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Coordination of Resource-Constrained Devices through a
              Distributed Semantic Space


                                   ´
                            Aitor Gomez-Goiri

      DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto
                    http://www.morelab.deusto.es


                            February 20, 2013
Where do I come from?
Coordination of Constrained devices   Where do I come from?   3 / 42
Coordination of Constrained devices   Where do I come from?   4 / 42
Coordination of Constrained devices   Where do I come from?   5 / 42
www.morelab.deusto.es
Internet of Services

                           Web of Data

                        Smart Environments

                         Internet of Things

                         Location Systems

www.morelab.deusto.es
What do I do?
Tuple Spaces   Semantic Web




                  Ubiquitous
                  computing
Tuple Spaces



                                      Coupling
                                           ⇓
         nodes coordinate writing and reading information in a
                         common space




Coordination of Constrained devices    What do I do?    11 / 42
Tuple Spaces



                                      Coupling
                                           ⇓
         nodes coordinate writing and reading information in a
                         common space
           Location autonomy
           Reference autonomy
           Time autonomy




Coordination of Constrained devices    What do I do?    11 / 42
The Semantic Web



   Coupling on nodes’ internal data-schema
                      ⇓
          Add semantic to achieve
      application-level interoperability
      Backup




Coordination of Constrained devices   What do I do?   12 / 42
Tuple Spaces             Semantic Web



               TSC




                Backup
Tuple Spaces         Semantic Web




           Mobile
                    WoT
           comp           Ubiquitous
                          computing
Challenge




   Adapt TSC for resource constrained devices




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   15 / 42
Challenge




   Adapt TSC for resource constrained devices

     1. Knowledge dissemination
     2. Compatibility with REST (& the WoT)




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   15 / 42
Knowledge dissemination




           Too much load for small devices

           Delegate into intermediaries
                   Everything related wih the semantic
                   Devices manage their own semantic data




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   16 / 42
Compatibility with the WoT/REST

           Provide content using semantic format
                   RESTfully
                   Compatible with WoT

                                              REST*                      TSC
             ROA                                x                         x
             Resources
                                                   x                      x
             identified by URIs
                                        GET, PUT,
             Operations                                            Write, read, take
                                      POST, DELETE
             Representation           HTML, Json,...                Full semantics

           On top of that, we build a TSC middleware


Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware               17 / 42
TS
o                                o
https://github.com/gomezgoiri/otsopack
...and how to build it?
       (searching)
Starting point (assumptions)




           Each device manages its own information
           The space is distributed among all the participants
           Each device interrogates others




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   20 / 42
Who to query?




                                      To all (naive)




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   21 / 42
Who to query?




                   To whoever has a relevant answer for me
                                                 ⇓
           need to know about the information others have




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   21 / 42
What should a node know from the rest?




             General concepts or terminology (TBox)
                        implies sharing less information
           ( the specific knowledge, ABox, changes too frequently )


      Backup




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware   22 / 42
Energy-aware architecture

           Share clues through an intermediary
                   dynamic role
                   chosen according to its capacities



                      get clues                                             make clues
                                                               send clues




                                      directly access to data




Coordination of Constrained devices   Lightweight TSC middleware            23 / 42
Goal


                              300000                                                     300000
                                                                                                     ours
                              250000                                                     250000      nb

                              200000                                                     200000
         active time / node




                                                                    active time / node
                              150000                                                     150000

                              100000                                                     100000

                               50000                                                      50000

                                  0     nb              ours                                 0    xbee foxg20galaxy_tab server
                                             Strategy                                                  Types of devices
                               (16% less energy consumed without activity in a FoxG20)



Coordination of Constrained devices                        Lightweight TSC middleware                                        24 / 42
Conclusions




     1.    Indirect communication to ease developers tasks
     2.    Promote end-to-end search
     3.    Architecture driven by energy needs
     4.    Light reasoners for small devices still needed




Coordination of Constrained devices   Conclusions   25 / 42
Future work




           Enhance the mechanisms to act on the space
           Consider queries for ABox knowledge
           Further tests in non-prototipical real-world
           scenarios
           Continue exploring its feasibility in other platforms




