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Claude Rochet
Urban lifecycle management :
A research program for smart
government of smart cities
Prof. Claude Rochet
Claude.rochet@univ-amu.fr
http://claude-rochet.fr
1
Roskilde Universitet
21/12/2015
What means “Smart”= presence of
a learning feedback loop
2
Action Effect
feedback
from 0,0001sec. to a génération
Sensors
Data
TreatmentInterpretation
Usage
Decision
Technologies
Social sciences
Iconomy
When speaking of smart cities, what
does it means?
Efficient urbanization
Inclusive urbanization
Sustainable
urbanization
3
Complex System Architecture:
What are the key functions and their
(un) desirable interactions?
System Integration: Granting people
the same capacity to interact and have
control over the urban system
Ecosystem modeling: Autopoiesis,
resilience, scalability, innovation
coordination
The smart city and the temptation of the
totalitarian utopia
• Utopia= A perfect city
in a perfect world
1896
1517
1623
1898
Are IT the new
totalitarian
utopia?
What a smart city can’t be
• A collection of « smarties »
• A techno centric city
• A city without past
• A deterministic system
Smart city => Smart territory
Modeling a smart city: an imperfect city
in an imperfect world
• A dead end: The temptation of
the ideal city : XX century
garden cities, techno-centric
approaches Masdar, Songdo…
• A city is a living system
6
What modelling means?
The Lego game:
• The construction is based on
standardized building blocks
• No two figures are alike
• These blocks are structured in
patterns: recurrent problems +
improved solutions + rules of
integration using semantic + syntax
• The final result in an integration
which is specific to needs and
specifications
7
Definition:
A pattern is a stable and
reusable configuration, including
physical elements in relation with
their environment,
…. Which solves a problem
integrating on a non conflicting way
all the constraints
... Is a system of forces
Exemple: Multi functions mail box
Recevoir son
courrier Poster tout type
de courrier sans
se déplacer
Trajet < 10’ AR
sans véhicule à
moteur
Recevoir un
recommandé
en son absence
Améliorer la rapidité
des tournées et
l’exactitude de la
distribution
BAL
multifonctions
Tournée
21/12/2015
Claude Rochet
A rationale for a smart city a system architect:
A three steps approach
• Strategic analysis
• Inventorying the functions
• Integrating the ecosystem
• Strategic alignment
9
Must do
May do
How to do it?
Vision
A rationale for a smart city a system architect:
1- Strategic analysis
10
Why building a city & what
are the strategic goals? Who
are the stakeholders?
What are the generic
functions to be performed by
a smart city?
With which organs?
Technical devices,
software…
With which smart
people?
Conception,
metamodel
framework,
steering
Subsystems
and processes
People and
tools
Why designing this ecosystem?
Who will live in the city?
What are its activities?
How the city will be fed?
Where the city is located ? (context)
What are the functions to be performed to
reach the goals and how do they interact?
With which organs and
ressources?
How people will interact with the
artifacts?
How civic life will organize?
Claude Rochet
A rationale for a smart city a system
architect:
2- Inventorying the “building blocks”
11/09/2014
12
Issues
• Defining “smartness”
and “sustainability”
• Wealth creation
• Finance and taxes
• Controlling pollution
• Equilibrium center –
periphery
• Migrations
• Poverty
• Education
• Health
• Crime
• Segregation (social
and spatial)
• Leisure
• Quality of life
• How people interact
with people and
artifacts?
• The New Business
Models:
• Public
• Private
• Project management
• Institutional
arrangements
• The day to day decision
making process in an
evolutionary perspective
• Empowerment
• Direct democracy
• Government
• Governance
• Project management
• Social innovation
• The state as a system
engineer
• Mastering ULM
Functions
• Work
• Budgeting
• Transportation
• Feeding
• Caring
• Protecting
• Securing
• Housing policy
• Education
• Leisure
• Social benefits
• Health care
system
• Migrations
control
Resources
• Energy
• Water
• Data
• Digital Systems
• Traditions
• Sociology
• Technologies as
enablers and
enacters
• Culture and
traditions
• Institutions and
public
organizations
• Process modeling
• Software
• Tech providers
• Open innovation
Capabilities
Claude Rochet
11/09/2014
13
A rationale for a smart city a system architect:
3- Integration of the building blocks
Soft domains Hard domains
SMART city
TransportationIndustry
WorkHousing
Sanitation
EnergyWater
Waste recycling
Public services Health care
Civic life Leisure
Education Social integration
GovernmentEconomy
Institutional
scaffolding
Social life
Periphery
City
Territory
Commercial
exchanges
Food
Problems in smart cities ecosystem
modeling
Hard systems may
be models thanks
to the laws of
physics
(conservative
systems)
Soft systems can’t
be modeled with
the laws of physics
(dissaptive
systems)
- Social siences
- Big data
- Multi-agents
modeling
The key of the
success is here…
… while
business is there
System integration, a key
competency to be developed
How does integration works?
