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Assessing data dissemination strategies
within Triple Spaces on the Web of Things
                          esIoT 2012


                ´                  ´          ˜
         Aitor Gomez-Goiri, Diego Lopez-de-Ipina

DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto
              http://www.morelab.deusto.es


                         July 4, 2012
Outline



     Introduction

     Data dissemination strategies

     Evaluation

     Conclusions




Assessing data dissemination strategies   2 / 57
Outline



     Introduction

     Data dissemination strategies

     Evaluation

     Conclusions




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Introduction   3 / 57
The Web of Things




             Growing connectivity of everyday objects.
             WoT to integrate things.
                     Scalable interaction, integration with the web world...
                     But also inherits problems from the web world!
             Lack of expressiveness and human orientation
                     The Semantic Web enables sharing knowledge across
                     different applications




Assessing data dissemination strategies     Introduction                   4 / 57
The Semantic Web


             The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of
             the Web from documents to data. Data should be
             accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g.,
             URI-s; data should be related to one another just as
             documents (or portions of documents) are already. This
             also means creation of a common framework that allows
             data to be shared and reused across application,
             enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed
             automatically by tools as well as manually, including
             revealing possible new relationships among pieces of
             data. [Con11]




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Introduction           5 / 57
The Semantic Web


             The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of
             the Web from documents to data. Data should be
             accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g.,
             URI-s; data should be related to one another just as
             documents (or portions of documents) are already. This
             also means creation of a common framework that allows
             data to be shared and reused across application,
             enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed
             automatically by tools as well as manually, including
             revealing possible new relationships among pieces of
             data. [Con11]




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Introduction           6 / 57
Triple Space Computing




             Describes the knowledge shared using the SW
                     2 applications using standard ontologies can interact among
                     them automatically enriching one each other.
             Space-based computing
                     time autonomy
                     space autonomy
                     reference autonomy




Assessing data dissemination strategies    Introduction                 7 / 57
Goal




      How to realize this shared blackboard in the IoT?




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Introduction   9 / 57
Outline


     Introduction

     Data dissemination strategies
        Centralization
        Negative broadcasting
        Gossiping based strategy

     Evaluation

     Conclusions




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   10 / 57
Centralization in short




                         r = |Q| + wf .t.(|N| − 1)                                  (1)




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   13 / 57
Negative broadcasting in short




                                    r = |Q|.(|N| − 1)                               (2)




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   16 / 57
How to improve the NB?

                       Reducing the amount of receivers for a query.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   17 / 57
Problem: how to perfectly predict them without
        knowing all what they know?
TBox and ABox




     According to Nardi and Brachman [NB03]...

     TBox contains the knowledge which describes general properties
     of concepts or terminology.

     ABox contains knowledge that is specific to the individuals of the
     domain of discourse.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   22 / 57
In other words...




     With TBox we can describe the type of devices there are in the
     world or the sensors they have.

     With ABox we can specify that HTC is a mobile brand or that the
     sensed temperature is 3o C.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   23 / 57
TBox and ABox in IoT scenarios?




             Mobile devices: user profile,...
             Sensors and actuators
             The structure of the data barely changes!




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   24 / 57
Our proposal




             We can assume that all the nodes have or can easily obtain
             the TBox information.
             Nodes gossip the classes of concepts (rdf:type) shared by
             other nodes.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Data dissemination strategies   25 / 57
Subject       Predicate                   Object

wot:meas1      rdf:type        ssn:N02Observation
wot:meas1      ssn:observedProperty sweet:NO2
wot:meas1       ssn:observationResult wot:outpt1
wot:outpt1     ssn:hasValue              wot:val1
wot:val1      ssb:QuantityValue                17
wot:val1       dul:isClassifiedBy
             muo-ucum:microgram-per-cubic-meter
...             ...              ...
Subject       Predicate                  Object

wot:meas1      rdf:type       ssn:N02Observation
wot:meas1      ssn:observedProperty sweet:NO2
wot:meas1       ssn:observationResult wot:outpt1
wot:outpt1     ssn:hasValue             wot:val1
wot:val1       ssb:QuantityValue              17
wot:val1        dul:isClassifiedBy
             muo-ucum:microgram-per-cubic-meter
...             ...               ...
Outline



     Introduction

     Data dissemination strategies

     Evaluation

     Conclusions




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Evaluation   29 / 57
Remember




             We wanted to know which strategy fits better for IoT.
             Otsopack: our publicly available TSC middleware which uses
             HTTP.
             Therefore: communication between nodes was point to point
             and exchanges data RDF triples.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Evaluation            30 / 57
Methodology




             Discovery process was ignored.
             The Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN).
                     Datasets from the University of Utah and the University of
                     Deusto.
             Measures taken from real embedded web servers.
             Simpy.




