequately describe
modernity. These elements are:
 distanciation, or separation in of time and space
 disembedding
 reflexivity http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
SOCIAL INEQUALITY
In every society, some people have a greater share of valued resources
– money, property, education, health, and power – than others.
According to Pierre Bourdieu these social resources can be divided
into four forms of capital
1. economic capital in the form of material assets and income;
2. cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status;
3. social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social
associations
4. Symbolic capital in form of amount of honor and prestige
possessed
Patterns of unequal access to social resources are commonly called
social inequality.
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Social Stratification
Sociologists use the term social stratification to refer to a system by which
categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy. This hierarchy then
shapes people’s identity and experiences, their relations with others, as well as
their access to resources and opportunities. Three key principles help explain
social stratification:
1. Social stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a function of
individual differences. Social stratification is a society-wide system that
unequally distributes social resources among categories of people.
2. Social stratification persists over generations. It is closely linked to the
family and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to
the next. A person’s social position is ascribed.
3. Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief, or ideology. No
system of social stratification is likely to persist over generations unless it is
widely viewed as being either fair or inevitable.
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Social exclusion or marginalization
Social exclusion is the process in which individuals or entire communities of people
are systematically blocked from (or denied full access to) various rights,
opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different
group, and which are fundamental to social integration within that particular
group.
Social exclusion refers to ways in which
individuals may become cut off from full
involvement in the wider society. It focuses
attention on a broad range of factors that
prevent individuals or groups from having
opportunities open to the majority of the
population. In order to live a full and active
life, individuals must not only be able to feed,
clothe and house themselves, but should also
have access to essential goods and services
such as education, health, transportation,
insurance, social security, banking and even
access to the police or judiciaryhttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Types of Social exclusion
Types of Exclusion
• Individual Exclusion
• Community Exclusion
• Professional Exclusion
Individual Exclusion
Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual's exclusion from
meaningful participation in society. Examples are :
The exclusion of single mothers in society
The exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force
Community Exclusion
Many communities experience social exclusion, such as caste based (e.g.,
Untouchables or Low Castes or Dalits in Indian Caste System ) and economic based.
Professional Exclusion
Some intellectuals and thinkers are marginalized because of their dissenting,
radical or controversial views on a range of topics, including HIV/AIDS, climate
change, evolution, alternative medicine, green energy, or third world politics.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Types of Social exclusion
Types of Exclusion
• Individual Exclusion
• Community Exclusion
• Professional Exclusion
Individual Exclusion
Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual's exclusion from
meaningful participation in society. Examples are :
The exclusion of single mothers in society
The exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force
Community Exclusion
Many communities experience social exclusion, such as caste based (e.g.,
Untouchables or Low Castes or Dalits in Indian Caste System ) and economic based.
Professional Exclusion
Some intellectuals and thinkers are marginalized because of their dissenting,
radical or controversial views on a range of topics, including HIV/AIDS, climate
change, evolution, alternative medicine, green energy, or third world politics.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social exclusion by Age
Old-age exclusion leads to
inequities in choice and control,
resources and relationships, and
power and rights in key domains
of neighbourhood and
community; services, amenities
and mobility; material and
financial resources; social
relations; socio-cultural aspects of
society; and civic participation.
Old-age exclusion implicates
states, societies, communities and
individuals.
Taken from Social exclusion of older persons - a scoping review and conceptual by walsh
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social exclusion by Gender
Gender inequality
Because of the obvious biological and physical differences between men
and women, gender inequality is often treated as natural. However,
despite appearances, scholars have shown that the inequalities between
men and women are social rather than natural.
Raja Ram mohan Roy’s attempts to reform society, religion and the status
of women can be taken as the starting point of nineteenth century social
reform in Bengal.
The root cause of gender inequality in Indian society lies in its patriarchy
system. Types of gender inequality found in India are :
• Economic inequalities
• Occupational inequalities
• Education inequalities
• Health and survival inequalities
• Political inequalities
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
KEY ISSUES & THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-
INCOME WOMEN AND GIRLS
Political inequalities : Lack of political voice
• Women and girls are excluded from participation in local government structures and
decision making, including in urban planning and design.
• Women and girls are largely excluded from decision making in community groups.
• Women and girls are excluded from creating sustainable solutions for themselves
and their cites.
• Lack of a political voice denies women and girls their human right to choice in their
lives.
Economic inequalities : Access to land security of tenure
• Inadequate services and unaffordable land penalizes and impoverishes low income
women and men, especially single mothers and their children.,
• Lack of secure tenure or shared tenure increases women’s poverty and housing
vulnerability in situations of domestic violence and family break down.
Health and survival inequalities : Access to infrastructure and services
• Women and girls lose time and experience stress when negotiating access to
inadequate potable water and toilets.
• They face harassment and sexual assault when there are no toilets and they have to
use the outdoors in the dark.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
• Unsafe water increases women’s care responsibilities, raises health costs, and limits
their income-generating possibilities as they spend most of their time caring for sick
family members.
• Access to safe, frequent, and affordable transportation is often missing.
• Limited or non-existent health, school, and recreation services increase women’s
caregiving responsibilities.
Occupational inequalities : Livelihoods
• Lack of employment opportunities and low incomes lead to insecure housing and
lack of negotiation power in relationships.
• Insecurity of tenure means poor women have fewer resources, fewer assets , and
less credit.
• Informal sector activities, such as sewing clothes or selling cooked and raw food,
bring little income, given the required time and labour investments.
• Wages below official rates place families and children in congested living
environments.
KEY ISSUES & THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-
INCOME WOMEN AND GIRLS
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Gender Equality and Urban Planning
and Design
Women and girls face multiple and overlapping challenges around the world,
particularly in developing countries.
These gender discrimination issues range from violence and sexual harassment in public
and private spaces to the inaccessibility or nonexistence of educational and job
opportunities, land ownership, public spaces, political voice, and health and financial
services.
To address these critical concerns, gender mainstreaming must be introduced into all
aspects of city life, including urban planning and design.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social exclusion by Disability
Disabled people make up 2.2% of India’s population (Census, 2011).
In India labels such as ‘disability’, ‘handicap’, ‘crippled’, ‘blind’ and ‘deaf’ are used
synonymously. Often these terms are hurled at people as insults. The common
perception views disability as retribution for past karma (actions) from which there can
be no reprieve. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically
impaired’ came to replace the more trite negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or
‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled
but because society renders them so.
There is a close relationship between disability and poverty. Malnutrition, mothers
weakened by frequent childbirth, inadequate immunisation programmes, accidents in
overcrowded homes, all contribute to an incidence of disability among poor people that
is higher than among people living in easier circumstances.
Persons With Disabilities (equal opportunities, protection of rights and full
participation) Act, 1995 (PWD Act) provides a comprehensive national mandate for the
elimination of discrimination against PWD in the area of education, employment, public
transportation and access to public buildings and services in all walks of life.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Unemployed Persons
Unemployment in India statistics has traditionally been collected, compiled and
disseminated once every five years by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MoLE),
primarily from sample studies conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO)
The Usual Status approach to
measuring unemployment
uses a reference period of 365
days i.e. one year preceding
the date of the survey of NSSO
for measuring unemployment.
current weekly status (CWS)
and current daily status (CDS).
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Unemployed Persons
Activity status code according NSS 68th ROUND
Working (or employed)
self-employed
11 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as own-account worker
12 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as an employer
21 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as helper
regular wage/ salaried employee
31 worked as regular wage/salaried employee
casual labour
41 worked as casual labour in public works other than MGNREG public works
42 worked as casual labour in Mahatma Gandhi NREG public works
51 worked as casual labour in other types of works
61 did not work owing to sickness though there was work in household enterprise
62 did not work owing to other reasons though there was work in household
enterprise
71 did not work owing to sickness but had regular salaried/wage employment
72 did not work owing to other reasons but had regular salaried/wage
employment http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Unemployed Persons
Activity status code NSS 68th ROUND
not working but seeking/available for work (or unemployed)
81 sought work or did not seek but was available for work (for usual status approach)
81 sought work (for current weekly status approach)
82 did not seek but was available for work (for current weekly status approach)
neither working nor available for work (or not in labour force)
91 attended educational institutions
92 attended to domestic duties only
93 attended to domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods
(vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle feed, etc.), sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for
household use
94 rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc.
95 not able to work owing to disability
97 others (including beggars, prostitutes, etc.)
98 did not work owing to sickness (for casual workers only)
99 children of age 0-4 years http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Underemployed Persons
Underemployment is commonly defined as the under-utilisation of labour time of the
workers. Some of the persons categorised as usually employed, may not have work
throughout the year due to seasonality in work or otherwise and their labour time is
not fully utilised - they are, therefore, underemployed.
Three measures of visible underemployment are derived by NSSO by classifying
(a) Usually employed persons by their current weekly status,
(b) usually employed persons by their current daily statuses
(c) persons employed in current weekly status by their current daily statuses.
Three rates of visible underemployment are obtained from these three types of
classifications in terms of
(i) proportion of usually employed persons who did not have work during the
reference week,
(ii) proportion of person-days of the usually employed persons which were not used
for work
(iii) proportion of person-days of the persons employed in current weekly status which
were not used for work. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive Cities
The concept of the inclusive city is derived from the idea that the city belongs to all its
habitants.
A city is inclusive when there is equitable and affordable access to urban infrastructure,
land, housing, social services, and livelihood opportunities.
Definition by UN-Habitat : An inclusive city promotes growth with equity. It was
defined as a place where everyone, regardless of their economic means, gender, race,
ethnicity, or religion, is enabled and empowered to fully participate in the social,
economic, and political opportunities that cities have to offer.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive Cities
An inclusive city creates a safe, liveable environment with affordable and equitable
access to urban services, social services, and livelihood opportunities for all the city
residents and other city users to promote optimal development of its human capital
and ensure the respect of human dignity and equality.
An inclusive city is built on
(i) joint strategic visions of all stakeholders through a participatory planning and
decision making process incorporating universal design, integrated urban planning,
transparent accountability mechanisms, and the use of the city’s inherent assets;
(ii) knowledge and information sharing;
(iii) public participation and contribution;
(iv) mechanisms, such as cross-subsidies, social protection, and gender balance, to
ensure an adequate standard of living to the most economically disadvantaged
and vulnerable population
(v) geographical and social mobility
(vi) business environment and pro-poor financing services that attract capital
investment and allow everybody the possibility to undertake economic activities
(vii) resilience to global environmental and socioeconomic shocks and threats;
(viii)mechanisms to ensure the sustainable use of its resources.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive Cities
Principles for an integrated approach to Inclusive urban development are :
1. Accessibility
2. Affordability
3. Resilience
4. Sustainability
Accessibility: It is defined as the opportunities for safe, secure housing and reliable
basic services for all individuals and communities structured within projects and
programs that include credit and technical support required for their operation,
maintenance, and expansion. Accessibility means enabling these opportunities within
social structures and cultural norms that may constrain individual or collective access
to a service.
Affordability: It is viewed in its broadest sense to include not only the affordability of
families to benefit from the shelter, services, and transport solutions offered to them,
but also the affordability of local and national governments to benefit from and have
the capacity to support the systematic delivery of shelter, services, and transport to
their communities. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive Cities
Resilience: It is an integral part of urban investments. It is not a reactive notion that
appears after disasters, but is a proactive approach to strengthen the ability to resist,
absorb, recover from, and reorganize in response to natural hazards without
jeopardizing sustained socioeconomic advancement and development. Resilience
comes from the awareness of the context in which investments are to be made, of the
affordability of the product provided, of the vulnerabilities based on historical record
and projections of climate change, and of the planning and project development
innovations and technologies that support resilience.
Sustainability: It is the capacity of the responsible entity, be it a family or a local or
national government, to service debt, operate, maintain, renew, and/or expand its
shelter or service delivery system and pro-poor infrastructure. Sustainability also calls
for access to the technical, financial, and human support required for shelter and
service delivery through ongoing systems and programs.
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Inclusive Cities
The concept of inclusiveness involves four attributes:
Opportunity: Is the economy generating more and varied ways for people to earn a
living and increase their incomes over time?
Capability: Is the economy providing the means for people to create or enhance
their capabilities in order to exploit available opportunities?
Access: Is the economy providing the means to bring opportunities and
capabilities together?
Security: Is the economy providing the means for people to protect themselves
against a temporary or permanent loss of livelihood?
Cities are key actors in the fight against social exclusion. local government is closest to
the people and has the potential to significantly improve lives. Local government share
the responsibility to protect citizens from social exclusion
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Disparities (Urban inequality)
Oxfam India Inequality Report 2018 – says that
A) India's top 10 % of the population now holds 77.4 % of the total national wealth.
B) The top 1 % holds 51.53% of the national wealth. Their wealth rose by 39% in the
year as against 3% increase in the wealth of bottom half.
C) The bottom 60%, the majority of the population, own merely 4.8% of the national
wealth.