Coordination of Constrained devices   Conclusions       26 / 42
´
                                                             Aitor Gomez-Goiri
                                                    aitor.gomez@deusto.es
                                                    http://aitor.gomezgoiri.net




Coordination of Constrained devices   Conclusions                 27 / 42
Bibliography I
          Payam Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Cory Henson, and Kerry Taylor.
          Semantics for the internet of things.
          International Journal on Semantic Web and Information
          Systems, 8(1):1–21, 2012.
          George Coulouris, Jean Dollimore, Tim Kindberg, and Gordon
          Blair.
          Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design.
          Addison Wesley, 5 edition, 2012.
          World Wide Web Consortium.
          W3c semantic web faq, August 2011.
          D. Nardi and R.J. Brachman.
          An introduction to description logics.
          The description logic handbook: theory, implementation, and
          applications, pages 1–40, 2003.
Coordination of Constrained devices   Bibliography          28 / 42
Bibliography II




Coordination of Constrained devices   Bibliography   29 / 42
Backup slides
Conceptual classification



                                                   Applications, services

                                      Remote invocation              Indirect communication
                                        (e.g. REST or WS.*)                (e.g. Tuple Spaces)
      Middleware
        layers                            Underlying interprocess communication
                                      (sockets, message passing, multicast support, overlay networks)


                                                              Platform
                                                   (operating system + hardware)


                                                 [CDKB12]




Coordination of Constrained devices                Backup slides                          31 / 42
The Semantic Web in short

           The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of
           the Web from documents to data. Data should be
           accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g.,
           URI-s; data should be related to one another just as
           documents (or portions of documents) are already. This
           also means creation of a common framework that allows
           data to be shared and reused across application,
           enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed
           automatically by tools as well as manually, including
           revealing possible new relationships among pieces of
           data. [Con11]
      Back




Coordination of Constrained devices   Backup slides           32 / 42
Semantics alone are not enough


           Providing semantic descriptions alone does not provide
           semantic interoperability. [BWHT12]

           Agreement on ontological definitions
                   ontology mapping and matching
                   use of reference upper-level ontologies
           Semantics need to be processed and analyzed
                   interpret and create meaningful abstractions
                   effective reasoning and processing
                   Should the ontologies be simpler and light weight for IoT?
      Back




Coordination of Constrained devices      Backup slides                 33 / 42
rdfs:domain
      dul:Entity                            ssn:hasLocation
                               rdfs:range

             rdfs:subClassOf


     ssn:Observation

             rdfs:subClassOf
                                            rdfs:domain
    weather:RainfallObservation                           someSpecificProperty
                                             rdfs:range




?s                        rdf:type                        weather:RainfallObservation
?s                        rdf:type                        ssn:Observation
?s                        someSpecificProperty            ?p
?s                        ssn:hasLocation                 ?o
bizkaisense:ABANTO        ?p                              ?o


                                            Back
TBox



           TBox contains knowledge describing general properties
           of concepts or terminology.
                                                                 [NB03]

           E.g. the device type or the elements it is made of.

      Back




Coordination of Constrained devices   Backup slides               35 / 42
ABox



           ABox contains knowledge specific to the individuals of
           the domain of discourse.
                                                            [NB03]

           E.g. the mobile phone brand or the temperature sensed by a
           thermometer.

      Back




Coordination of Constrained devices   Backup slides          36 / 42
Application 1: Security



           Security application monitors parameters
                   E.g. temperature, humidity & CO2 concentration
           Sensors deployed in an industrual facility
           Generates alarms different priorities
           They are displayed in different devices
                   E.g. visual and auditory alarms or in the managers the phone
           Using standards ontologies such as: SSN, SWEET




Coordination of Constrained devices     Backup slides                37 / 42
Application 2: Home automation




           Devices deployed on an office: sensors and actuators
           An application in a smartphone stores user’s preferences
           A node generates tasks to regulate the temperature
           Using standards ontologies such as: SSN, MUO, RECO




Coordination of Constrained devices   Backup slides          38 / 42
Interoperability




           Both applications use SSN ontology
           Even if they were not designed with that purpose...
                   App1 transparently uses App2’s data
                   and vice versa
      Back




Coordination of Constrained devices     Backup slides            39 / 42
Energy consumption