Assessing data dissemination strategies     Evaluation                   31 / 57
Performance Metrics




             Precision: the fraction of nodes which answered relevant
             results.
             Recall: the fraction of relevant answers returned.
             Response time.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Evaluation              32 / 57
Outline



     Introduction

     Data dissemination strategies

     Evaluation

     Conclusions




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Conclusions   36 / 57
Conclusions




             Need of a gossiping approach.
             Increase the precision.
             Simulate specific scenarios from the literature.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Conclusions          37 / 57
Assessing data dissemination strategies   Conclusions   38 / 57
Bibliography




            World Wide Web Consortium.
            W3c semantic web faq, August 2011.
            D. Nardi and R.J. Brachman.
            An introduction to description logics.
            The description logic handbook: theory, implementation, and
            applications, pages 1–40, 2003.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Bibliography        39 / 57
Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   40 / 57
Semantic Web example




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   41 / 57
Write




     public String write(String spaceURI, Graph ITriples)
           throws TSException;




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   42 / 57
Read




     public Graph read
         (String spaceURI, String graphURI, long timeout)
         throws TSException;

     public Graph read
         (String spaceURI, Template template, long timeout)
         throws TSException;


Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   43 / 57
Take




     public Graph take
         (String spaceURI, String graphURI, long timeout)
         throws TSException;

     public Graph take
         (String spaceURI, Template template, long timeout)
         throws TSException;


Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   44 / 57
Query




     public Graph query(String spaceURI, Template template)
         throws TSException;




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   45 / 57
Reasoning



       Device                             TBox         ABox
       Regular computer
                                          2.787       0.045
        (Sesame 2.6.4)
       Samsung Galaxy Tab
                                          17.342      0.225
        (Sesame 2.4.2)
       FoxG20
                                          48.939      1.443
        (Fuxi)




Assessing data dissemination strategies      Backup slides    46 / 57
Our realization of the ideas towards this adaptation are
     incarnated on Otsopack Open source project
Otsopack Layers




                                                   Each Otsopack instance.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides               48 / 57
About HTTP and TSC




     The HTTP verbs retrieve, create, modify or delete web resources

      The TS primitives retrieve, create, modify or delete RDF graphs
                                on a space

             (right, to be honest TS also offers a query, which works at space level)




Assessing data dissemination strategies     Backup slides                    49 / 57
A RESTful HTTP API




             To expose TS querying primitives
             HTTP status codes
             Using content negotiation




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   50 / 57
Discovery




             Registry based discovery
             Multicast based implemented
             Easy to adopt new ones: DNS, mDNS, lmDNS etc.




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides      51 / 57
TSC API in depth



       HTTP request               URL
          GET                     /{sp}/query/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri}
                                  /{sp}/query/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value}
               GET                /{sp}/graphs/{g}
               GET                /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri}
                                  /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value}
           DELETE                 /{sp}/graphs/{g}
           DELETE                 /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri}
                                  /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value}




Assessing data dissemination strategies        Backup slides                52 / 57
XBee gateway platform




          ConnectPort R X2 (XBee to IP
          gateway)
          RAM: 8MB
          Platform version: Python 2.4
          REST libraries: Python Std Lib
          Semantic libraries: None




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   53 / 57
Case of study 1: XBee




             We developed a restricted middleware version using Python
             With more than 15 concurrent requests problems were
             experienced




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides       54 / 57
FoxG20 platform




          Processor: 400Mhz Atmel ARM9
          RAM: 64MB
          Platform version: Python 2.5
          REST libraries: Python Std Lib
          Semantic libraries: Fuxi




Assessing data dissemination strategies   Backup slides   55 / 57
Case of study 2: FoxG20



             Python implementation used
                     Because is lighter
                     Does not implement all the modules defined
                     This may be desirable for less powerful devices
             Reasoning took a long time
                     TBox: x17 regular computer, x2 galaxy tab
                     ABox: x32 - x6 galaxy tab
               ⇓
             should be limited to special occasions




Assessing data dissemination strategies    Backup slides               56 / 57
All rights of images are reserved by the
original owners*, the rest of the content is licensed
  under a Creative Commons by-sa 3.0 license.