Conceiving organic autopoeitic systems
NO! An evolutionary
process
Integration process
is bottom-up…
… based on ordinary
interactions
 We must
understand how
ordinary people
behave
 Q: Is there an
architect with a
master plan?
Bottom up patterns
integration: social
intelligence
A smart city as an autopoetic
ecosystem must be designed as
an imperfect city in an
imperfect world able to reframe
itself according to the evolution of
its environment.
Integration is not made once and
for all but is a permanent
process all along the urban
lifecycle. A smart integration is
made according the ends of the
city and must be citizen
centered and not techno
centered.
smartphone
Wired
phone
Wifi Lifi
A human connected
everywhere
Integrating patterns bottom-up from
basic to complex functions
Démultiplier les
fonctions d’un
objet urbain par les
usages
Optimiser la
polyvalence des
ressources énergie et
données
Rendre le
déplacement sûr,
ludique et
pertinent
Fortifier le lien
social par les
nouvelles
connexions
Tout bâti et tout service
doit être conçu de
manière modulaire et
évolutive pour gérer les
cycles d’innovation
Mobilier
urbain
multifonction
Consommer
juste
BAL
multifonction
Contrôle
commande de
l’énergie
électrique
Traitement de la
donnée
Recréer de la
proximité grâce
à l’Internet
Intégrer les
cycles
d’innovation
The case of
Functionnal
patterns
Techno organic
patterns
In / out
Urban ecosystem : three perimeters:
first the city itself where the synergies and interactions are the
stronger and have the most “eco” properties.
Second the periphery: one may refer here to the model defined by
Thünen representing the city with a succession of concentric
rings going from the highest increasing return activities at the
center city to decreasing return activities at the periphery.
third is the external environment with witch the city exchanges
Ville: synergies les plus fortes
Ville: synergies les plus
fortes
Ville: synergies les
plus fortes
Ville: synergies
les plus fortes
Ville:
synergies les
plus fortes
Services à forte V.A
Activités primaires
à faible V.A
Rendements
croissants
décroissants
Defining metrics to measure the global balance of
the ecosystem
• Integrating imported
pollution, energy waste….
produced by a
dysfunctional
ecosystem
• Is the city really green?
The research program
Claude Rochet
A tool to design and monitor the ecosystem:
ULM (Urban Lifecycle Management©)
21
Maturityofecosystemicproperties
Development
From history, social
intelligence, idea, to
framework Integrating off-the-
shelves innovation
Functional integration
Technical
integration
Designing the
engineering ecosystem
Project
management
City 1.0
Gathering data and
understanding
ecosystem evolution
Evaluating,
correcting and
upgrading
Sustainable City
1.0
Integrating
innovation
City 2.0
Risk of collapse
Losing ecosystemic properties
Permanent
improvement
Financial
governance
Socio political cycle
Innovation
cycle
New City
The integration of disciplines
Social intelligence
& social capital
Complex systems
architecture
Complex projects
management
Analytics, big
data & software
code
Direct
democracy
PLM
integration
Managing
resilience
Datafication
23
Legacy: How the city has evolved in
the past
•Hard data: statistics
•Soft data: human memory
=> understanding the technological
trajectory and social capital
Present and future: Understanding
how the city is evolving
•Observatory for hard and soft data
•Big data
Understanding the present behavior
=> Evaluating the scalability and
resilience, improving social capital
Requisites for a successful integration
• Common standards
for data => Chief Data
Officers
• Common standards
for building: BIM
• Vivere politico as
permanent integrative
process
Integrating PLM
25
Innovation within building blocks has different speeds
With smart networks innovation cycles are connected:
(before, no): a permanent challenge
The city dweller is the decider in last resort of the
impact of any innovation on the city life: Good/Bad,
useful/unusual, improve/kill
Power to technology or
to citizens?
Correlations => Induction
Deduction =>Hypotheses
Where is the brain?