                                        700
       Average power consumption (mW)

                                        600
                                        500
                                        400
                                        300
                                        200
                                        100
                                          0   Inactivity       Period with Reasoning period
                                                period     continuous requests
      Back
Coordination of Constrained devices                            Backup slides             40 / 42
Use of Semantic Gateways



       Sensors directly                       Use of semantic
       provide data                           gateway
       Strong nodes                           Really constrained
       Most updated                           Possible Caching
       More privacy control
       Autonomy                               Dependency
                                              (less flexible)




Coordination of Constrained devices   Backup slides                41 / 42
All rights of images are reserved by the
original owners*, the rest of the content is licensed
  under a Creative Commons by-sa 3.0 license.




    * OpenStreetMap, Universidad de Deusto, Amortize, and Marco Crupi.

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Coordination of Resource-Constrained Devices through a Distributed Semantic Space

  • 1. Coordination of Resource-Constrained Devices through a Distributed Semantic Space ´ Aitor Gomez-Goiri DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto http://www.morelab.deusto.es February 20, 2013
  • 2. Where do I come from?
  • 3. Coordination of Constrained devices Where do I come from? 3 / 42
  • 4. Coordination of Constrained devices Where do I come from? 4 / 42
  • 5. Coordination of Constrained devices Where do I come from? 5 / 42
  • 6.
  • 8. Internet of Services Web of Data Smart Environments Internet of Things Location Systems www.morelab.deusto.es
  • 9.
  • 10. What do I do?
  • 11. Tuple Spaces Semantic Web Ubiquitous computing
  • 12. Tuple Spaces Coupling ⇓ nodes coordinate writing and reading information in a common space Coordination of Constrained devices What do I do? 11 / 42
  • 13. Tuple Spaces Coupling ⇓ nodes coordinate writing and reading information in a common space Location autonomy Reference autonomy Time autonomy Coordination of Constrained devices What do I do? 11 / 42
  • 14. The Semantic Web Coupling on nodes’ internal data-schema ⇓ Add semantic to achieve application-level interoperability Backup Coordination of Constrained devices What do I do? 12 / 42
  • 15. Tuple Spaces Semantic Web TSC Backup
  • 16. Tuple Spaces Semantic Web Mobile WoT comp Ubiquitous computing
  • 17. Challenge Adapt TSC for resource constrained devices Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 15 / 42
  • 18. Challenge Adapt TSC for resource constrained devices 1. Knowledge dissemination 2. Compatibility with REST (& the WoT) Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 15 / 42
  • 19. Knowledge dissemination Too much load for small devices Delegate into intermediaries Everything related wih the semantic Devices manage their own semantic data Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 16 / 42
  • 20. Compatibility with the WoT/REST Provide content using semantic format RESTfully Compatible with WoT REST* TSC ROA x x Resources x x identified by URIs GET, PUT, Operations Write, read, take POST, DELETE Representation HTML, Json,... Full semantics On top of that, we build a TSC middleware Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 17 / 42
  • 21. TS o o https://github.com/gomezgoiri/otsopack
  • 22. ...and how to build it? (searching)
  • 23. Starting point (assumptions) Each device manages its own information The space is distributed among all the participants Each device interrogates others Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 20 / 42
  • 24. Who to query? To all (naive) Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 21 / 42
  • 25. Who to query? To whoever has a relevant answer for me ⇓ need to know about the information others have Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 21 / 42
  • 26. What should a node know from the rest? General concepts or terminology (TBox) implies sharing less information ( the specific knowledge, ABox, changes too frequently ) Backup Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 22 / 42
  • 27. Energy-aware architecture Share clues through an intermediary dynamic role chosen according to its capacities get clues make clues send clues directly access to data Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 23 / 42
  • 28. Goal 300000 300000 ours 250000 250000 nb 200000 200000 active time / node active time / node 150000 150000 100000 100000 50000 50000 0 nb ours 0 xbee foxg20galaxy_tab server Strategy Types of devices (16% less energy consumed without activity in a FoxG20) Coordination of Constrained devices Lightweight TSC middleware 24 / 42
