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Reducing latency on the
web with the Azure CDN
Maarten Balliauw
@maartenballiauw
Who am I?
Maarten Balliauw
Antwerp, Belgium
Technical Evangelist, JetBrains
Founder, MyGet
AZUG
Focus on web
ASP.NET MVC, Azure, SignalR, ...
MVP Azure & ASPInsider
Big passion: Azure
http://blog.maartenballiauw.be
@maartenballiauw
Shameless self promotion: Pro NuGet -
http://amzn.to/pronuget2
Agenda
Why use a CDN?
The Azure CDN
Blob containers
Cloud services
Serving dynamic content over the CDN
Conclusions
Why use a CDN?
How browsers work...
Request fetching <html>
Download CSS
Download images
Download JavaScript
Download Google Analytics
Finite # of concurrent requests per host (and in
total)!
Bundling/minification
Use multiple hosts
How browsers work...
Browser # connections / host Max # connections
Chrome 32 6 10
Firefox 26 6 17
IE 9 6 35
IE 10 8 16
IE 11 13 17
Safari 7 6 17
Android 4 6 17
IEMobile 9 6 60
http://www.browserscope.org/?category=network
Why care? I use bundling and minification!
Speed of light and TCP don’t like each other
US East – US West = 7400 km
or 25 ms at speed of light (299792,458 km/second in a vacuum)
or 37 ms through fiber optics (66% of SoL, glass refraction index 1.5)
TCP request/response, ACK request/response
double that 37 ms, add some compute: ~90 ms US East to West
Theoretical max. packet size is 64 kB
usually +/- 1500 bytes (MTU)
TCP slow start
http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/07/13/velocity
-tcp-and-the-lower-bound-of-web-performance/
Combine TCP slow start and fiber optics
US East – US West
~90ms + TCP slow start
256 kB ~ 10 TCP roundtrips
that 90 ms becomes 900 ms...
http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/07/13/velocity
-tcp-and-the-lower-bound-of-web-performance/
Cost of web load
Serving static files costs CPU
Full IIS pipeline for a tiny static file
Serving static files costs I/O
Files have to be copied from file stream to response stream
Why do this? Why not let the server handle our dynamic content?
Cookies!
Request/response cycle adds the cookie
Even for a 1 kB PNG
So there are some problems on the
Internet...
Browsers / connections
Speed of light / TCP slow start
Cost of web load (CPU, I/O and cookies)
“The Internet sucks and
so does your server.”
- Andy Cross - @andybareweb
Workarounds!
Browsers / connections
Serve some content off a different hostname
Speed of light / TCP slow start
Move content closer to the user
Cost of web load (CPU, I/O and cookies)
Serve off a cookieless domain
Move content off the web server and let someone else handle it
The Azure CDN
The Azure CDN
Serve content from storage / cloud service
Separate hostname (custom domain possible)
Many locations around the globe
DNS anycast to get content close to user
CDN locations (April 1st, 2014)
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/azure/gg680302.aspx
How it works: no CDN
How it works: with CDN
Demo
Creating a CDN endpoint
What did we just do?
First request
Second request (on same endpoint)
yawn!
How to use this in real life?
Create one/more public blob containers
Upload static files in there (CSS, images, scripts, ...)
Update your application to the new URLs
Demo
An application with a CDN endpoint
How to delete content from the CDN?
Read a book or 2 and wait  (7 days default...)
Think about this upfront!
If you know expiry, set the Cache-Control header (shorter = more
updates)
If you don’t, use versioning in query strings
Better: use both
Versioning
Enable query strings on the CDN endpoint
Use a query string with a meaningful version
number
CDN will keep a cache per URL per query string
/foo/bar?v=1
/foo/bar?v=2
/foo/bar?v=3
Cloud services will make life easier
We had to “manually” upload content to storage
May be good, may be cumbersome, depends!
Would be nice if we could “deploy and forget”
Set a cloud service as the CDN origin
Will serve all content from /cdn URL
Same cache-control rules as with storage
Demo
Using Cloud Services as the CDN origin
Best-practices for content on the CDN
Set headers!
Cache-Control
Content-Type
Content-Encoding
Version content!
HTTP compression on origin = HTTP compression
on CDN
Serving
dynamic
content
Defining “dynamic content”
Content that is generated
Parameters from query string, ASP.NET routing, ...
And/or based on data
Content that refreshes, but not too often
Anything > a couple of minutes
Examples
Charts, images, generated documents, json, API’s, ...
Demo
Serving dynamic content
Conclusions
Conclusions
Why use a CDN?
The Azure CDN
Blob containers
Cloud services
Serving dynamic content over the CDN
What have we learned?