Causes behind growing inequality
(1) Private Ownership of Property,
(1) Inequalities Arising Out of Concentrated Land Ownership and Concentration of
Tangible Wealth in the Urban Sector
(2) Private Ownership of Industries, Trade and Real Estates
(3) Inequalities in Professional Knowledge and Training
(2) Prevalence of the Law of Inheritance,
(3) Other Causes.
(1) Growing Unemployment
(2) Inflationary Rise in Prices
(3) Credit Policy of Banks and Financial Institutions
(4) Licensing Policy of the Government
(5) Evasion of Taxes http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social Fragmentation
In urban sociology, fragmentation refers to the absence or the underdevelopment of
connections between the society and the groupings of some members of that society
on the lines of a common culture, nationality, race, language, occupation, religion,
income level, or other common interests.
The fallout from inequity within institutions, the state, civil society, and the household
is increasing social fragmentation, resulting in a decline in social cohesion and an
increase in social exclusion
Social Cohesion
Social Exclusion
Social cohesion is the connectedness
among individuals and social groups that
facilitates collaboration and equitable
resource distribution at the household,
community, and state level.
Social fragmentation was associated with
• major economic disruptions; (lack of economic
opportunities)
• anger over the fact that new opportunities were
limited to the rich, the powerful, or the criminal;
• migration in search of employment;
• an overall environment of lawlessness combined
with failure of systems of police and justice;
• increased crime and violence.
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Existing Social divisiveness
Social divisiveness: deliberate unequal treatment of groups of people living in the
same country by the political regime.
Four Questions to identify of social divisiveness exist in city.
1. Particularistic goods : “ Considering the profile of social and infrastructural spending
in the national budget, how ‘particularistic’ or ‘public goods’ are most expenditures?
2. Social group inequality : “ Do all social groups, as distinguished by language,
ethnicity, religion, race, region, or caste, enjoy the same level of civil liber ties, or are
some groups generally in a more favorable position? ”
3. Social class inequality : “ Do poor people enjoy the same level of civil liberties as
rich people do? ”;
4. Subnational civil liberties unevenness : “ Does government respect for civil liberties
vary across different areas of the country? ”
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Need for Inclusion
Need for Inclusion of the Disadvantaged, Marginalized and other Weak and Vulnerable
Social Groups.
Recognizes the need to design and implement social protection system according to
the principle of social inclusion, underlying the particular need to include persons in
the informal economy.
social protection system has three main components:
• Social insurance: protection against risk and adversity throughout life (for example,
loss of income, ill health, old age), designed mostly to keep formal workers and the
non-poor from falling into poverty; contributory or non-contributory schemes
• Social assistance: social transfers in cash or in kind to support and enable the poor;
in general non-contributory schemes
• Inclusion efforts and labour market policies: designed to enhance the capability of
marginalized groups to access social services and programmes and join the labour
markets.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Need for Inclusion
The trickledown effect of economic growth to the poorer sections of the society did not
successfully lead to poverty eradication. Poverty persists mainly due to the inability of
some groups of people to participate in the process of economic growth.
Vulnerability arises from the risks and insecurity caused by life cycle changes (death of
an earning member), illness or health problems, natural calamities and the process of
globalization and structural adjustments in the economy, global warming and
increasingly flexible labour relations can lead to increased incidence of shocks.
Social protection system helps to absorb the shocks and minimize its adverse impact
on the vulnerable and poor and helps to make growth more pro-poor.
Social protection Measures in India are :
• Food and nutrition programme : Targeted Public Distribution System (TDPS)
• public employment programme : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment
Guarantee Act ( MGNREGA)
• Unorganised Sector Social Security Act (USSSA) 2008
• Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) National Health
Protection Scheme http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
slums and squatters
Slums" are highly congested urban areas marked by deteriorated,
unsanitary buildings, poverty, and social disorganization.
"Squatters" settle on land, especially public or unoccupied land, without
right or title. Squatters include those who settles on public land under
regulation by the government, in order to get title to it.
In simple word
Slums refer to the environmental aspects of the area where a
community resides, while squatters refer to the legality of the land
ownership and other infrastructure provision.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Reasons of slums and squatters
Settlements
Urban slums and squatter settlements exist and continue to grow for a variety of
reasons – economic, social, political and environmental.
Economical reasons : they are a source of (real or imagined) economic opportunity
for a nation’s poor, and of low-cost labour supply for the public and private production
of goods and services. They are also a source of profit and capital accumulation for
both internal and external property owners.
Social reasons, slums provide low cost housing and low-cost services for rapidly
expanding low-income urban populations. They also serve as networks of social
support for new migrants to the city.
Political reasons , in democratic and quasi-democratic regimes, slums can be an
important source of votes and other forms of mutual support for local and national
governments. Alternatively, they can act as an organizational base for opposition to
governments.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of the Slums
Slums vary from one type to another, but certain general patterns of slums are universal.
Although, the slum is generally characterized by inadequate housing, deficient facilities,
overcrowding and congestions involve much more then these elements. Sociologically, it
is a way of life, a sub culture with a set of norms and values, which is reflected in poor
sanitation and health practices, deviant behavior and attributes of apathy and social
isolations.
Some of the features of slums are:
1. Housing conditions
In terms of the physical conditions and housing standards it is important to keep in mind
the comparative nature of the definitions. A slum should be judged physically according
to the general living standards of a country. Slums have commonly been defined as
those portions of cities in which housing is crowded, neglected deteriorated and often
obsolete. Many of the inadequate housing conditions can be attributed to poorly
arranged structures, inadequate lighting and circulation, lack of sanitary facility,
overcrowding and inadequate maintenance.
2. Overcrowding and congestion
A slum may be an area which is overcrowded with buildings or a building over-crowded
with people or both. Density does not always result in unfortunate social consequence,
the issue is primarily one of overcrowding. Congestion is again a judgmenthttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of the Slums
Slums vary from one type to another, but certain general patterns of slums are universal.
Although, the slum is generally characterized by inadequate housing, deficient facilities,
overcrowding and congestions involve much more then these elements. Sociologically, it
is a way of life, a sub culture with a set of norms and values, which is reflected in poor
sanitation and health practices, deviant behavior and attributes of apathy and social
isolations.
Some of the features of slums are:
1. Housing conditions
In terms of the physical conditions and housing standards it is important to keep in mind
the comparative nature of the definitions. A slum should be judged physically according
to the general living standards of a country. Slums have commonly been defined as
those portions of cities in which housing is crowded, neglected deteriorated and often
obsolete. Many of the inadequate housing conditions can be attributed to poorly
arranged structures, inadequate lighting and circulation, lack of sanitary facility,
overcrowding and inadequate maintenance.
2. Overcrowding and congestion
A slum may be an area which is overcrowded with buildings or a building over-crowded
with people or both. Density does not always result in unfortunate social consequence,
the issue is primarily one of overcrowding. Congestion is again a judgmenthttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of the Slums
3. Neighborhood facilities
A poor slum is invariably associated with poor facilities and community
services. Along with shabbiness and dilapidation, schools are of poor quality and other
public facilities are often insufficient. Streets and sidewalks often go un-repaired and
rubbish and garbage are infrequently collected adding to the undesirable environment.
Shortage of water, electricity and sanitary facility are common in most of the slums.
4. Poor Sanitation and Health
Slums are generally been dirty and unclean places which is defined largely in terms of
the physical deterioration, stressing particularly unsanitary conditions and lack of
sufficient facilities like water and latrines. These factors have resulted in high rates
death and disease. These factors have always been typical of slum areas where
overcrowding and presence of rats and other pest complicate the problem of health
and sanitation. In slum areas of developing countries, the rate of disease, chronic illness
and infant mortality are exceptionally high.
5. Deviant Behavior
A high incidence of deviant behavior- crime, juvenile delinquency, prostitution,
drunkenness, drug usage, mental disorder, suicide, ill legitimacy and family
maladjustments have long been associated with slum living.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of the Slums
6. The Culture of the Slum- a way of life Slums differ widely with respect to the social
organization of there Inhabitants. They range from the slums in which the inhabitants
are strangers to one another, to the family slums in which there is a wide acquaintance
between the inhabitants. Slums inhabited by immigrant groups may have a firm social
organization. Culture might be defined as system of symbols or meanings for the
normative conduct of standards, having three distinct properties. It is transmittable, it is
learned and it is shared. The slum has a culture of its own and this culture is the way of
life. This way of life is passed from generation to generation with its own rationale,
structure ad defense mechanism, which provides the means to continue in spite of
difficulties and deprivation. It is the habits, customs and behavior pattern people have
learned and which they hold that move them to act in a particular way. Although, these
cultural patterns are typical of the slum, form ethnic groups to ethnic groups, from own
society to society to another.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of the Slums
7. Apathy and Social Isolation
Every residential area within the modern city tends to be socially isolated from others,
partly by choice and partly by location. The slum is especially so, as it is inhabited by the
people of the lowest status. The chief link with rest of the community is their
identification with labour market, but there may be an additional link through politics.
A slum also has an image in the eyes of the larger community. There is a societal
reaction to slum dwellers. The non-slum dweller often associates the physical
appearance and difficult living conditions of the slums with belief in the “Natural
inferiority” of those who live in slums. This reaction has important consequences in the
social isolation of slum dwellers and their exclusion, from power and participation in
urban society. The slum dwellers often lack an effective means of communication with
the outside world. Because of apathy, lack of experience in communicating with
outsiders and their own powerlessness to make their voice heard. William. F. Whyte
(1943) stated that although the north end slum studied in his work on street corner
society was a mysterious, dangerous and depressing place to an outsider, it provided an
organized and familiar environment for those who lived in it.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
List of Indian Cities Having Slums
List of Indian Cities Having Slums:
1) Dharavi in Mumbai-It is no.1 in India and no.3 in the world and is well-
known.
2) Bhalswa in Delhi.
3) Basanti in Kolkata
4) Nochikuppam in Chennai.
5) Saroj Nagar in Nagpur.
6) Mehbullahpur in Lucknow.
7) Indiramma Nagar in Hyderabad.
8) Rajendra Nagar in Bangalore.
9) Parivartan in Ahmedabad.
10) Satnami Nagar Bhopal.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social problems of slums and squatters
communities
Slum & squatters communities have numerous economic, social, as well as
infrastructure problems.
Slum dwellers lack proper housing, water and sanitation, are exposed to serious
health risks, and have limited access to credit and the formal job market due to
stigmatization and discrimination and to geographic isolation. Furthermore, they
have limited access to social and economic networks. Slum areas in cities have
high population densities and high concentrations of social and economic
deprivation, which may include broken families, unemployment, and economic,
physical and social exclusion.
Crime : In places of social dislocation with large numbers of unemployed young
people, crime can be a serious problem.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization
India is a vast country and its economic and social development is marked by
huge regional disparities. The concentration of resources (both natural and
human), the historicity of the region, the geographical location of the state and
proximity to international borders, cross-border migration, the level of
agricultural and industrial development, the initiatives of the state government
are some of the major factors that influence the level of urbanization of that
region. The end result is that there are different patterns and levels of
urbanization in different parts of the country.
The concentration of industrial, commercial and development activities in the
urban areas create employment and earning opportunities which in turn not only
sustain the urban work force but also draws additional workforce from outside
the urban areas, specially from the poverty infested rural areas and economically
stagnant small towns.
In the process of urbanization the towns and cities of India have achieved
heterogeneous character in terms of ethnicity, caste, race, class and culture. In
the urban areas there has always been coexistence of different cultures
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization
N.K. Bose (1968: 66) points out that the migrants tend to cluster around people with
whom they have linguistic, local, regional, caste and ethnic ties.
A study by Jagannathan and Haldar (1989: 315) on the pavement-dwellers in
Calcutta shows that they retain close ties with kinship and caste groups for
socialising and transmitting or receiving information from the village. Thus cultural
pluralism has been an important socio-cultural dimension of the urbanites.
Urbanization not only implies the simple migration of one social category into
another social environment but also other significant socio-cultural aspects involves
are :
1. the process of continual growth in rural settlements located adjacent to
urbanizing centers;
2. the pendulum-like movements of commuters imposing new cultural patterns in
the villages;
3. the variability of urban structures and the tendency to disperse in suburbs.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization
Social stratification has taken a new form in the urban society. It is assumed
that with urbanisation caste transforms itself into class in the urban areas. But
caste systems do exist in the cities though with significant organisational
differences.
Ramkrishna Mukherjee demonstrates that people in Kolkata rank themselves in terms
of caste-hierarchy. Stratification has also taken place on the basis of occupational
categories.
For example, Harold Gould (1965) points out that the rikshawalas of Lucknow
belonging to several religious and caste groups exhibit uniformity in the pattern of
interaction and attitudes in respect to their common occupation. Again it has been
found that caste has not played a significant role in determining the choice of
occupation in the urban areas. But it is important to note that both the caste and the
class have their respective importance based on time and space and situational focus
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social Policy : Definitions
According to David Gill: Social policies are principles/ course of action designed to
influence:
i) the overall quality of life in a society;
ii) the circumstances of living of individuals and groups in that society; and
iii) the nature of intra- societal relationships among individuals, groups and society
as a whole.