  • 29. Conclusions 1. Indirect communication to ease developers tasks 2. Promote end-to-end search 3. Architecture driven by energy needs 4. Light reasoners for small devices still needed Coordination of Constrained devices Conclusions 25 / 42
  • 30. Future work Enhance the mechanisms to act on the space Consider queries for ABox knowledge Further tests in non-prototipical real-world scenarios Continue exploring its feasibility in other platforms Coordination of Constrained devices Conclusions 26 / 42
  • 31. ´ Aitor Gomez-Goiri aitor.gomez@deusto.es http://aitor.gomezgoiri.net Coordination of Constrained devices Conclusions 27 / 42
  • 32. Bibliography I Payam Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Cory Henson, and Kerry Taylor. Semantics for the internet of things. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, 8(1):1–21, 2012. George Coulouris, Jean Dollimore, Tim Kindberg, and Gordon Blair. Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design. Addison Wesley, 5 edition, 2012. World Wide Web Consortium. W3c semantic web faq, August 2011. D. Nardi and R.J. Brachman. An introduction to description logics. The description logic handbook: theory, implementation, and applications, pages 1–40, 2003. Coordination of Constrained devices Bibliography 28 / 42
  • 33. Bibliography II Coordination of Constrained devices Bibliography 29 / 42
  • 35. Conceptual classification Applications, services Remote invocation Indirect communication (e.g. REST or WS.*) (e.g. Tuple Spaces) Middleware layers Underlying interprocess communication (sockets, message passing, multicast support, overlay networks) Platform (operating system + hardware) [CDKB12] Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 31 / 42
  • 36. The Semantic Web in short The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of the Web from documents to data. Data should be accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g., URI-s; data should be related to one another just as documents (or portions of documents) are already. This also means creation of a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed automatically by tools as well as manually, including revealing possible new relationships among pieces of data. [Con11] Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 32 / 42
  • 37. Semantics alone are not enough Providing semantic descriptions alone does not provide semantic interoperability. [BWHT12] Agreement on ontological definitions ontology mapping and matching use of reference upper-level ontologies Semantics need to be processed and analyzed interpret and create meaningful abstractions effective reasoning and processing Should the ontologies be simpler and light weight for IoT? Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 33 / 42
  • 38. rdfs:domain dul:Entity ssn:hasLocation rdfs:range rdfs:subClassOf ssn:Observation rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:domain weather:RainfallObservation someSpecificProperty rdfs:range ?s rdf:type weather:RainfallObservation ?s rdf:type ssn:Observation ?s someSpecificProperty ?p ?s ssn:hasLocation ?o bizkaisense:ABANTO ?p ?o Back
  • 39. TBox TBox contains knowledge describing general properties of concepts or terminology. [NB03] E.g. the device type or the elements it is made of. Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 35 / 42
  • 40. ABox ABox contains knowledge specific to the individuals of the domain of discourse. [NB03] E.g. the mobile phone brand or the temperature sensed by a thermometer. Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 36 / 42
  • 41. Application 1: Security Security application monitors parameters E.g. temperature, humidity & CO2 concentration Sensors deployed in an industrual facility Generates alarms different priorities They are displayed in different devices E.g. visual and auditory alarms or in the managers the phone Using standards ontologies such as: SSN, SWEET Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 37 / 42
  • 42. Application 2: Home automation Devices deployed on an office: sensors and actuators An application in a smartphone stores user’s preferences A node generates tasks to regulate the temperature Using standards ontologies such as: SSN, MUO, RECO Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 38 / 42
  • 43. Interoperability Both applications use SSN ontology Even if they were not designed with that purpose... App1 transparently uses App2’s data and vice versa Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 39 / 42
  • 44. Energy consumption 700 Average power consumption (mW) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Inactivity Period with Reasoning period period continuous requests Back Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 40 / 42
  • 45. Use of Semantic Gateways Sensors directly Use of semantic provide data gateway Strong nodes Really constrained Most updated Possible Caching More privacy control Autonomy Dependency (less flexible) Coordination of Constrained devices Backup slides 41 / 42
  • 46. All rights of images are reserved by the original owners*, the rest of the content is licensed under a Creative Commons by-sa 3.0 license. * OpenStreetMap, Universidad de Deusto, Amortize, and Marco Crupi.