Existing knowledge
Resilience: avoiding the trap of the self
contained city and preventing collapse
Thresholds
System out of orderNormal
Specific and foreseen
Unforeseen catastrophes
Source : Christian Morel
The city as an HRO
Improving social capital,
bottom-up vs. top-down: The case of
Christchurch (NZ)
28
Citizen produce ideas
Producing and structuring ideas
Integration of disciplines
31
Levelsofcomplexity
City
Functions
Citizens
Complex systems
engineering
Extended P.A Political philosophy
Complex
system
modeling
Interaction
and synergies
Social
networks and
interactions
Overlaps and
interactions
Common good as an
emergence and
structuring finality
Ends and means of
wealth creation
Civic implication
Polycentric
Govce
The research and training program
• Integrating and upgrading into smart
cities issues the basics of complex
systems architecture as a basic
baggage for SC stake holders
• Learning by doing: Applied research
to the building of pilot projects
• Convergence of disciplines:
engineering, social sciences, urban
sociology, system architecture, political
philosophy, complex decision making
32
Merci!
33
Thank you!

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Seminar on smart cities roskilde university 2015

  • 1. Claude Rochet Urban lifecycle management : A research program for smart government of smart cities Prof. Claude Rochet Claude.rochet@univ-amu.fr http://claude-rochet.fr 1 Roskilde Universitet 21/12/2015
  • 2. What means “Smart”= presence of a learning feedback loop 2 Action Effect feedback from 0,0001sec. to a génération Sensors Data TreatmentInterpretation Usage Decision Technologies Social sciences Iconomy
  • 3. When speaking of smart cities, what does it means? Efficient urbanization Inclusive urbanization Sustainable urbanization 3 Complex System Architecture: What are the key functions and their (un) desirable interactions? System Integration: Granting people the same capacity to interact and have control over the urban system Ecosystem modeling: Autopoiesis, resilience, scalability, innovation coordination
  • 4. The smart city and the temptation of the totalitarian utopia • Utopia= A perfect city in a perfect world 1896 1517 1623 1898 Are IT the new totalitarian utopia?
  • 5. What a smart city can’t be • A collection of « smarties » • A techno centric city • A city without past • A deterministic system Smart city => Smart territory
  • 6. Modeling a smart city: an imperfect city in an imperfect world • A dead end: The temptation of the ideal city : XX century garden cities, techno-centric approaches Masdar, Songdo… • A city is a living system 6
  • 7. What modelling means? The Lego game: • The construction is based on standardized building blocks • No two figures are alike • These blocks are structured in patterns: recurrent problems + improved solutions + rules of integration using semantic + syntax • The final result in an integration which is specific to needs and specifications 7 Definition: A pattern is a stable and reusable configuration, including physical elements in relation with their environment, …. Which solves a problem integrating on a non conflicting way all the constraints ... Is a system of forces
  • 8. Exemple: Multi functions mail box Recevoir son courrier Poster tout type de courrier sans se déplacer Trajet < 10’ AR sans véhicule à moteur Recevoir un recommandé en son absence Améliorer la rapidité des tournées et l’exactitude de la distribution BAL multifonctions Tournée 21/12/2015
  • 9. Claude Rochet A rationale for a smart city a system architect: A three steps approach • Strategic analysis • Inventorying the functions • Integrating the ecosystem • Strategic alignment 9 Must do May do How to do it? Vision
  • 10. A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 1- Strategic analysis 10 Why building a city & what are the strategic goals? Who are the stakeholders? What are the generic functions to be performed by a smart city? With which organs? Technical devices, software… With which smart people? Conception, metamodel framework, steering Subsystems and processes People and tools Why designing this ecosystem? Who will live in the city? What are its activities? How the city will be fed? Where the city is located ? (context) What are the functions to be performed to reach the goals and how do they interact? With which organs and ressources? How people will interact with the artifacts? How civic life will organize?
  • 11.
  • 12. Claude Rochet A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 2- Inventorying the “building blocks” 11/09/2014 12 Issues • Defining “smartness” and “sustainability” • Wealth creation • Finance and taxes • Controlling pollution • Equilibrium center – periphery • Migrations • Poverty • Education • Health • Crime • Segregation (social and spatial) • Leisure • Quality of life • How people interact with people and artifacts? • The New Business Models: • Public • Private • Project management • Institutional arrangements • The day to day decision making process in an evolutionary perspective • Empowerment • Direct democracy • Government • Governance • Project management • Social innovation • The state as a system engineer • Mastering ULM Functions • Work • Budgeting • Transportation • Feeding • Caring • Protecting • Securing • Housing policy • Education • Leisure • Social benefits • Health care system • Migrations control Resources • Energy • Water • Data • Digital Systems • Traditions • Sociology • Technologies as enablers and enacters • Culture and traditions • Institutions and public organizations • Process modeling • Software • Tech providers • Open innovation Capabilities
  • 13. Claude Rochet 11/09/2014 13 A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 3- Integration of the building blocks Soft domains Hard domains SMART city TransportationIndustry WorkHousing Sanitation EnergyWater Waste recycling Public services Health care Civic life Leisure Education Social integration GovernmentEconomy Institutional scaffolding Social life Periphery City Territory Commercial exchanges Food
  • 14. Problems in smart cities ecosystem modeling Hard systems may be models thanks to the laws of physics (conservative systems) Soft systems can’t be modeled with the laws of physics (dissaptive systems) - Social siences - Big data - Multi-agents modeling The key of the success is here… … while business is there System integration, a key competency to be developed
  • 15. How does integration works? Conceiving organic autopoeitic systems NO! An evolutionary process Integration process is bottom-up… … based on ordinary interactions  We must understand how ordinary people behave  Q: Is there an architect with a master plan?