Thank you!
http://blog.maartenballiauw.be
@maartenballiauw
http://amzn.to/pronuget
Reducing latency on the web with the Azure CDN - DevSum - SWAG

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Reducing latency on the web with the Azure CDN - DevSum - SWAG

  • 1. Reducing latency on the web with the Azure CDN Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  • 2. Who am I? Maarten Balliauw Antwerp, Belgium Technical Evangelist, JetBrains Founder, MyGet AZUG Focus on web ASP.NET MVC, Azure, SignalR, ... MVP Azure & ASPInsider Big passion: Azure http://blog.maartenballiauw.be @maartenballiauw Shameless self promotion: Pro NuGet - http://amzn.to/pronuget2
  • 3. Agenda Why use a CDN? The Azure CDN Blob containers Cloud services Serving dynamic content over the CDN Conclusions
  • 4. Why use a CDN?
  • 5. How browsers work... Request fetching <html> Download CSS Download images Download JavaScript Download Google Analytics Finite # of concurrent requests per host (and in total)! Bundling/minification Use multiple hosts
  • 6. How browsers work... Browser # connections / host Max # connections Chrome 32 6 10 Firefox 26 6 17 IE 9 6 35 IE 10 8 16 IE 11 13 17 Safari 7 6 17 Android 4 6 17 IEMobile 9 6 60 http://www.browserscope.org/?category=network
  • 7. Why care? I use bundling and minification!
  • 8. Speed of light and TCP don’t like each other US East – US West = 7400 km or 25 ms at speed of light (299792,458 km/second in a vacuum) or 37 ms through fiber optics (66% of SoL, glass refraction index 1.5) TCP request/response, ACK request/response double that 37 ms, add some compute: ~90 ms US East to West Theoretical max. packet size is 64 kB usually +/- 1500 bytes (MTU) TCP slow start http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/07/13/velocity -tcp-and-the-lower-bound-of-web-performance/
  • 9. Combine TCP slow start and fiber optics US East – US West ~90ms + TCP slow start 256 kB ~ 10 TCP roundtrips that 90 ms becomes 900 ms... http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/07/13/velocity -tcp-and-the-lower-bound-of-web-performance/
  • 10. Cost of web load Serving static files costs CPU Full IIS pipeline for a tiny static file Serving static files costs I/O Files have to be copied from file stream to response stream Why do this? Why not let the server handle our dynamic content? Cookies! Request/response cycle adds the cookie Even for a 1 kB PNG
  • 11. So there are some problems on the Internet... Browsers / connections Speed of light / TCP slow start Cost of web load (CPU, I/O and cookies)
  • 12. “The Internet sucks and so does your server.” - Andy Cross - @andybareweb
  • 13. Workarounds! Browsers / connections Serve some content off a different hostname Speed of light / TCP slow start Move content closer to the user Cost of web load (CPU, I/O and cookies) Serve off a cookieless domain Move content off the web server and let someone else handle it
  • 15. The Azure CDN Serve content from storage / cloud service Separate hostname (custom domain possible) Many locations around the globe DNS anycast to get content close to user
  • 16. CDN locations (April 1st, 2014) http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/azure/gg680302.aspx
  • 17. How it works: no CDN
  • 18. How it works: with CDN
  • 20. What did we just do? First request Second request (on same endpoint) yawn!
  • 21. How to use this in real life? Create one/more public blob containers Upload static files in there (CSS, images, scripts, ...) Update your application to the new URLs
  • 22. Demo An application with a CDN endpoint
  • 23. How to delete content from the CDN? Read a book or 2 and wait  (7 days default...) Think about this upfront! If you know expiry, set the Cache-Control header (shorter = more updates) If you don’t, use versioning in query strings Better: use both
  • 24. Versioning Enable query strings on the CDN endpoint Use a query string with a meaningful version number CDN will keep a cache per URL per query string /foo/bar?v=1 /foo/bar?v=2 /foo/bar?v=3
  • 25. Cloud services will make life easier We had to “manually” upload content to storage May be good, may be cumbersome, depends! Would be nice if we could “deploy and forget” Set a cloud service as the CDN origin Will serve all content from /cdn URL Same cache-control rules as with storage
  • 26. Demo Using Cloud Services as the CDN origin
  • 27. Best-practices for content on the CDN Set headers! Cache-Control Content-Type Content-Encoding Version content! HTTP compression on origin = HTTP compression on CDN
  • 29. Defining “dynamic content” Content that is generated Parameters from query string, ASP.NET routing, ... And/or based on data Content that refreshes, but not too often Anything > a couple of minutes Examples Charts, images, generated documents, json, API’s, ...
  • 32. Conclusions Why use a CDN? The Azure CDN Blob containers Cloud services Serving dynamic content over the CDN What have we learned?