  * Kit (practicalowl), Stefan Paunovi´ , Amortize and Marco Crupi Digi
                                      c
  International Inc. and Acme systems.

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Assessing data dissemination strategies

  • 1. Assessing data dissemination strategies within Triple Spaces on the Web of Things esIoT 2012 ´ ´ ˜ Aitor Gomez-Goiri, Diego Lopez-de-Ipina DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto http://www.morelab.deusto.es July 4, 2012
  • 2. Outline Introduction Data dissemination strategies Evaluation Conclusions Assessing data dissemination strategies 2 / 57
  • 3. Outline Introduction Data dissemination strategies Evaluation Conclusions Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 3 / 57
  • 4. The Web of Things Growing connectivity of everyday objects. WoT to integrate things. Scalable interaction, integration with the web world... But also inherits problems from the web world! Lack of expressiveness and human orientation The Semantic Web enables sharing knowledge across different applications Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 4 / 57
  • 5. The Semantic Web The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of the Web from documents to data. Data should be accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g., URI-s; data should be related to one another just as documents (or portions of documents) are already. This also means creation of a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed automatically by tools as well as manually, including revealing possible new relationships among pieces of data. [Con11] Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 5 / 57
  • 6. The Semantic Web The vision of the Semantic Web is to extend principles of the Web from documents to data. Data should be accessed using the general Web architecture using, e.g., URI-s; data should be related to one another just as documents (or portions of documents) are already. This also means creation of a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries, to be processed automatically by tools as well as manually, including revealing possible new relationships among pieces of data. [Con11] Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 6 / 57
  • 7. Triple Space Computing Describes the knowledge shared using the SW 2 applications using standard ontologies can interact among them automatically enriching one each other. Space-based computing time autonomy space autonomy reference autonomy Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 7 / 57
  • 8.
  • 9. Goal How to realize this shared blackboard in the IoT? Assessing data dissemination strategies Introduction 9 / 57
  • 10. Outline Introduction Data dissemination strategies Centralization Negative broadcasting Gossiping based strategy Evaluation Conclusions Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 10 / 57
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Centralization in short r = |Q| + wf .t.(|N| − 1) (1) Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 13 / 57
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Negative broadcasting in short r = |Q|.(|N| − 1) (2) Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 16 / 57
  • 17. How to improve the NB? Reducing the amount of receivers for a query. Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 17 / 57
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Problem: how to perfectly predict them without knowing all what they know?
  • 21.
  • 22. TBox and ABox According to Nardi and Brachman [NB03]... TBox contains the knowledge which describes general properties of concepts or terminology. ABox contains knowledge that is specific to the individuals of the domain of discourse. Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 22 / 57
  • 23. In other words... With TBox we can describe the type of devices there are in the world or the sensors they have. With ABox we can specify that HTC is a mobile brand or that the sensed temperature is 3o C. Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 23 / 57
  • 24. TBox and ABox in IoT scenarios? Mobile devices: user profile,... Sensors and actuators The structure of the data barely changes! Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 24 / 57
  • 25. Our proposal We can assume that all the nodes have or can easily obtain the TBox information. Nodes gossip the classes of concepts (rdf:type) shared by other nodes. Assessing data dissemination strategies Data dissemination strategies 25 / 57
  • 26. Subject Predicate Object wot:meas1 rdf:type ssn:N02Observation wot:meas1 ssn:observedProperty sweet:NO2 wot:meas1 ssn:observationResult wot:outpt1 wot:outpt1 ssn:hasValue wot:val1 wot:val1 ssb:QuantityValue 17 wot:val1 dul:isClassifiedBy muo-ucum:microgram-per-cubic-meter ... ... ...
  • 27. Subject Predicate Object wot:meas1 rdf:type ssn:N02Observation wot:meas1 ssn:observedProperty sweet:NO2 wot:meas1 ssn:observationResult wot:outpt1 wot:outpt1 ssn:hasValue wot:val1 wot:val1 ssb:QuantityValue 17 wot:val1 dul:isClassifiedBy muo-ucum:microgram-per-cubic-meter ... ... ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Outline Introduction Data dissemination strategies Evaluation Conclusions Assessing data dissemination strategies Evaluation 29 / 57