According to Kulkarni “Social policy is the strategy of action indicating means and
methods to be followed in successive phases to achieve the declared social
objectives.”
Marshall states that the term, “Social policy refers to the policy of governments with
regard to action having a direct impact on the welfare of citizens, by providing them
with services or income.”
social policy is a deliberate action on the part of individuals, collectivities and
governments, undertaken to organise services, opportunities and social action so as to
affect the life-styles of people and initiate a process to prevent, postpone, initiate and
manage change. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Social Planning
Social Planning is concerned with defining goals, determining future activities,
identifying resources and ways to accomplish those set goals meant for social
development . Social planning is a process for planning social services programs,
services, and policies.
Social Development is equated with a series of completed stages. Like having to climb
the rungs of a ladder, one moves up and up in order to become more and more
developed. Development is always conceived within a twin framework of self- and
other-development. Social development represents a holistic approach that is dynamic
and process-oriented.
The Need for Social Planning in India An underdeveloped economy like India is
characterized by inequalities of incomes and ownership of assets. The high incidence of
poverty, coupled with these inequalities, makes the task of development particularly
important. There are also regional imbalances and problems connected with the
development of areas, which are disadvantaged due to geographical and ecological
factors (as for example drought-prone areas, flood-prone areas etc).
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Characteristics of Social Policy
1. The concern of social policy is with social and economic justice based on the
principle of equality, which means that the redistribution of social resources
should take place from the better off sections towards the worse off sections of
society
2. Its concern with weaker and vulnerable sections of society such as poor, women,
children, disabled, backward classes so as to bring them at par with the rest of
society. Thus social policies visualize of an egalitarian society where inequalities
are reduced to minimum level.
3. Social policies do not exist in isolation. These are determined to a large extent by
the socio-political scenario of a nation, its economic viability and last but not the
least, by socio-cultural ethos of people of the nation.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Community participation
The involvement of people in a community projects to solve their own problems.
People cannot be forced to 'participate' in projects which affect their lives but should be
given the opportunity where possible.
Community participation can take place during any of the following activities of social
project and policy :
• Needs assessment — expressing opinions about desirable improvements, prioritizing
goals and negotiating with agencies
• Planning — formulating objectives, setting goals, criticizing plans
• Mobilizing — raising awareness in a community about needs, establishing or
supporting organizational structures within the community
• Training — participation in formal or informal training activities to enhance
communication, construction, maintenance and financial management skills
• Implementing — engaging in management activities; contributing directly to
construction, operation and maintenance with labour and materials; contributing cash
towards costs, paying of services or membership fees of community organizations
• Monitoring and evaluation — participating in the appraisal of work done, recognizing
improvements that can be made and redefining needs
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive planning
Inclusive planning enables and empowers all the sections of the society regardless of
their economic status, social position, gender, race or ethnicity to fully participate in
the planning process of the city. This strategy of participation is not only socially
desirable but also politically correct.
Inclusive city planning would require:-
1. Understanding of the role, significance of the urban poor in the inclusive city.
2. Cities should make genuine effort to sustain livelihoods/habitat of urban poor
3. Democratic and decentralized community participation must be encouraged
4. An economic climate to guard (shield) the urban poor from global economic
competition must be ensured
5. A government’s commitment to help and assist the survival of the weaker
section should be guaranteed.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Inclusive planning
Global report on human settlements 2009 : Lists a range of key urban issues, as
below, to be identified for the inclusive city approach.
1. Access to land .
2. Forced evictions and market evictions.
3. Pro poor compensation and land acquisition.
4. Social housing.
5. City planning for migrants.
6. Affordable mobility management.
7. Health/pollution/cost accessibility.
8. Preparedness for post disaster.
9. Wealth distribution and social welfare.
10. Social safety nets and welfare services.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Gender concerns in Planning
Gender Mainstreaming
Gender mainstreaming has been referred to as a comprehensive strategy that
involves the integration of women-oriented programmes and gender issues into
development institutions and to move women’s issues out of the periphery of
decision-making and into the “mainstream” of development.
Gender mainstreaming is a process to achieve gender equality and overcome the
costs of women’s marginalization.
Mainstreaming requires:
1. Incorporation of gender concerns in planning policy and implementation to
provide effective rights and dignity to the disadvantaged;
2. Women inclusive social, political and economic institutions;
3. Transforming cultural structures of power within the home and outside,
4. Ending domestic and public violence; and
5. Recognition of women’s work and contribution to economy as well as their
economic agency.
Unequal gender relations affect the way in which the burden of poverty is
distributed; and unequal gender relations can also be the cause of poverty among
women and girls otherwise non- poor families. Thus, unequal gender relations need
to be addressed both as a cause and as a factor in the intensification of poverty.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Settlement policy
The national urban policy proposes to address problems relating to urban infrastructure
deficiencies by giving special emphasis to the housing sector, water supply and
sanitation, municipal solid waste management and urban transport. It also proposes to
reduce urban poverty by increasing investment in poverty alleviation programmes,
development of employment generation strategy and by trying to integrate poor
communities into city planning by improving access to services and land rights. The
Government of India has formulated the
1. National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) seeks to create fully sanitized Cities
through awareness generation, State Sanitation Strategies and Integrated City
Sanitation Plans.
2. National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) seeks to promote safe, affordable and
sustainable transportation through integrated land use and transport planning,
multi-modal public transport, equitable allocation of road space and promotion of
clean technologies.
3. National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (NUHHP) seeks to promote
sustainable development of habitat in the country with a view to ensure equitable
supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices to all sections of society.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
National Commission on Urbanization
NCU
National Commission of Urbanization (NCU) Report was brought out in 1988 under
the chairmanship of Sh. Charles Correa. The NCU Report was in the form of
recommendations for the balanced and sustainable development of urban centers in
the country. By and large the recommendations of NCU Report were advisory in
nature and no effort either at central or at state level was done to follow up the
implementation of the recommendations and the exercise remained on paper
Recommendations of National Commission on Urbanization
Dimensions of Urbanization
1. The urban centres which can generate economic momentum and require
priority in development ah been identified. They include National Priority
Cities (NPCs), State Priority Cities (SPCs), Spatial Priority Urbanization
Regions (BPURs) and the small towns which serve the rural hinterland. From
the 8th Plan onwards the fullest support must be given to the development of
the identified growth centres.
2. The Process of urbanization can and must be used to improve agricultural
performance and create localized employment opportunities.
3. Population control measures must be me really effective in both urban and
rural areas in order to stabilize the urban situation.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
National Commission on Urbanization
NCU
Housing
1. Housing policy must aim at increasing the supply of serviced land and lowcost
shelter, improving and upgrading slums and conserving the existing housing
stock.
2. The State must facilitate housing and ensure access to basic inputs. It should not
become a real estate developer.
3. The sites and services programme should be extended to cover the entire cross
section of society. Besides providing housing, the programme should be used to
generate employment.
Urban Form
1. Low rise, High density development should be the predominant built form in
urban India.
2. Municipal regulations regarding minimum plot sizes, buildable plot area, etc
should e amended, building envelopes designed and building codes modified so
that the desired built form is achieved.
3. Controlled streetscapes should be achieved through mandatory building lines
and developing appropriate building envelops.
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Rural Housing Policy (RHP)
The strategy of a Rural Housing Policy would have to be sustainable, based on
community choice and would have to provide the household with control over the
ownership of the asset.
The aims and objectives of RHP:
i. To create within the timeframe of the Five Year Plan, adequate rural housing stock
that would cater to the rural housing shortage estimated as per the Census data.
ii. To prepare a State-wise road map with a definite time frame for provision of
appropriate and affordable housing to shelterless households either by way of
upgradation of kutcha houses or through construction of new houses.
iii. To restructure and strengthen the local and state level institutions / agencies so
that the framework for mobilizing additional land and finance for housing purposes
and community infrastructure building is created.
iv. To introduce the participation of private entrepreneurship on a selective basis and
initiate housing development through public-private partnership wherever deemed
feasible.
v. To plan for removing the barriers preventing greater credit flow into rural areas and
to suggest administrative, legal, fiscal and any other operational changes that
would facilitate entry of greater resources so that the rural-urban gap of quality of
life is bridged. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Rural Housing Policy (RHP)
vi. To provide for an assembly of basic services like water supply, sanitation, power,
roads and other livelihood infrastructure that eliminate daily household drudgery
and creating sustainable habitats attuned to local requirements.
vii. To identify specific rural segments where habitat development can take place along
the lines of integrated townships with layouts etc., and reverse the process of
migration to urban and semi-urban areas.
viii. To prepare area specific livelihood based habitats after factoring in the local
requirements and constraints, in terms of availability, adequacy and
appropriateness of resources.
ix. To put in place a legal-administrative mechanism that provides housing plots for
the totally landless so as to qualify them for financial targeting and subsequent
livelihood initiatives.
x. To put in place a mechanism for identification that would ensure the flow of
benefits from Government funded housing programmes to genuine BPL
population.
xi. To energise the functioning of PRIs so that issues of access to land, finance and
community participation are more effectively addressed at a decentralized level.
xii. To generate awareness and promote cost effective, environment friendly, energy
saving and disaster resistant technologies.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Settlement structure
The term settlement structure describes the structure of human settlements. This
includes the spatial distribution of local residents, the type and density of buildings, the
form of use, infrastructure as well as central institutions and facilities.
• Erosion of local economic basis bases and the establishment of a number of new,
small scale businesses (particularly, in the service industries) produced uneven
spatial development inside of cities.
• Globalisation resulted in regional differentiation and a significant shift in the
development of "regional centres“
• Fragmentation of the city centre
• Increasing diversity of peripheral areas of cities
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Reference
1. Urbanization and Urban Systems in India by R. Ramachandran
2. SOCIAL formation and change by Dr. R.K. Wishwakarma
3. Indian Society Textbook in Sociology for for Class XII (NCERT )
4. Sociology by anthony giddens
5. URBANIZATION IN INDIA - ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Unknown Binding – 2018 by Arun Kumar
& B D Misra
6. Urbanization in India: Problems and Prospects by T V Sujatha Kumari, P Narasimha Rao
7. Sociological Bulletin - Indian Sociological Society
8. Urban Transformation and Role of Architecture towards Social Sustainability Ar. Soma A.
Mishra, Dr. R. K. Pandit,
9. Enabling inclusive cities: tool kit for inclusive urban development ADB -2017
10. Social inclusion programmes and inclusive growth in developing countries UNCTD 2014
11. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2011/09/22/india-urbanization
12. Seventeen reasons why the squatter problem can't be solved by Shlomo Angel and Stan Benj
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
Reference
13. Urban sociology by Jayapalan, N.
14. Sustainability and human settlements by Monto, M., Ganesh, L. and
Varghese, K.