  • 16. Bottom up patterns integration: social intelligence A smart city as an autopoetic ecosystem must be designed as an imperfect city in an imperfect world able to reframe itself according to the evolution of its environment. Integration is not made once and for all but is a permanent process all along the urban lifecycle. A smart integration is made according the ends of the city and must be citizen centered and not techno centered. smartphone Wired phone Wifi Lifi A human connected everywhere
  • 17. Integrating patterns bottom-up from basic to complex functions Démultiplier les fonctions d’un objet urbain par les usages Optimiser la polyvalence des ressources énergie et données Rendre le déplacement sûr, ludique et pertinent Fortifier le lien social par les nouvelles connexions Tout bâti et tout service doit être conçu de manière modulaire et évolutive pour gérer les cycles d’innovation Mobilier urbain multifonction Consommer juste BAL multifonction Contrôle commande de l’énergie électrique Traitement de la donnée Recréer de la proximité grâce à l’Internet Intégrer les cycles d’innovation The case of Functionnal patterns Techno organic patterns
  • 18. In / out Urban ecosystem : three perimeters: first the city itself where the synergies and interactions are the stronger and have the most “eco” properties. Second the periphery: one may refer here to the model defined by Thünen representing the city with a succession of concentric rings going from the highest increasing return activities at the center city to decreasing return activities at the periphery. third is the external environment with witch the city exchanges Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Services à forte V.A Activités primaires à faible V.A Rendements croissants décroissants
  • 19. Defining metrics to measure the global balance of the ecosystem • Integrating imported pollution, energy waste…. produced by a dysfunctional ecosystem • Is the city really green?
  • 21. Claude Rochet A tool to design and monitor the ecosystem: ULM (Urban Lifecycle Management©) 21 Maturityofecosystemicproperties Development From history, social intelligence, idea, to framework Integrating off-the- shelves innovation Functional integration Technical integration Designing the engineering ecosystem Project management City 1.0 Gathering data and understanding ecosystem evolution Evaluating, correcting and upgrading Sustainable City 1.0 Integrating innovation City 2.0 Risk of collapse Losing ecosystemic properties Permanent improvement Financial governance Socio political cycle Innovation cycle New City
  • 22. The integration of disciplines Social intelligence & social capital Complex systems architecture Complex projects management Analytics, big data & software code Direct democracy PLM integration Managing resilience
  • 23. Datafication 23 Legacy: How the city has evolved in the past •Hard data: statistics •Soft data: human memory => understanding the technological trajectory and social capital Present and future: Understanding how the city is evolving •Observatory for hard and soft data •Big data Understanding the present behavior => Evaluating the scalability and resilience, improving social capital
  • 24. Requisites for a successful integration • Common standards for data => Chief Data Officers • Common standards for building: BIM • Vivere politico as permanent integrative process
  • 25. Integrating PLM 25 Innovation within building blocks has different speeds With smart networks innovation cycles are connected: (before, no): a permanent challenge The city dweller is the decider in last resort of the impact of any innovation on the city life: Good/Bad, useful/unusual, improve/kill
  • 26. Power to technology or to citizens? Correlations => Induction Deduction =>Hypotheses Where is the brain? Existing knowledge
  • 27. Resilience: avoiding the trap of the self contained city and preventing collapse Thresholds System out of orderNormal Specific and foreseen Unforeseen catastrophes Source : Christian Morel The city as an HRO
  • 28. Improving social capital, bottom-up vs. top-down: The case of Christchurch (NZ) 28
  • 31. Integration of disciplines 31 Levelsofcomplexity City Functions Citizens Complex systems engineering Extended P.A Political philosophy Complex system modeling Interaction and synergies Social networks and interactions Overlaps and interactions Common good as an emergence and structuring finality Ends and means of wealth creation Civic implication Polycentric Govce
  • 32. The research and training program • Integrating and upgrading into smart cities issues the basics of complex systems architecture as a basic baggage for SC stake holders • Learning by doing: Applied research to the building of pilot projects • Convergence of disciplines: engineering, social sciences, urban sociology, system architecture, political philosophy, complex decision making 32