  • 30. Remember We wanted to know which strategy fits better for IoT. Otsopack: our publicly available TSC middleware which uses HTTP. Therefore: communication between nodes was point to point and exchanges data RDF triples. Assessing data dissemination strategies Evaluation 30 / 57
  • 31. Methodology Discovery process was ignored. The Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN). Datasets from the University of Utah and the University of Deusto. Measures taken from real embedded web servers. Simpy. Assessing data dissemination strategies Evaluation 31 / 57
  • 32. Performance Metrics Precision: the fraction of nodes which answered relevant results. Recall: the fraction of relevant answers returned. Response time. Assessing data dissemination strategies Evaluation 32 / 57
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Outline Introduction Data dissemination strategies Evaluation Conclusions Assessing data dissemination strategies Conclusions 36 / 57
  • 37. Conclusions Need of a gossiping approach. Increase the precision. Simulate specific scenarios from the literature. Assessing data dissemination strategies Conclusions 37 / 57
  • 38. Assessing data dissemination strategies Conclusions 38 / 57
  • 39. Bibliography World Wide Web Consortium. W3c semantic web faq, August 2011. D. Nardi and R.J. Brachman. An introduction to description logics. The description logic handbook: theory, implementation, and applications, pages 1–40, 2003. Assessing data dissemination strategies Bibliography 39 / 57
  • 40. Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 40 / 57
  • 41. Semantic Web example Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 41 / 57
  • 42. Write public String write(String spaceURI, Graph ITriples) throws TSException; Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 42 / 57
  • 43. Read public Graph read (String spaceURI, String graphURI, long timeout) throws TSException; public Graph read (String spaceURI, Template template, long timeout) throws TSException; Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 43 / 57
  • 44. Take public Graph take (String spaceURI, String graphURI, long timeout) throws TSException; public Graph take (String spaceURI, Template template, long timeout) throws TSException; Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 44 / 57
  • 45. Query public Graph query(String spaceURI, Template template) throws TSException; Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 45 / 57
  • 46. Reasoning Device TBox ABox Regular computer 2.787 0.045 (Sesame 2.6.4) Samsung Galaxy Tab 17.342 0.225 (Sesame 2.4.2) FoxG20 48.939 1.443 (Fuxi) Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 46 / 57
  • 47. Our realization of the ideas towards this adaptation are incarnated on Otsopack Open source project
  • 48. Otsopack Layers Each Otsopack instance. Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 48 / 57
  • 49. About HTTP and TSC The HTTP verbs retrieve, create, modify or delete web resources The TS primitives retrieve, create, modify or delete RDF graphs on a space (right, to be honest TS also offers a query, which works at space level) Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 49 / 57
  • 50. A RESTful HTTP API To expose TS querying primitives HTTP status codes Using content negotiation Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 50 / 57
  • 51. Discovery Registry based discovery Multicast based implemented Easy to adopt new ones: DNS, mDNS, lmDNS etc. Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 51 / 57
  • 52. TSC API in depth HTTP request URL GET /{sp}/query/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri} /{sp}/query/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value} GET /{sp}/graphs/{g} GET /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri} /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value} DELETE /{sp}/graphs/{g} DELETE /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-uri} /{sp}/graphs/wildcards/{s}/{p}/{o-type}/{o-value} Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 52 / 57
  • 53. XBee gateway platform ConnectPort R X2 (XBee to IP gateway) RAM: 8MB Platform version: Python 2.4 REST libraries: Python Std Lib Semantic libraries: None Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 53 / 57
  • 54. Case of study 1: XBee We developed a restricted middleware version using Python With more than 15 concurrent requests problems were experienced Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 54 / 57
  • 55. FoxG20 platform Processor: 400Mhz Atmel ARM9 RAM: 64MB Platform version: Python 2.5 REST libraries: Python Std Lib Semantic libraries: Fuxi Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 55 / 57
  • 56. Case of study 2: FoxG20 Python implementation used Because is lighter Does not implement all the modules defined This may be desirable for less powerful devices Reasoning took a long time TBox: x17 regular computer, x2 galaxy tab ABox: x32 - x6 galaxy tab ⇓ should be limited to special occasions Assessing data dissemination strategies Backup slides 56 / 57
  • 57. All rights of images are reserved by the original owners*, the rest of the content is licensed under a Creative Commons by-sa 3.0 license. * Kit (practicalowl), Stefan Paunovi´ , Amortize and Marco Crupi Digi c International Inc. and Acme systems.