15. Urban sociology: images and structures by Flanagan, W.
16. Indian Society by S C Dube
17. Indian social structure by K L sharma
18. Social Problem in India by Ram Ahuja
19. Reader’s on Urban Sociology in India by MSA Rao
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum

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Socio economic base for planning

  • 1. Socio-Economic base for Planning http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum Complied by Front Desk Architects and Planners Forum http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 2. Introduction The word “sociology” is derived from the Latin word socius (companion) and the Greek word logos (speech or reason), which together mean “reasoned speech about companionship”. The sociologist Dorothy Smith (1926 – ) defines the social as the “ongoing concerting and coordinating of individuals’ activities” Smith (1999 ) says Sociology is the systematic study of all those aspects of life designated by the adjective “social.” These aspects of social life never simply occur; they are organized processes. They can be the briefest of everyday interactions—moving to the right to let someone pass on a busy sidewalk, for example—or the largest and most enduring interactions—such as the billions of daily exchanges that constitute the circuits of global capitalism. Think about the T-shirts in your drawer at home. What are the sequences of linkages and social relationships that link the T-shirts in your chest of drawers to the dangerous and hyper-exploitive garment factories in rural China or Bangladesh? These are the type of questions that point to the unique domain and puzzles of the social that sociology seeks to explore and understand. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 3. The sociological imagination The Sociological Imagination is a book written by sociologist C. Wright Mills and published in 1959. His goal in writing this book was to try to reconcile two different and abstract concepts of social reality – the "individual" and "society." In doing so, Mills challenged the dominant ideas within sociology and critiqued some of the most basic terms and definitions. The sociological imagination is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and influence each other. To have a sociological imagination, a person must be able to pull away from the situation and think from an alternative point of view. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 4. SOCIOLOGY AND COMMON SENSE KNOWLEDGE Sociological knowledge is different from theological and philosophical observations. Likewise sociology is different from common sense observations. The common sense explanations are generally based on what may be called ‘naturalistic’ and/or individualistic explanation. A naturalistic explanation for behaviour rests on the assumption that one can really identify ‘natural’ reasons for behaviour. Sociology has a body of concepts, methods and data, no matter how loosely coordinated. This cannot be substituted by common sense SOCIOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES Sociology is one of a group of social sciences, which also includes anthropology, economics, political science and history. The divisions among the various social sciences are not clearcut, and all share a certain range of common interests, concepts and methods. It is therefore very important to understand that the distinctions of the disciplines are to some extent arbitrary and should not be seen in a straitjacket fashion. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 5. Sociology in India A standard western textbook definition of sociology समाज शास्‍तर is “the study of human groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to the analysis of the industrialised world” (Giddens 2001). A standard western definition of social anthropology सामाजजक मानविकी would be the study of simple societies of non-western and therefore “other” cultures M. N Srinivas (1966 ) map the trajectory: In a country such as India, with its size and diversity, regional, linguistic, religious, sectarian, ethnic (including caste), and between rural an urban areas there are a myriad ‘others’ In a culture and society such as a india’s ‘the other’ can be encountered literally next door… No rigid divide exists between sociology and social anthropology in India, a characteristic feature of the two subjects in many western countries. Perhaps the very diversity of the modern and traditional, of the village and the metropolitan in India accounts for this. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 6. Urban Sociology in India In 1920 first department of sociology was established at university of Bombay by Professor Patrick Geddes. Sociology studies in urban context starts after 1971 census which recorded high rate of growth of urban population. (109 million ). The Study of Urban sociology got importance with rising problems of rural urban migration , urban development and other related areas such as demography , slums, stratification, education, ethnic conflict and movements , kinship, religion, politics, economy, social problems and impact of urbanization on rural areas. In 1986 the national commission on urbanization established under chairmanship of Charles Correa. After UNCHS habitat 1996 Conference Government of India encourage city studies and network of Local Urban Observatories (LUOs) and National Urban Observatory (NUO) programme are start in India. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 7. Sociological concepts Sociologists study all aspects and levels of society. A Society is a group of people whose members interact, reside in a definable area, and share a culture. A Culture includes the group’s shared practices, values, beliefs, norms and artifacts. Community : The term community is one of the most elusive and vague in sociology and is by now largely without specific meaning. At the minimum it refers to a collection of people in a geographical area. Three other elements may also be present in any usage. (1) Communities may be thought of as collections of people with a particular social structure; there are, therefore, collections which are not communities. Such a notion often equates community with rural or pre-industrial society and may, in addition, treat urban or industrial society as positively destructive. (2) A sense of belonging or community spirit. (3) All the daily activities of a community, work and non work, take place within the geographical area, which is self contained. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 8. Social Groups A social group consists of two or more people who interact with one another and who recognize themselves as a distinct social unit. The definition is simple enough, but it has significant implications. Frequent interaction leads people to share values and beliefs. This similarity and the interaction cause them to identify with one another. Identification and attachment, in turn, stimulate more frequent and intense interaction. Each group maintains solidarity with all to other groups and other types of social systems. Groups are among the most stable and enduring of social units. They are important both to their members and to the society at large. Through encouraging regular and predictable behavior, groups form the foundation upon which society rests. Thus, a family, a village, a political party a trade union is all social groups. These, it should be noted are different from social classes, status groups or crowds, which not only lack structure but whose members are less aware or even unaware of the existence of the group. These have been called quasi-groups or groupings. Nevertheless, the distinction between social groups and quasi-groups is fluid and variable since quasi-groups very often give rise to social groups, as for example, social classes give rise to political parties.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 9. Primary Groups | Secondary Group If all groups are important to their members and to society, some groups are more important than others. Early in the twentieth century, Charles H. Cooley gave the name, primary groups, to those groups that he said are characterized by intimate face-to-face association and those are fundamental in the development and continued adjustment of their members. He identified three basic primary groups, the family, the child's play group, and the neighborhoods or community among adults. A primary group is typically a small social group(small-scale society) whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, in shared activities and culture. Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups Secondary groups, characterized by anonymous, impersonal, and instrumental relationships, have become much more numerous. People move frequently, often from one section of the country to another and they change from established relationships and promoting widespread loneliness. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 10. Institutions A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic societal value. Obviously, the sociologist does not define institutions in the same way as does the person on the street. Lay persons are likely to use the term "institution" very loosely, for churches, hospitals, jails, and many other things as institutions. Sociologists often reserve the term "institution" to describe normative systems that operate in five basic areas of life, which may be designated as the primary institutions. (1) In determining Kinship; (2) in providing for the legitimate use of power; (3) in regulating the distribution of goods and services; ( (4) in transmitting knowledge from one generation to the next; and (5) in regulating our relation to the supernatural. In shorthand form, or as concepts, these five basic institutions are called the family, government, economy, education and religion. All social group posses Institution http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 11. Classification of Institutions Institutions are classified into (i) Primary institutions (ii) Secondary institutions. As societies grew in size and complexity, institutions became progressive and more differentiated. Accordingly, a large number of institutions are evolved to cater to the secondary needs of people. They may be called secondary institutions. The secondary institutions of • Economics are property, trading, credit, banking etc. • Religion are church, temple, mosque, totem, taboo etc. • Education are school, college, university etc. • Government are interest groups, party system, democracy etc. Sumner classification of institutions are : • the crescive institutions • the enacted institutions. Those that evolved or developed naturally, unconsciously and even spontaneously are called by him cursive. Those institutions that are consciously and purposefully and in a planned way established are referred to by him as enacted.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 12. Family A family is the most primary institution and family and marriage are the most pervasive social institution. The sex relationship is the most primary and an essential foundation of relationship. In a family there is a sense of belongingness. The institution of family rests on the "consciousness of kind” Virtually everyone, in all societies, is brought up in a family which is the first nursery of socialisation and education. There is a great variation in the family and marriage patterns across different cultures. The social web of family institution gets extended with its vast connection with other kin, whom one is permitted to marry. And the family relationships are recognised within wider kinship groups. Sociologists and Anthropologists identify those families as nuclear families which consists of wife and husband living together in a household with their own or adopted offsprings. The extended family (Joint Family) may be a group of a few generations living within the same dwelling unit. It may include grand parents and great grand parents, bothers and their wives. sisters and their husbands, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 13. Family A family in which a person is born is called the family of orientation and the family in which a person enters as an adult and within a new generation of children is brought up is called a family of procreation. There is another dimension of family. When the bridegroom moves to live with bride's parents, it is called matrilocal family. Contrary to this, when bride moves to live with bridegrooms family it is called patrilocal family. A matrifocal family structure is one where mothers head families and fathers play a less important role in the home and in bringing up children. Opposite to this in patrifocal family is headed and centred on Father or Patriarch. Monogamy : The family where an individual male marries ii single female is called a monogamous marriage. But polygamy is a type of marriage which allows a husband or wife to have more than one spouse. Polygamy is of two kinds-polygyny and polyandry. In polygyny a man marries more than one women polyandry in which a woman may have more than one husband. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 14. Government A Government is an institution entrusted with making and enforcing the rules of a society as well as with regulating relations with other societies. In order to be considered a government, a ruling body must be recognized as such by the people it purports to govern. A person or group that considers itself the leading body of a society has no power if the members of the society do not recognize the person or group as such. Types of Governments Most of the world’s governments fall into one of four categories: monarchy, democracy, authoritarianism, or totalitarianism. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 15. Religion Religion describes the beliefs, values, and practices related to sacred or spiritual concerns. Religion is a social institution because it includes beliefs and practices that serve the needs of society. Religion is also an example of a cultural universal because it is found in all societies in one form or another. Barkan and Greenwood 2003 says Religious experience refers to the conviction or sensation that one is connected to “the divine.” This type of communion might be experienced when people are praying or meditating. Religious beliefs are specific ideas that members of a particular faith hold to be true, such as that Bharmaji has create world Vishuji run the world etc., or believing in reincarnation. Another illustration of religious beliefs is that different religions adhere to certain stories of world creation. Religious rituals are behaviours or practices that are either required or expected of the members of a particular group, such as Aarti, Abhishek etc. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 16. Social norm The social norm, or simply "norm," is arguably the most important concept in sociology. Sociologists believe that norms govern our lives by giving us implicit and explicit guidance on what to think and believe, how to behave, and how to interact with others. We learn norms in a variety of settings and from various people, including our family, our teachers and peers at school, and members of the media. There are four key types of norms, with differing levels of scope and reach, significance and importance, and methods of enforcement. These norms are, in order of increasing significance, 1. Folkways 2. Mores 3. Taboos 4. Laws 1. Folkways William Graham Sumner (1906) says Folkways are norms that stem from and organize casual interactions, and emerge out of repetition and routines. We engage in them to satisfy our daily needs, and they are most often unconscious in operation, though they are quite useful for the ordered functioning of society.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 17. Social norm 2 Mores Mores are more strict than folkways, as they determine what is considered moral and ethical behavior; they structure the difference between right and wrong. People feel strongly about mores, and violating them typically results in disapproval or ostracizing. As such, mores exact a greater coercive force in shaping our values, beliefs, behavior, and interactions than do folkways. Religious doctrines are an example of mores that govern social behavior. 3. Taboos A taboo is a very strong negative norm; it is a prohibition of certain behavior that is so strict that violating it results in extreme disgust and even expulsion from the group or society. Often times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society. For instance, in some Muslim cultures, eating pork is taboo because the pig is considered unclean. At the more extreme end, incest and cannibalism are both considered taboos in most places. (Cannibalism is the act of consuming another individual of the same species as food.) http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 18. Social norm 4. Laws A law is a norm that is formally inscribed at the state or federal level and is enforced by police or other government agents. Laws exist to discourage behavior that would typically result in injury or harm to another person, including violations of property rights. Those who enforce laws have been given legal right by a government to control behavior for the good of society at large. When someone violates a law, a state authority will impose a sanction, which can be as light as a payable fine or as severe as imprisonment. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 19. Social Role Social roles refer to the set of behaviors that are expected of individuals within social institutions. Society is like a stage and individuals are like actors within a society whereby, they have to play different roles within different social institutions. Each individual hold different status within distinct institutions of society. Roles are positions in a social group. Father, mother, son, daughter, are examples of roles within the family A role is a comprehensive pattern of behaviour that is socially recognized, providing a means of identifying and placing an individual in a society. Role conflict occurs when members of the group have different definitions or expectations of someone occupying a role. Role conflict can occur, for example, when a parent coaches a cricket team that includes that parent's son. The role of the parent can conflict with the role of the coach who needs to be objective when determining the positions and batting lineup, for example, along with the need to interact with all the children equally. Role strain When individual is stressed out due to excessive responsibilities associated with his statuses within different instructions of society is called role strain. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 20. Social Status In all of the many social groups that we as individuals belong to, we have a status and a role to fulfill. Status is our relative social position within a group, while a role is the part our society expects us to play in a given status. Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of status, achieved status and ascribed status. Achieved Status An achieved status is one that is acquired on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person's skills, abilities, and efforts. Being a professional athlete, for example, is an achieved status, as is being a lawyer, college professor, or even a criminal. Ascribed Status An ascribed status, on the other hand, is beyond an individual's control. It is not earned, but rather is something people are either born with or had no control over. Examples of ascribed status include sex, race, and age. Children usually have more ascribed statuses than adults, since they do not usually have a choice in most matters. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 21. Social Status : Indian caste system In India, ascribed, rather than achieved, social status has been strongly reinforced for more than 3,000 years and permeates most areas of life even today. As a result, social mobility has been very difficult to achieve until recent generations. Even now, it is limited for those at the bottom of society. At the heart of the Indian ascription system are castes These are carefully ranked, rigidly hereditary social divisions of society. INDIAN CASTES TRADITIONAL ROLE IN SOCIETY 1. Brahman priests and teachers 2. Kshatriya rulers, warriors, and landowners 3. Vaishya farmers, merchants and artisans 4. Shudra serfs or laborers 5. Scheduled castes (Harijan ,Dalit ) "polluted" laborers http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 22. Class and Caste Class The society is stratified in various class groups-by sex, age, race, ethnicity, primitive and modern, rich and poor. Such stratifications are spontaneous formation expressive of social attitudes based on social or financial status. Status is a symbol which stands for the elite and the masses, the rich and the poor. the ruler and the ruled. the educated and the uneducated. Caste Whereas, a caste is a closed class or social group. There are no purely free-entry classes, nor purely closed castes. Thus there is some mobility within a caste- structured society. Members of inferior castes always seek to move upwards. Membership of caste is compulsory arid it is not matter of choice . http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 23. Social Interaction Social interaction is the process of reciprocal influence exercised by individuals over one another during social encounters. Usually it refers to face-to-face encounters in which people are physically present with one another for a specified duration. Society is created by humans and human interaction, which they call habitualization. Habitualization describes how “any action that is repeated frequently becomes cast into a pattern, which can then be … performed again in the future in the same manner and with the same economical effort” Social interaction is in crucial respects symbolic interaction–interaction which is mediated by the exchange and interpretation of symbols. In symbolic interaction, people contrive to reach a mutual understanding of each other and of the tasks at hand through the exchange and interpretation of symbols. Only on this basis can a coordinated action be accomplished. The process of communication is the central quality of the human social environment. Social interaction depends on communication. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 24. Social System Social System is dynamic complexity of various group and institution. A social system is an interdependent set of cultural and structural elements that can be thought of as a unit. A social system may be defined as a plurality of individuals interacting with each other according to shared cultural norms and meanings. Structure of Social System Durkheim says “ we may consider social norms and values as ‘things’ and hence parts of the social structure”. Radcliffe-Brown has defined social structure : “The components of social structure are human beings, the structure itself being an arrangement of persons in relationship institutionally defined and regulated”. Functions of Social System: 1. Adaptation: The problems of adapting the social system to its physical and social environments. The most important problems in this respect are procuring resources needed for its activities, providing for protection against physical and social threats, and developing information relating to these. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 25. Social System 2. Goal Attainment: The organisational problem of effecting co-ordination in any collective tasks directed outside the system itself. 3. Integration: The internal problem of maintaining satisfying relations among the interacting, members and avoiding disrupting conflicts. For small groups, this concerns inter-personal relations. For larger organisation, it concerns inter-group relations. 4. Latent Pattern Maintenance: The internal organisational problem of ordering activity patterns of the system, and also of adjusting the role demands on members, so that these are compatible with their other role commitments. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 26. Social Structure Elements of social structure In social structure the human beings organize themselves into associating of pursuit of some object or objects. This can be fulfilled if the social structure is based on some principles. (i) Normative System : This presents the society with ideals and values. The people attach emotional importance to these norms. The institutions and associations are interrelated according to these norms. The individuals perform their roles in accordance with the accepted norms of society. (ii) Position system : this refer to the status and roles of the individuals. The desires, aspirations and expectations of individuals are varied, multiple and unlimited. So, theses can be fulfilled only by if the members of society are assigned different role according to their capacities and capabilities. (iii) Sanction system : The integration and coordination of different parts of social structure depend upon conformity of social norms. The non- conformists are punished by the society. The effectiveness of social structure depends on effectiveness of its sanction system. (iv) The system of anticipated responses : The anticipated response system calls upon the individuals to participate in the social system. His preparation sets the social structure in motion.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 27. Social Structure V). Action system : It is the object or goal to be arrived at by social structure. The whole social structure revolves around it. The action is the root cause which weaves the web social relationships and sets the social structure in motion. Types of social structure : Talcott Parsons has described 4 principal types of social structure. 1. The universalistic achievement pattern : This is combination of value patterns which sometimes are opposed to the value of social structure built mostly about kinship, community , class and race. The choice of goal by the individual must be accordance with the universalistic values. His pursuits are defined by universalistic moral norms. Such a system is dynamically developing norms. Such a system is dynamically developing system with an encouragement for initiative. 2. Universalistic ascriptions pattern-under this type of social structure the elements of value-orientation are dominated by the elements of ascription. Therefore in such a social structure strong emphasis is laid on the status of the individual rather than on his specific achievements. The emphasis is on what an individual is rather than on what he has done. Status is ascribed to the group rather than to the individuals. The individual derives his status from his group. In this type of social structure all resources are mobilized in the interest of the collective ideal.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 28. Types of social structure 3. Particularistic-Achievement Pattern-This type combines achievement values with particularim. The primary criterion of valued achievement is found not in universalistic terms such as conformity to a generalized ideal or efficiency but these are focussed on certain points of reference within the relational system itself or are inherent in the situation. The emphasis on achievement leads to the conception of a proper pattern of adaption which is a product of human achievement and which are maintained by continuous efforts. 4. Particularistic-Ascriptive pattern- In this type also the social structure is organized around the relational reference points notably those of kinship and local community but it differs from the particularistic achievement type in as much as the relational values are taken as given and passively adapted to rather than make for an actively organized system. The structure tends to be traditionalistic and emphasis is laid on its stability. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 29. Social structure & Spatial Structure Social structure is a phenomenon that is closely associated with space. The structure of a society is physically exhibited in spatial forms and patterns. In other words, social structure is reflected in space. From ancient times, it can be observed .that social structure has had definite spatial patterns. The group belonging to the upper caste or the group that was predominant, occupied the area that surrounded the nucleus. In this case, the nucleus can be a temple, mosque or a church. The other groups were distributed around this central area based on the caste and the status they enjoyed in the society. This can be seen in both urban and rural communities, However it is much stronger in rural Communities. Spatial distribution of population in rural communities is influenced by castes and one tends to see clusters of population belonging to the same caste and social structure in a particular location. Important characteristic that is to be found in urban communities is that spatial locations are also influenced by economic factors rather then by castes . The setting of a group of people belonging to a particular type of social structure at a particular location at a point of time ensures that the subsequent generations belonging to the same social structure would settle at the same location. Thus social structure and spatial forms and patterns are irrevocably intertwined with one another with the physical representation of the former giving rise to the latterhttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 30. Socio-cultural profile of Indian society Features of Indian Society- Rural Among the earliest human groups, gathering was the main source of food. Gradually man acquired the skill and knowledge in agriculture. With the development of agriculture, people began to lead a settled life and human communities became more stationary. The emergence of village signified that man has passed from nomadic mode of collective life to the settled one. India is a land of villages. A great majority of villages are small with only around five hundred population each. Mahatma Gandhi’s view that India lives in villages still holds good, at least from the demographic point of view. The village social life has its own peculiar characteristics. The village social life norms strengthen the authoritarian and hierarchical norms in administration. The village social life, which is based on the hierarchical exchange relations greatly influence the behavior of civil servants in public organizations. Usually, a village has less than five thousand individuals. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 31. Features of Indian Society- Rural In recent years, the communal organisations have become very active in social life resulting in communal clashes in different parts of the country. The villages form the units of the Rural Society. These rural societies have their own structure. The structure formed out of the following units:- 1) Family 2) Caste System 3) Internal Organisation 4) Religion 5) Economic System. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 32. Features of Indian Society- Rural The major features of rural society are given below: 1. Small size of village community, 2. Intimate relations, 3. Jajmani System, 4. Isolation, 5.Social homogeneity, 6. Informal Social Control, 7. Dominance of Joint Family, 8. Status of Rural Women, 9. Occupation, 10. Role of neighborhood, 11. Faith in religion, 12. Self Sufficiency, 13.Widespread caste system, 14. Simplicity, 15. Feelings, 16. Fellow feelings, 17. Conservatism, 18.Observance of moral norms, 19. Poverty, 20. Illiteracy, 21. Desire for Independence, 22.Dominance of primary relations, 23. Social Homogeneity, 24. Occupations, 25. Preservers of the Ancient culture of the society, 26. Legal Self Government, 27. Change in the Villages.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 33. Features of Indian Society- Rural In our social set-up an Indian village plays not only a prominent but also a predominant role because about 68% of our total population resides in villages. In the primitive village community there are two peculiar features first, the part played by kinship and seconds its collectivist basis. The bond of kinship and close ties of the inhabitants with the land developed a high sense of community feeling in the primitive village community http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 34. Features of Indian Society- Urban The nature of urban society as represented in thoughts of urban theorists of modern city greatly has contrasting indifferences in their views. Every place has its distinctive urban characteristic determined by variables as mix of power, space, market and cultural practices. As a result of development in science and technology, there has been industrial development. Due to industrial development there is urbanization as a result of which urban societies created. Every country has its own urban society. Every village possesses some elements of the city while every city carries some feature of the villages. Different criteria are used to decide a community as urban. Some of them are, for example, population, legal limits, types of occupations, social organizations. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 35. Features of Indian Society- Urban Meaning of Urban Society An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human feature in comparison to area surrounding it. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. Urban areas are places which satisfied the following criteria: 1. A minimum population of 5,000. 2. At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non agricultural pursuits 3. A density of population of a least 400 persons per sq.km. The growth of large cities that contain the bulk of a society’s population is very recent development. Urbanization is a part of development process. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 36. Features of Indian Society- Urban Major Features of Urban Society: The major features of urban society are given below: 1. Social Heterogeneity, 2. Secondary Relations, 3. Anonymity, 4. Secondary Control, 5. Largescale Division of Labour and Specialization, 6. Large-scale social mobility, 7. Individuation, 8.Voluntary Association, 9. Social Reference, 10. Unstable Family, http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 37. Features of Indian Society- Urban 11. Special Segregation, 12. Lack of community feeling, 13. Lack of unity in family, 14. Moral Laxity, 15. Unbalanced personality, 16. High incidence of crime, 17. Social disorganization, 18. Peculiarities of marital life, 19. Dynamic life, 20. Voluntary associations are formed quickly, 21. Artificial life. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 38. FORMS OF DIVERSITY IN INDIA Unity implies oneness or a sense of we-ness, it holds tightly together the various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a dovetailed manner through the bonds of contrived structures, norms and values. The sources of diversity in India may be traced through a variety of ways, the most obvious being the ethnic origins, religions, castes, tribes, languages, social customs, cultural and sub cultural beliefs, political philosophies and ideologies, geographical variations etc. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY The high degree of large diversity found in India is due to the existence of diverse population groups. The greatest variety in languages can be found in the one of the biggest democracies in the world. Most of these languages are distinct and have their own distinct form of writing and speech. The dictionary defines ‘Diversity’, as variety or different. Languages are defined as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 39. FORMS OF DIVERSITY IN INDIA In India, the tribal communities are smallest in geographical spread and in population strength. They cover only 8.8% (1991 census) of the Indian population. Not only we should consider linguistic diversity as a resource of human kind but also should conceive both the decline in the number of languages and the emerging trend in having mono linguistic dominance over small languages as a threat to our plural existence. The Present situation Though the situation has improved from the early fifties, there has not been a significant development. India still faces the problems due to the diversity in languages. One of the foremost problems is the lack of a unified language system. Though a national language was chosen among the 114 officially recognized languages and 216 (Census of 1991) mother tongues in India, only 28% of the populations speak this language. People in India have a sense of belonging to a particular language speaking community rather that the nation as a whole. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 40. RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Religion is a major concern of man. Religion is universal, permanent, pervasive and perennial interests of man. The institution of religion is universal. It is found in all the societies, past and present. Religious beliefs and practices are, however, far from being uniform. Religious dogmas have influenced and conditioned economic endeavors, political movements, properly dealings, and educational tasks. The major religions in India are following: Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, Parsi, The basic ideas and faith of the each religion differs. But they coexistent in Indian society. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 41. RACIAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA It is an big task to construct a systematic ethnography of the teeming millions of Indian population. As per the 1901 census the following eight different ethnic groups are found here. 1. Pre-Dravidian 2. Dravidian 3. Indo-Aryan 4. Turko-lranian 5. Scytho-Dravidian 6. Arya- Dravidian 7. Mongoloid 8. Mongoloid-Dravidian. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 42. RACIAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA India has been described as an ethnological museum. Race formation is a dynamic process and environmental stimuli have caused many changes in the ethic types. There is a wide variety of differences in physical features, complexion and even in language. Often linguistic terms like Aryan and Dravidian have been applied to ethnic units. It is difficult to assume that this vast subcontinent was once a vacuum and the races have migrated into this ethnological paradise from faraway places. There have never been attempts to ascertain how far India bred her own races. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 43. Urban transformation The city passed through a number of transformations since its inception in human history. Transformation implies changes over time; the present urban fabric is resultant of successive generations of settlers who left their mark in physical structure as well as political, economic and social institutions. India is moving fast towards urbanization. According to 2011 census, 29.5% of total population lives in urban areas. Growth rate of urban population has been 2.27% in the year 2010-2011. “India’s urban population will more than double to over 600 million by 2035 as increasing number of people migrate to cities because of better infrastructure and employment opportunities.” Urbanization is not a side effect of economic growth; it is an integral part of the process. As in most countries, India's urban areas make a major contribution to the country's economy. Indian cities contribute to about 2/3 of the economic output, host a growing share of the population and are the main recipients of FDI and the originators of innovation and technology http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 44. Urban transformation urban transformation, possibly the largest national urban transformation of the 21st century. This would pose unprecedented challenges to India's growing cities and towns in providing housing and infrastructure (water, sewerage, transportation, etc.), and addressing slums. Already, slums now account for about 26% of all urban population in cities. In Mumbai, more than half the population lives in slums, many of which are situated near employment centers in the heart of town, unlike in most other cities in developing countries. Due to rapid urbanization and population growth crime has become one of the most serious social problems. To tackle and reduce the negative effects of crime on human beings, grater regulatory controls are needed which require more participation of individuals and community. Crime is influenced by multiplicity of factors such as economic, social and governmental as well as physical elements Safety and security are basic human needs. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 45. Urban transformation PLACE BASED CRIME PREVENTION Human behaviour takes place in space, and the spatial layout of the environment provides various opportunities for social interaction. The interaction between people can create safe or unsafe communities which are a foundational part of society’s welfare. DEFENSIBLE SPACES This theory was established by Ar. Oscar Newman in 1972. It assures a definite relationship of crime rates with urban design. According to the defensible spaces theory, physical layout of communities can make occupants control the areas. It creates the physical appearance of a social bond that defends itself Newman named the related physical strategies in terms of crime prevention as “target hardening”. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 46. Traditions and Modernity Indian society as Dhurjati Prasad Mukerji (D. P.) envisages is the result of the interaction between tradition and modernity. The encounter of tradition with modernization created certain cultural contradictions, adaptations and in some cases situations of conflict Indian traditions are the resultants of certain historical processes. They actually construct the structure of Indian culture. These traditions belong to several ideologies such as Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, tribals and western modernity. Dhirendra Nath Majumdar (1903-1960) says that Life is a process of adjustment and in its unfolding, it has thrown out individuals who are misfit and the latter have both helped and hindered cultural progress; the misfits are misfits in the context of a dynamic setting, and if only, the misfits could be fitted into the structure of life, the process that is life will continue to unfold itself, adjust and march as to man’s destiny through an integration and synthesis that constitute the core of the dynamics of culture change and culture crises. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 47. Traditions and Modernity A K Desai thinks that when traditions are linked with economic relations, the change in the latter would eventually change the traditions. It is in this context that he thinks that caste will disintegrate with the creation of new social and material conditions, such as industries, economic freedom, education, etc. His definition of tradition is a watershed. He does not trace it from caste, religion and ritual. Tradition has a tendency to become entropic and inward looking. This is true of many local level traditions and sub traditions are stamped out and disappear without leaving much of a trace. Modernity, however, means different things in the North India and the South India. Thus modernity indicates a type of society that is more developed relative to other societies. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 48. Neighbourhoods: Traditional and Modern In Sociology, neighbourhood is a localities in urban areas which are characterized by a common sense of identity and usually a common life style. Traditional neighbourhoods denote old parts of the city. In many American studies, these parts are referred to as ‘inner city areas.’ Immigrant population with low quality of amenities and dilapidated or deteriorating housing conditions, no governmental investment, marks these localities. As the city grows the lower middle classes move out of the inner city areas and the new immigrants move in theses dwellings with low rent. Architecturally, inner city areas show traditional styles and forms of using space. They facilitate older styles of interactions and social networks. Middle classes and the rich population on the other hand inhabit outer city areas. These localities have more amenities, large plots of land, more services and are scarcely populated. These are more modern neighbourhoods with up- market styles and forms of spatial use. In some cities the traditional neighbourhoods have been preserved as architectural heritage sites. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 49. Aspects of Modernity Some aspects of modernity include:  emergence of nation-state and nationhood  industrialisation and capitalism  democracy  increasing influence of science and technology  the phenomena of urbanisation  expansion of mass media There are, however, other defining characteristics of modernity which include disenchantment with the world  secularisation  rationalisation  commodification  mass society http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 50. Giddens Modernity Giddens position conflicts with the contention that society has entered into a post modern world. Thus modernity witnesses tremendous increases in the scope, pace and depth of change relative to systems that preceded it. Further the path or trajectory of change is not linear, going forward step by step. For Giddens modernity implies  capitalism  industrialism  surveillance programs and activities  military power Giddens theory of structuration and its basic components adequately describe modernity. These elements are:  distanciation, or separation in of time and space  disembedding  reflexivity http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 51. SOCIAL INEQUALITY In every society, some people have a greater share of valued resources – money, property, education, health, and power – than others. According to Pierre Bourdieu these social resources can be divided into four forms of capital 1. economic capital in the form of material assets and income; 2. cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status; 3. social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations 4. Symbolic capital in form of amount of honor and prestige possessed Patterns of unequal access to social resources are commonly called social inequality. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 52. Social Stratification Sociologists use the term social stratification to refer to a system by which categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy. This hierarchy then shapes people’s identity and experiences, their relations with others, as well as their access to resources and opportunities. Three key principles help explain social stratification: 1. Social stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a function of individual differences. Social stratification is a society-wide system that unequally distributes social resources among categories of people. 2. Social stratification persists over generations. It is closely linked to the family and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to the next. A person’s social position is ascribed. 3. Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief, or ideology. No system of social stratification is likely to persist over generations unless it is widely viewed as being either fair or inevitable. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 53. Social exclusion or marginalization Social exclusion is the process in which individuals or entire communities of people are systematically blocked from (or denied full access to) various rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different group, and which are fundamental to social integration within that particular group. Social exclusion refers to ways in which individuals may become cut off from full involvement in the wider society. It focuses attention on a broad range of factors that prevent individuals or groups from having opportunities open to the majority of the population. In order to live a full and active life, individuals must not only be able to feed, clothe and house themselves, but should also have access to essential goods and services such as education, health, transportation, insurance, social security, banking and even access to the police or judiciaryhttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 54. Types of Social exclusion Types of Exclusion • Individual Exclusion • Community Exclusion • Professional Exclusion Individual Exclusion Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual's exclusion from meaningful participation in society. Examples are : The exclusion of single mothers in society The exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force Community Exclusion Many communities experience social exclusion, such as caste based (e.g., Untouchables or Low Castes or Dalits in Indian Caste System ) and economic based. Professional Exclusion Some intellectuals and thinkers are marginalized because of their dissenting, radical or controversial views on a range of topics, including HIV/AIDS, climate change, evolution, alternative medicine, green energy, or third world politics. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 55. Types of Social exclusion Types of Exclusion • Individual Exclusion • Community Exclusion • Professional Exclusion Individual Exclusion Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual's exclusion from meaningful participation in society. Examples are : The exclusion of single mothers in society The exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force Community Exclusion Many communities experience social exclusion, such as caste based (e.g., Untouchables or Low Castes or Dalits in Indian Caste System ) and economic based. Professional Exclusion Some intellectuals and thinkers are marginalized because of their dissenting, radical or controversial views on a range of topics, including HIV/AIDS, climate change, evolution, alternative medicine, green energy, or third world politics. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 56. Social exclusion by Age Old-age exclusion leads to inequities in choice and control, resources and relationships, and power and rights in key domains of neighbourhood and community; services, amenities and mobility; material and financial resources; social relations; socio-cultural aspects of society; and civic participation. Old-age exclusion implicates states, societies, communities and individuals. Taken from Social exclusion of older persons - a scoping review and conceptual by walsh http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 57. Social exclusion by Gender Gender inequality Because of the obvious biological and physical differences between men and women, gender inequality is often treated as natural. However, despite appearances, scholars have shown that the inequalities between men and women are social rather than natural. Raja Ram mohan Roy’s attempts to reform society, religion and the status of women can be taken as the starting point of nineteenth century social reform in Bengal. The root cause of gender inequality in Indian society lies in its patriarchy system. Types of gender inequality found in India are : • Economic inequalities • Occupational inequalities • Education inequalities • Health and survival inequalities • Political inequalities http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 58. KEY ISSUES & THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW- INCOME WOMEN AND GIRLS Political inequalities : Lack of political voice • Women and girls are excluded from participation in local government structures and decision making, including in urban planning and design. • Women and girls are largely excluded from decision making in community groups. • Women and girls are excluded from creating sustainable solutions for themselves and their cites. • Lack of a political voice denies women and girls their human right to choice in their lives. Economic inequalities : Access to land security of tenure • Inadequate services and unaffordable land penalizes and impoverishes low income women and men, especially single mothers and their children., • Lack of secure tenure or shared tenure increases women’s poverty and housing vulnerability in situations of domestic violence and family break down. Health and survival inequalities : Access to infrastructure and services • Women and girls lose time and experience stress when negotiating access to inadequate potable water and toilets. • They face harassment and sexual assault when there are no toilets and they have to use the outdoors in the dark.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 59. • Unsafe water increases women’s care responsibilities, raises health costs, and limits their income-generating possibilities as they spend most of their time caring for sick family members. • Access to safe, frequent, and affordable transportation is often missing. • Limited or non-existent health, school, and recreation services increase women’s caregiving responsibilities. Occupational inequalities : Livelihoods • Lack of employment opportunities and low incomes lead to insecure housing and lack of negotiation power in relationships. • Insecurity of tenure means poor women have fewer resources, fewer assets , and less credit. • Informal sector activities, such as sewing clothes or selling cooked and raw food, bring little income, given the required time and labour investments. • Wages below official rates place families and children in congested living environments. KEY ISSUES & THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW- INCOME WOMEN AND GIRLS http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 60. Gender Equality and Urban Planning and Design Women and girls face multiple and overlapping challenges around the world, particularly in developing countries. These gender discrimination issues range from violence and sexual harassment in public and private spaces to the inaccessibility or nonexistence of educational and job opportunities, land ownership, public spaces, political voice, and health and financial services. To address these critical concerns, gender mainstreaming must be introduced into all aspects of city life, including urban planning and design. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 61. Social exclusion by Disability Disabled people make up 2.2% of India’s population (Census, 2011). In India labels such as ‘disability’, ‘handicap’, ‘crippled’, ‘blind’ and ‘deaf’ are used synonymously. Often these terms are hurled at people as insults. The common perception views disability as retribution for past karma (actions) from which there can be no reprieve. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically impaired’ came to replace the more trite negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or ‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. There is a close relationship between disability and poverty. Malnutrition, mothers weakened by frequent childbirth, inadequate immunisation programmes, accidents in overcrowded homes, all contribute to an incidence of disability among poor people that is higher than among people living in easier circumstances. Persons With Disabilities (equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) Act, 1995 (PWD Act) provides a comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against PWD in the area of education, employment, public transportation and access to public buildings and services in all walks of life. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 62. Unemployed Persons Unemployment in India statistics has traditionally been collected, compiled and disseminated once every five years by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MoLE), primarily from sample studies conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) The Usual Status approach to measuring unemployment uses a reference period of 365 days i.e. one year preceding the date of the survey of NSSO for measuring unemployment. current weekly status (CWS) and current daily status (CDS). http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 63. Unemployed Persons Activity status code according NSS 68th ROUND Working (or employed) self-employed 11 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as own-account worker 12 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as an employer 21 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as helper regular wage/ salaried employee 31 worked as regular wage/salaried employee casual labour 41 worked as casual labour in public works other than MGNREG public works 42 worked as casual labour in Mahatma Gandhi NREG public works 51 worked as casual labour in other types of works 61 did not work owing to sickness though there was work in household enterprise 62 did not work owing to other reasons though there was work in household enterprise 71 did not work owing to sickness but had regular salaried/wage employment 72 did not work owing to other reasons but had regular salaried/wage employment http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 64. Unemployed Persons Activity status code NSS 68th ROUND not working but seeking/available for work (or unemployed) 81 sought work or did not seek but was available for work (for usual status approach) 81 sought work (for current weekly status approach) 82 did not seek but was available for work (for current weekly status approach) neither working nor available for work (or not in labour force) 91 attended educational institutions 92 attended to domestic duties only 93 attended to domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods (vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle feed, etc.), sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for household use 94 rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc. 95 not able to work owing to disability 97 others (including beggars, prostitutes, etc.) 98 did not work owing to sickness (for casual workers only) 99 children of age 0-4 years http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 65. Underemployed Persons Underemployment is commonly defined as the under-utilisation of labour time of the workers. Some of the persons categorised as usually employed, may not have work throughout the year due to seasonality in work or otherwise and their labour time is not fully utilised - they are, therefore, underemployed. Three measures of visible underemployment are derived by NSSO by classifying (a) Usually employed persons by their current weekly status, (b) usually employed persons by their current daily statuses (c) persons employed in current weekly status by their current daily statuses. Three rates of visible underemployment are obtained from these three types of classifications in terms of (i) proportion of usually employed persons who did not have work during the reference week, (ii) proportion of person-days of the usually employed persons which were not used for work (iii) proportion of person-days of the persons employed in current weekly status which were not used for work. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 66. Inclusive Cities The concept of the inclusive city is derived from the idea that the city belongs to all its habitants. A city is inclusive when there is equitable and affordable access to urban infrastructure, land, housing, social services, and livelihood opportunities. Definition by UN-Habitat : An inclusive city promotes growth with equity. It was defined as a place where everyone, regardless of their economic means, gender, race, ethnicity, or religion, is enabled and empowered to fully participate in the social, economic, and political opportunities that cities have to offer. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 67. Inclusive Cities An inclusive city creates a safe, liveable environment with affordable and equitable access to urban services, social services, and livelihood opportunities for all the city residents and other city users to promote optimal development of its human capital and ensure the respect of human dignity and equality. An inclusive city is built on (i) joint strategic visions of all stakeholders through a participatory planning and decision making process incorporating universal design, integrated urban planning, transparent accountability mechanisms, and the use of the city’s inherent assets; (ii) knowledge and information sharing; (iii) public participation and contribution; (iv) mechanisms, such as cross-subsidies, social protection, and gender balance, to ensure an adequate standard of living to the most economically disadvantaged and vulnerable population (v) geographical and social mobility (vi) business environment and pro-poor financing services that attract capital investment and allow everybody the possibility to undertake economic activities (vii) resilience to global environmental and socioeconomic shocks and threats; (viii)mechanisms to ensure the sustainable use of its resources.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 68. Inclusive Cities Principles for an integrated approach to Inclusive urban development are : 1. Accessibility 2. Affordability 3. Resilience 4. Sustainability Accessibility: It is defined as the opportunities for safe, secure housing and reliable basic services for all individuals and communities structured within projects and programs that include credit and technical support required for their operation, maintenance, and expansion. Accessibility means enabling these opportunities within social structures and cultural norms that may constrain individual or collective access to a service. Affordability: It is viewed in its broadest sense to include not only the affordability of families to benefit from the shelter, services, and transport solutions offered to them, but also the affordability of local and national governments to benefit from and have the capacity to support the systematic delivery of shelter, services, and transport to their communities. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 69. Inclusive Cities Resilience: It is an integral part of urban investments. It is not a reactive notion that appears after disasters, but is a proactive approach to strengthen the ability to resist, absorb, recover from, and reorganize in response to natural hazards without jeopardizing sustained socioeconomic advancement and development. Resilience comes from the awareness of the context in which investments are to be made, of the affordability of the product provided, of the vulnerabilities based on historical record and projections of climate change, and of the planning and project development innovations and technologies that support resilience. Sustainability: It is the capacity of the responsible entity, be it a family or a local or national government, to service debt, operate, maintain, renew, and/or expand its shelter or service delivery system and pro-poor infrastructure. Sustainability also calls for access to the technical, financial, and human support required for shelter and service delivery through ongoing systems and programs. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 70. Inclusive Cities The concept of inclusiveness involves four attributes: Opportunity: Is the economy generating more and varied ways for people to earn a living and increase their incomes over time? Capability: Is the economy providing the means for people to create or enhance their capabilities in order to exploit available opportunities? Access: Is the economy providing the means to bring opportunities and capabilities together? Security: Is the economy providing the means for people to protect themselves against a temporary or permanent loss of livelihood? Cities are key actors in the fight against social exclusion. local government is closest to the people and has the potential to significantly improve lives. Local government share the responsibility to protect citizens from social exclusion http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 71. Disparities (Urban inequality) Oxfam India Inequality Report 2018 – says that A) India's top 10 % of the population now holds 77.4 % of the total national wealth. B) The top 1 % holds 51.53% of the national wealth. Their wealth rose by 39% in the year as against 3% increase in the wealth of bottom half. C) The bottom 60%, the majority of the population, own merely 4.8% of the national wealth. Causes behind growing inequality (1) Private Ownership of Property, (1) Inequalities Arising Out of Concentrated Land Ownership and Concentration of Tangible Wealth in the Urban Sector (2) Private Ownership of Industries, Trade and Real Estates (3) Inequalities in Professional Knowledge and Training (2) Prevalence of the Law of Inheritance, (3) Other Causes. (1) Growing Unemployment (2) Inflationary Rise in Prices (3) Credit Policy of Banks and Financial Institutions (4) Licensing Policy of the Government (5) Evasion of Taxes http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 72. Social Fragmentation In urban sociology, fragmentation refers to the absence or the underdevelopment of connections between the society and the groupings of some members of that society on the lines of a common culture, nationality, race, language, occupation, religion, income level, or other common interests. The fallout from inequity within institutions, the state, civil society, and the household is increasing social fragmentation, resulting in a decline in social cohesion and an increase in social exclusion Social Cohesion Social Exclusion Social cohesion is the connectedness among individuals and social groups that facilitates collaboration and equitable resource distribution at the household, community, and state level. Social fragmentation was associated with • major economic disruptions; (lack of economic opportunities) • anger over the fact that new opportunities were limited to the rich, the powerful, or the criminal; • migration in search of employment; • an overall environment of lawlessness combined with failure of systems of police and justice; • increased crime and violence. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 73. Existing Social divisiveness Social divisiveness: deliberate unequal treatment of groups of people living in the same country by the political regime. Four Questions to identify of social divisiveness exist in city. 1. Particularistic goods : “ Considering the profile of social and infrastructural spending in the national budget, how ‘particularistic’ or ‘public goods’ are most expenditures? 2. Social group inequality : “ Do all social groups, as distinguished by language, ethnicity, religion, race, region, or caste, enjoy the same level of civil liber ties, or are some groups generally in a more favorable position? ” 3. Social class inequality : “ Do poor people enjoy the same level of civil liberties as rich people do? ”; 4. Subnational civil liberties unevenness : “ Does government respect for civil liberties vary across different areas of the country? ” http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 74. Need for Inclusion Need for Inclusion of the Disadvantaged, Marginalized and other Weak and Vulnerable Social Groups. Recognizes the need to design and implement social protection system according to the principle of social inclusion, underlying the particular need to include persons in the informal economy. social protection system has three main components: • Social insurance: protection against risk and adversity throughout life (for example, loss of income, ill health, old age), designed mostly to keep formal workers and the non-poor from falling into poverty; contributory or non-contributory schemes • Social assistance: social transfers in cash or in kind to support and enable the poor; in general non-contributory schemes • Inclusion efforts and labour market policies: designed to enhance the capability of marginalized groups to access social services and programmes and join the labour markets. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 75. Need for Inclusion The trickledown effect of economic growth to the poorer sections of the society did not successfully lead to poverty eradication. Poverty persists mainly due to the inability of some groups of people to participate in the process of economic growth. Vulnerability arises from the risks and insecurity caused by life cycle changes (death of an earning member), illness or health problems, natural calamities and the process of globalization and structural adjustments in the economy, global warming and increasingly flexible labour relations can lead to increased incidence of shocks. Social protection system helps to absorb the shocks and minimize its adverse impact on the vulnerable and poor and helps to make growth more pro-poor. Social protection Measures in India are : • Food and nutrition programme : Targeted Public Distribution System (TDPS) • public employment programme : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( MGNREGA) • Unorganised Sector Social Security Act (USSSA) 2008 • Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) National Health Protection Scheme http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 76. slums and squatters Slums" are highly congested urban areas marked by deteriorated, unsanitary buildings, poverty, and social disorganization. "Squatters" settle on land, especially public or unoccupied land, without right or title. Squatters include those who settles on public land under regulation by the government, in order to get title to it. In simple word Slums refer to the environmental aspects of the area where a community resides, while squatters refer to the legality of the land ownership and other infrastructure provision. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 77. Reasons of slums and squatters Settlements Urban slums and squatter settlements exist and continue to grow for a variety of reasons – economic, social, political and environmental. Economical reasons : they are a source of (real or imagined) economic opportunity for a nation’s poor, and of low-cost labour supply for the public and private production of goods and services. They are also a source of profit and capital accumulation for both internal and external property owners. Social reasons, slums provide low cost housing and low-cost services for rapidly expanding low-income urban populations. They also serve as networks of social support for new migrants to the city. Political reasons , in democratic and quasi-democratic regimes, slums can be an important source of votes and other forms of mutual support for local and national governments. Alternatively, they can act as an organizational base for opposition to governments. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 78. Characteristics of the Slums Slums vary from one type to another, but certain general patterns of slums are universal. Although, the slum is generally characterized by inadequate housing, deficient facilities, overcrowding and congestions involve much more then these elements. Sociologically, it is a way of life, a sub culture with a set of norms and values, which is reflected in poor sanitation and health practices, deviant behavior and attributes of apathy and social isolations. Some of the features of slums are: 1. Housing conditions In terms of the physical conditions and housing standards it is important to keep in mind the comparative nature of the definitions. A slum should be judged physically according to the general living standards of a country. Slums have commonly been defined as those portions of cities in which housing is crowded, neglected deteriorated and often obsolete. Many of the inadequate housing conditions can be attributed to poorly arranged structures, inadequate lighting and circulation, lack of sanitary facility, overcrowding and inadequate maintenance. 2. Overcrowding and congestion A slum may be an area which is overcrowded with buildings or a building over-crowded with people or both. Density does not always result in unfortunate social consequence, the issue is primarily one of overcrowding. Congestion is again a judgmenthttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 79. Characteristics of the Slums Slums vary from one type to another, but certain general patterns of slums are universal. Although, the slum is generally characterized by inadequate housing, deficient facilities, overcrowding and congestions involve much more then these elements. Sociologically, it is a way of life, a sub culture with a set of norms and values, which is reflected in poor sanitation and health practices, deviant behavior and attributes of apathy and social isolations. Some of the features of slums are: 1. Housing conditions In terms of the physical conditions and housing standards it is important to keep in mind the comparative nature of the definitions. A slum should be judged physically according to the general living standards of a country. Slums have commonly been defined as those portions of cities in which housing is crowded, neglected deteriorated and often obsolete. Many of the inadequate housing conditions can be attributed to poorly arranged structures, inadequate lighting and circulation, lack of sanitary facility, overcrowding and inadequate maintenance. 2. Overcrowding and congestion A slum may be an area which is overcrowded with buildings or a building over-crowded with people or both. Density does not always result in unfortunate social consequence, the issue is primarily one of overcrowding. Congestion is again a judgmenthttp://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 80. Characteristics of the Slums 3. Neighborhood facilities A poor slum is invariably associated with poor facilities and community services. Along with shabbiness and dilapidation, schools are of poor quality and other public facilities are often insufficient. Streets and sidewalks often go un-repaired and rubbish and garbage are infrequently collected adding to the undesirable environment. Shortage of water, electricity and sanitary facility are common in most of the slums. 4. Poor Sanitation and Health Slums are generally been dirty and unclean places which is defined largely in terms of the physical deterioration, stressing particularly unsanitary conditions and lack of sufficient facilities like water and latrines. These factors have resulted in high rates death and disease. These factors have always been typical of slum areas where overcrowding and presence of rats and other pest complicate the problem of health and sanitation. In slum areas of developing countries, the rate of disease, chronic illness and infant mortality are exceptionally high. 5. Deviant Behavior A high incidence of deviant behavior- crime, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, drunkenness, drug usage, mental disorder, suicide, ill legitimacy and family maladjustments have long been associated with slum living. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 81. Characteristics of the Slums 6. The Culture of the Slum- a way of life Slums differ widely with respect to the social organization of there Inhabitants. They range from the slums in which the inhabitants are strangers to one another, to the family slums in which there is a wide acquaintance between the inhabitants. Slums inhabited by immigrant groups may have a firm social organization. Culture might be defined as system of symbols or meanings for the normative conduct of standards, having three distinct properties. It is transmittable, it is learned and it is shared. The slum has a culture of its own and this culture is the way of life. This way of life is passed from generation to generation with its own rationale, structure ad defense mechanism, which provides the means to continue in spite of difficulties and deprivation. It is the habits, customs and behavior pattern people have learned and which they hold that move them to act in a particular way. Although, these cultural patterns are typical of the slum, form ethnic groups to ethnic groups, from own society to society to another. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 82. Characteristics of the Slums 7. Apathy and Social Isolation Every residential area within the modern city tends to be socially isolated from others, partly by choice and partly by location. The slum is especially so, as it is inhabited by the people of the lowest status. The chief link with rest of the community is their identification with labour market, but there may be an additional link through politics. A slum also has an image in the eyes of the larger community. There is a societal reaction to slum dwellers. The non-slum dweller often associates the physical appearance and difficult living conditions of the slums with belief in the “Natural inferiority” of those who live in slums. This reaction has important consequences in the social isolation of slum dwellers and their exclusion, from power and participation in urban society. The slum dwellers often lack an effective means of communication with the outside world. Because of apathy, lack of experience in communicating with outsiders and their own powerlessness to make their voice heard. William. F. Whyte (1943) stated that although the north end slum studied in his work on street corner society was a mysterious, dangerous and depressing place to an outsider, it provided an organized and familiar environment for those who lived in it. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 83. List of Indian Cities Having Slums List of Indian Cities Having Slums: 1) Dharavi in Mumbai-It is no.1 in India and no.3 in the world and is well- known. 2) Bhalswa in Delhi. 3) Basanti in Kolkata 4) Nochikuppam in Chennai. 5) Saroj Nagar in Nagpur. 6) Mehbullahpur in Lucknow. 7) Indiramma Nagar in Hyderabad. 8) Rajendra Nagar in Bangalore. 9) Parivartan in Ahmedabad. 10) Satnami Nagar Bhopal. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 84. Social problems of slums and squatters communities Slum & squatters communities have numerous economic, social, as well as infrastructure problems. Slum dwellers lack proper housing, water and sanitation, are exposed to serious health risks, and have limited access to credit and the formal job market due to stigmatization and discrimination and to geographic isolation. Furthermore, they have limited access to social and economic networks. Slum areas in cities have high population densities and high concentrations of social and economic deprivation, which may include broken families, unemployment, and economic, physical and social exclusion. Crime : In places of social dislocation with large numbers of unemployed young people, crime can be a serious problem. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 85. Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization India is a vast country and its economic and social development is marked by huge regional disparities. The concentration of resources (both natural and human), the historicity of the region, the geographical location of the state and proximity to international borders, cross-border migration, the level of agricultural and industrial development, the initiatives of the state government are some of the major factors that influence the level of urbanization of that region. The end result is that there are different patterns and levels of urbanization in different parts of the country. The concentration of industrial, commercial and development activities in the urban areas create employment and earning opportunities which in turn not only sustain the urban work force but also draws additional workforce from outside the urban areas, specially from the poverty infested rural areas and economically stagnant small towns. In the process of urbanization the towns and cities of India have achieved heterogeneous character in terms of ethnicity, caste, race, class and culture. In the urban areas there has always been coexistence of different cultures http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 86. Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization N.K. Bose (1968: 66) points out that the migrants tend to cluster around people with whom they have linguistic, local, regional, caste and ethnic ties. A study by Jagannathan and Haldar (1989: 315) on the pavement-dwellers in Calcutta shows that they retain close ties with kinship and caste groups for socialising and transmitting or receiving information from the village. Thus cultural pluralism has been an important socio-cultural dimension of the urbanites. Urbanization not only implies the simple migration of one social category into another social environment but also other significant socio-cultural aspects involves are : 1. the process of continual growth in rural settlements located adjacent to urbanizing centers; 2. the pendulum-like movements of commuters imposing new cultural patterns in the villages; 3. the variability of urban structures and the tendency to disperse in suburbs. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 87. Socio-cultural aspects in Urbanization Social stratification has taken a new form in the urban society. It is assumed that with urbanisation caste transforms itself into class in the urban areas. But caste systems do exist in the cities though with significant organisational differences. Ramkrishna Mukherjee demonstrates that people in Kolkata rank themselves in terms of caste-hierarchy. Stratification has also taken place on the basis of occupational categories. For example, Harold Gould (1965) points out that the rikshawalas of Lucknow belonging to several religious and caste groups exhibit uniformity in the pattern of interaction and attitudes in respect to their common occupation. Again it has been found that caste has not played a significant role in determining the choice of occupation in the urban areas. But it is important to note that both the caste and the class have their respective importance based on time and space and situational focus http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 88. Social Policy : Definitions According to David Gill: Social policies are principles/ course of action designed to influence: i) the overall quality of life in a society; ii) the circumstances of living of individuals and groups in that society; and iii) the nature of intra- societal relationships among individuals, groups and society as a whole. According to Kulkarni “Social policy is the strategy of action indicating means and methods to be followed in successive phases to achieve the declared social objectives.” Marshall states that the term, “Social policy refers to the policy of governments with regard to action having a direct impact on the welfare of citizens, by providing them with services or income.” social policy is a deliberate action on the part of individuals, collectivities and governments, undertaken to organise services, opportunities and social action so as to affect the life-styles of people and initiate a process to prevent, postpone, initiate and manage change. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 89. Social Planning Social Planning is concerned with defining goals, determining future activities, identifying resources and ways to accomplish those set goals meant for social development . Social planning is a process for planning social services programs, services, and policies. Social Development is equated with a series of completed stages. Like having to climb the rungs of a ladder, one moves up and up in order to become more and more developed. Development is always conceived within a twin framework of self- and other-development. Social development represents a holistic approach that is dynamic and process-oriented. The Need for Social Planning in India An underdeveloped economy like India is characterized by inequalities of incomes and ownership of assets. The high incidence of poverty, coupled with these inequalities, makes the task of development particularly important. There are also regional imbalances and problems connected with the development of areas, which are disadvantaged due to geographical and ecological factors (as for example drought-prone areas, flood-prone areas etc). http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 90. Characteristics of Social Policy 1. The concern of social policy is with social and economic justice based on the principle of equality, which means that the redistribution of social resources should take place from the better off sections towards the worse off sections of society 2. Its concern with weaker and vulnerable sections of society such as poor, women, children, disabled, backward classes so as to bring them at par with the rest of society. Thus social policies visualize of an egalitarian society where inequalities are reduced to minimum level. 3. Social policies do not exist in isolation. These are determined to a large extent by the socio-political scenario of a nation, its economic viability and last but not the least, by socio-cultural ethos of people of the nation. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 91. Community participation The involvement of people in a community projects to solve their own problems. People cannot be forced to 'participate' in projects which affect their lives but should be given the opportunity where possible. Community participation can take place during any of the following activities of social project and policy : • Needs assessment — expressing opinions about desirable improvements, prioritizing goals and negotiating with agencies • Planning — formulating objectives, setting goals, criticizing plans • Mobilizing — raising awareness in a community about needs, establishing or supporting organizational structures within the community • Training — participation in formal or informal training activities to enhance communication, construction, maintenance and financial management skills • Implementing — engaging in management activities; contributing directly to construction, operation and maintenance with labour and materials; contributing cash towards costs, paying of services or membership fees of community organizations • Monitoring and evaluation — participating in the appraisal of work done, recognizing improvements that can be made and redefining needs http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 92. Inclusive planning Inclusive planning enables and empowers all the sections of the society regardless of their economic status, social position, gender, race or ethnicity to fully participate in the planning process of the city. This strategy of participation is not only socially desirable but also politically correct. Inclusive city planning would require:- 1. Understanding of the role, significance of the urban poor in the inclusive city. 2. Cities should make genuine effort to sustain livelihoods/habitat of urban poor 3. Democratic and decentralized community participation must be encouraged 4. An economic climate to guard (shield) the urban poor from global economic competition must be ensured 5. A government’s commitment to help and assist the survival of the weaker section should be guaranteed. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 93. Inclusive planning Global report on human settlements 2009 : Lists a range of key urban issues, as below, to be identified for the inclusive city approach. 1. Access to land . 2. Forced evictions and market evictions. 3. Pro poor compensation and land acquisition. 4. Social housing. 5. City planning for migrants. 6. Affordable mobility management. 7. Health/pollution/cost accessibility. 8. Preparedness for post disaster. 9. Wealth distribution and social welfare. 10. Social safety nets and welfare services. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 94. Gender concerns in Planning Gender Mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming has been referred to as a comprehensive strategy that involves the integration of women-oriented programmes and gender issues into development institutions and to move women’s issues out of the periphery of decision-making and into the “mainstream” of development. Gender mainstreaming is a process to achieve gender equality and overcome the costs of women’s marginalization. Mainstreaming requires: 1. Incorporation of gender concerns in planning policy and implementation to provide effective rights and dignity to the disadvantaged; 2. Women inclusive social, political and economic institutions; 3. Transforming cultural structures of power within the home and outside, 4. Ending domestic and public violence; and 5. Recognition of women’s work and contribution to economy as well as their economic agency. Unequal gender relations affect the way in which the burden of poverty is distributed; and unequal gender relations can also be the cause of poverty among women and girls otherwise non- poor families. Thus, unequal gender relations need to be addressed both as a cause and as a factor in the intensification of poverty.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 95. Settlement policy The national urban policy proposes to address problems relating to urban infrastructure deficiencies by giving special emphasis to the housing sector, water supply and sanitation, municipal solid waste management and urban transport. It also proposes to reduce urban poverty by increasing investment in poverty alleviation programmes, development of employment generation strategy and by trying to integrate poor communities into city planning by improving access to services and land rights. The Government of India has formulated the 1. National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) seeks to create fully sanitized Cities through awareness generation, State Sanitation Strategies and Integrated City Sanitation Plans. 2. National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) seeks to promote safe, affordable and sustainable transportation through integrated land use and transport planning, multi-modal public transport, equitable allocation of road space and promotion of clean technologies. 3. National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (NUHHP) seeks to promote sustainable development of habitat in the country with a view to ensure equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices to all sections of society. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 96. National Commission on Urbanization NCU National Commission of Urbanization (NCU) Report was brought out in 1988 under the chairmanship of Sh. Charles Correa. The NCU Report was in the form of recommendations for the balanced and sustainable development of urban centers in the country. By and large the recommendations of NCU Report were advisory in nature and no effort either at central or at state level was done to follow up the implementation of the recommendations and the exercise remained on paper Recommendations of National Commission on Urbanization Dimensions of Urbanization 1. The urban centres which can generate economic momentum and require priority in development ah been identified. They include National Priority Cities (NPCs), State Priority Cities (SPCs), Spatial Priority Urbanization Regions (BPURs) and the small towns which serve the rural hinterland. From the 8th Plan onwards the fullest support must be given to the development of the identified growth centres. 2. The Process of urbanization can and must be used to improve agricultural performance and create localized employment opportunities. 3. Population control measures must be me really effective in both urban and rural areas in order to stabilize the urban situation. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 97. National Commission on Urbanization NCU Housing 1. Housing policy must aim at increasing the supply of serviced land and lowcost shelter, improving and upgrading slums and conserving the existing housing stock. 2. The State must facilitate housing and ensure access to basic inputs. It should not become a real estate developer. 3. The sites and services programme should be extended to cover the entire cross section of society. Besides providing housing, the programme should be used to generate employment. Urban Form 1. Low rise, High density development should be the predominant built form in urban India. 2. Municipal regulations regarding minimum plot sizes, buildable plot area, etc should e amended, building envelopes designed and building codes modified so that the desired built form is achieved. 3. Controlled streetscapes should be achieved through mandatory building lines and developing appropriate building envelops. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 98. Rural Housing Policy (RHP) The strategy of a Rural Housing Policy would have to be sustainable, based on community choice and would have to provide the household with control over the ownership of the asset. The aims and objectives of RHP: i. To create within the timeframe of the Five Year Plan, adequate rural housing stock that would cater to the rural housing shortage estimated as per the Census data. ii. To prepare a State-wise road map with a definite time frame for provision of appropriate and affordable housing to shelterless households either by way of upgradation of kutcha houses or through construction of new houses. iii. To restructure and strengthen the local and state level institutions / agencies so that the framework for mobilizing additional land and finance for housing purposes and community infrastructure building is created. iv. To introduce the participation of private entrepreneurship on a selective basis and initiate housing development through public-private partnership wherever deemed feasible. v. To plan for removing the barriers preventing greater credit flow into rural areas and to suggest administrative, legal, fiscal and any other operational changes that would facilitate entry of greater resources so that the rural-urban gap of quality of life is bridged. http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 99. Rural Housing Policy (RHP) vi. To provide for an assembly of basic services like water supply, sanitation, power, roads and other livelihood infrastructure that eliminate daily household drudgery and creating sustainable habitats attuned to local requirements. vii. To identify specific rural segments where habitat development can take place along the lines of integrated townships with layouts etc., and reverse the process of migration to urban and semi-urban areas. viii. To prepare area specific livelihood based habitats after factoring in the local requirements and constraints, in terms of availability, adequacy and appropriateness of resources. ix. To put in place a legal-administrative mechanism that provides housing plots for the totally landless so as to qualify them for financial targeting and subsequent livelihood initiatives. x. To put in place a mechanism for identification that would ensure the flow of benefits from Government funded housing programmes to genuine BPL population. xi. To energise the functioning of PRIs so that issues of access to land, finance and community participation are more effectively addressed at a decentralized level. xii. To generate awareness and promote cost effective, environment friendly, energy saving and disaster resistant technologies.http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 100. Settlement structure The term settlement structure describes the structure of human settlements. This includes the spatial distribution of local residents, the type and density of buildings, the form of use, infrastructure as well as central institutions and facilities. • Erosion of local economic basis bases and the establishment of a number of new, small scale businesses (particularly, in the service industries) produced uneven spatial development inside of cities. • Globalisation resulted in regional differentiation and a significant shift in the development of "regional centres“ • Fragmentation of the city centre • Increasing diversity of peripheral areas of cities http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 101. Reference 1. Urbanization and Urban Systems in India by R. Ramachandran 2. SOCIAL formation and change by Dr. R.K. Wishwakarma 3. Indian Society Textbook in Sociology for for Class XII (NCERT ) 4. Sociology by anthony giddens 5. URBANIZATION IN INDIA - ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Unknown Binding – 2018 by Arun Kumar & B D Misra 6. Urbanization in India: Problems and Prospects by T V Sujatha Kumari, P Narasimha Rao 7. Sociological Bulletin - Indian Sociological Society 8. Urban Transformation and Role of Architecture towards Social Sustainability Ar. Soma A. Mishra, Dr. R. K. Pandit, 9. Enabling inclusive cities: tool kit for inclusive urban development ADB -2017 10. Social inclusion programmes and inclusive growth in developing countries UNCTD 2014 11. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2011/09/22/india-urbanization 12. Seventeen reasons why the squatter problem can't be solved by Shlomo Angel and Stan Benj http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum
  • 102. Reference 13. Urban sociology by Jayapalan, N. 14. Sustainability and human settlements by Monto, M., Ganesh, L. and Varghese, K. 15. Urban sociology: images and structures by Flanagan, W. 16. Indian Society by S C Dube 17. Indian social structure by K L sharma 18. Social Problem in India by Ram Ahuja 19. Reader’s on Urban Sociology in India by MSA Rao http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum