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Approaches for application
request throttling
Maarten Balliauw
@maartenballiauw
3
Agenda
Users and traffic patterns
Rate limiting and considerations
Which resources?
Which limits?
Who to limit? Who not to limit?
What when a limit is reached?
Where to limit?
4
Users...
5
MyGet
Hosted private package repository – www.myget.org
NuGet, NPM, Bower, Maven, VSIX, PHP Composer, Symbols, ...
HTTP-based
Web UI for managing things
API for various package managers
PUT/POST – Upload package
DELETE – Delete package via API
GET – Fetch metadata or binary
6
Background workers for scale
Example: package upload
PUT/POST binary and metadata to front-end
PackageAddedEvent on queue with many handlers handled on back-end
ProcessSymbols
UpdateLatestVersion
Indexing
...
8
What could possibly go wrong...
Too many downloads!
Application logic has to check credentials, subscription, quota
404’s still need that application logic...
Package managers are crazy!
Total # requests Total # 404’s % 404’s
# of packages in solution 200 800 600
# on NuGet.org 190 200 10 5%
# on MyGet feed 1 5 200 195 97,5%
# on MyGet feed 2 4 200 196 98%
# on company-internal
TeamCity
1 200 199 99,5%
11
Other examples
Web UI requests
Trying to register spam accounts
Trying to brute-force login/password reset
Trying to validate credit card numbers via a form on your site
...cost money in the cloud (e.g. per serverless execution)
Robots / Crawlers
Imagine a spider adding 20k items to a shopping cart
For us, usually fine (e.g. Googlebot by default up to 5 req/sec)
Limiting is easy with rel=“nofollow” and robots.txt crawl-delay
12
Recent, real-life example
13
Rate limiting!
(or “throttling”)
14
Rate limiting – what?
Limits # of requests in a given timeframe
Or limits bandwidth, or another resource – up to you
Helps eliminate:
Unexpected traffic patterns
Unwanted traffic patterns (e.g. script kiddie brute-force login)
Potentiallly damaging traffic patterns
(accidental and malicious)
15
Rate limit everything.
- Maarten Balliauw
16
Rate limiting – everything???
Everything that could slow down or break your application
Typically everything that depends on a scarce or external resource
CPU
Memory
Disk I/O
Database
External API
So yes, everything...
17
Let’s do this!
Database with table Events
UserIdentifier – who do we limit
ActionIdentifier – what do we limit
When – event timestamp so we can apply a query
Filter attribute
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Events WHERE UserIdentifier = <user> AND
ActionIdentifier = <action> AND When >= NOW() – X
INSERT INTO Events (<user>, <action>, NOW())
DELETE FROM Events WHERE UserIdentifier = <user> AND
ActionIdentifier = <action> AND When < NOW() – X
18
Let’s do this!
demo
19
Rate measuring
20
That database was a bad idea!
Very flexible in defining various limits or doing combinations
Very flexible in changing limits, e.g. changing the time period
The database will suffer at scale...
Every request is at least 2 – 3 queries
Constant index churn
We need to manually run DELETE to remove old events
Database size!
21
That database was a bad idea!
We created a denial of service opportunity!
SELECT, INSERT, DELETE for every request
Consider a simpler technique to limit # of operations
Ideally just a simple counter
“Buckets”
22
Quantized buckets
Create “buckets” per <identifier> and <timespan>
Use incr <bucket> on Redis and get back the current count per <timespan>
public string GetBucketName(string operation, TimeSpan timespan)
{
var bucket = Math.Floor(
DateTime.UtcNow.Ticks / timespan.TotalMilliseconds / 10000);
return $"{operation}_{bucket}";
}
Console.WriteLine(GetBucketName("someaction", TimeSpan.FromMinutes(10)));
// someaction_106062120 <-- this will be the key for +/- 10 minutes
23
Quantized buckets
Super easy and super cheap (atomic write and read on Redis, auto-expire LRU)
Not accurate... (but that may be ok)
(n-1)x2 / 10 sec
Theoretically: max. 6 / 10 sec
24
Leaky bucket
“Imagine a bucket where water is
poured in at the top and leaks from the
bottom.
If the rate at which water is poured in
exceeds the rate at which it leaks, the
bucket overflows.“
Widely used in telecommunications to deal with
bandwidth/bursts.
25
Leaky bucket
Get <delta> tokens, with maximum <count> per <timespan>
public int GetCallsLeft() {
if (_tokens < _capacity) {
var referenceTime = DateTime.UtcNow;
var delta = (int)((referenceTime - _lastRefill).Ticks / _interval.Ticks);
if (delta > 0) {
_tokens = Math.Min(_capacity, _tokens + (delta * _capacity));
_lastRefill = referenceTime;
}
}
return _tokens;
}
26
Cool! That’s it, right?
27
Deciding on limits
28
Things to decide on
Decide on the resources to limit
Decide on a sensible limit
Come up with an identifier to limit on
Decide on exceptions to the rule
29
Which resources to limit?
...
30
Rate limit everything.
- Maarten Balliauw
31
What are sensible limits?
Approach 1
1. Figure out current # of requests for a certain resource
2. Set limits
3. Get angry phone calls from customers
Approach 2
1. Figure out current # of requests for a certain resource
2. Set limits, but only log when a request would be limited
3. Analyze logs, set new limits, ...
4. Start rate limiting
5. Keep measuring
32
Will you allow bursts or not?
Laddering! Different buckets per identifier and resource...
10 requests per second can be 36000 requests per hour.
But 10 requests per second could also be 1000 requests per hour.
Bucket Operation A Operation B Operation C
Per second 10 10 100
Per minute 60 60 500
Per hour 3600 600 500
...
Steady flow of max.
10/sec
Steady flow of max.
10/sec, but only
600/hour max.
Bursts of up to 100/sec,
but only 500/hour max.
33
What will be the identifier?
Per IP address?
But what with NAT/proxy?
Per user?
But how do you limit anonymous users?
Per session?
But what when the user starts a new session for every request?
Or what if there is no such thing as a session?
Per browser?
But everyone uses Chrome!
Probably a combination of these...
34
Decide on exceptions
Do we rate limit all users? Do we have separate limits for certain users?
Dynamic limiting
Do we rate limit all IP addresses?
What about ourselves?
What about our monitoring tools?
What about web crawlers?
What about certain datacenter ranges? (https://github.com/client9/ipcat)
“IP addresses that end web consumers should not be using"
35
Responding to limits
36
What when the user hits the limit?
Do we just “black hole” and close the connection?
Do you tell the user?
API: status code 429 Too Many Requests
Web: error page stating rate limit exceeded / captcha (StackOverflow)
37
Try to always tell the user
Format? Depends on Accept header (text/html vs. application/json)
Tell them why they were throttled
Can be a simple link to API documentation
Tell them when to retry (e.g. GitHub does this even before rate limiting)
Status: 200 OK
X-RateLimit-Limit: 5000
X-RateLimit-Remaining: 4999
X-RateLimit-Reset: 1372700873
38
Where do we limit?
39
Rate limiting – where?
MvcThrottle
Runs as action filter
Requests per timespan
Per action, user, IP, ... (so knows about actions)
Owin.Limits
Runs as OWIN middleware
Bandwidth, concurrent requests, ...
No knowledge about application specifics
Many, many others
40
MvcThrottle
Demo
41
How far do we allow traffic
before saying no?
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE OPERATION
RESOURCES SPENT
42
How far do we allow traffic
before saying no?
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE OPERATION
RESOURCES SPENT
43
What options are there?
In our application
ActionFilter / Middleware / HttpModule / ...
Easy to add custom logic, based on request details
On the server
Outside of our server
Outside of our datacenter
44
What options are there?
In our application
On the server
IIS has dynamic IP restrictions, bit rate throttling, <limits />
Kestrel minimum speed throttle
Found these less flexible in terms of configuraton...
E.g. IIS dynamic IP restrictions returns 403 Forbidden, wth!
Not a big fan, as these are usually HttpModules anyway (and thus hit our app)
Outside of our server
Outside of our datacenter
45
What options are there?
In our application
On the server
Outside of our server
Reverse proxy (IIS Application Request Routing, NGinx, HAProxy, Squid, ...)
Traffic does not even hit our application server, yay!
Outside of our datacenter
46
Rate limiting with NGinx
Demo
47
What options are there?
In our application
On the server
Outside of our server
Outside of our datacenter
Azure API management, CloudFlare, ...
Filters traffic very early in the request, yay!
Often also handle DDoS attacks
Often more expensive
48
Monitor rate limiting
49
Imagine...
Your marketing team decided to bridge the physical world with the virtual:
“Use our in-store wifi to join this online contest and win!”
50
Monitor your rate limiting!
Monitor what is happening in your application
Who are we rate limiting, when, why
Allow for circuit breakers (“exceptional exceptions”)
“This flood of requests is fine for now”
51
Conclusion
52
Conclusion
Users are crazy! (unintentional)
We need rate limiting
Decide on the resources to limit (everything!)
Decide on a sensible limit (measure!)
Come up with an identifier to limit on
Decide on exceptions
What when the user reaches a limit?
Decide where in the request/response flow to limit
Monitor your rate limiting
53
Thank you!
https://blog.maartenballiauw.be
@maartenballiauw

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ConFoo Montreal - Approaches for application request throttling

  • 1. 1 Approaches for application request throttling Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  • 2. 3 Agenda Users and traffic patterns Rate limiting and considerations Which resources? Which limits? Who to limit? Who not to limit? What when a limit is reached? Where to limit?
  • 4. 5 MyGet Hosted private package repository – www.myget.org NuGet, NPM, Bower, Maven, VSIX, PHP Composer, Symbols, ... HTTP-based Web UI for managing things API for various package managers PUT/POST – Upload package DELETE – Delete package via API GET – Fetch metadata or binary
  • 5. 6 Background workers for scale Example: package upload PUT/POST binary and metadata to front-end PackageAddedEvent on queue with many handlers handled on back-end ProcessSymbols UpdateLatestVersion Indexing ...
  • 6. 8 What could possibly go wrong... Too many downloads! Application logic has to check credentials, subscription, quota 404’s still need that application logic... Package managers are crazy! Total # requests Total # 404’s % 404’s # of packages in solution 200 800 600 # on NuGet.org 190 200 10 5% # on MyGet feed 1 5 200 195 97,5% # on MyGet feed 2 4 200 196 98% # on company-internal TeamCity 1 200 199 99,5%
  • 7. 11 Other examples Web UI requests Trying to register spam accounts Trying to brute-force login/password reset Trying to validate credit card numbers via a form on your site ...cost money in the cloud (e.g. per serverless execution) Robots / Crawlers Imagine a spider adding 20k items to a shopping cart For us, usually fine (e.g. Googlebot by default up to 5 req/sec) Limiting is easy with rel=“nofollow” and robots.txt crawl-delay
  • 10. 14 Rate limiting – what? Limits # of requests in a given timeframe Or limits bandwidth, or another resource – up to you Helps eliminate: Unexpected traffic patterns Unwanted traffic patterns (e.g. script kiddie brute-force login) Potentiallly damaging traffic patterns (accidental and malicious)
  • 11. 15 Rate limit everything. - Maarten Balliauw
  • 12. 16 Rate limiting – everything??? Everything that could slow down or break your application Typically everything that depends on a scarce or external resource CPU Memory Disk I/O Database External API So yes, everything...
  • 13. 17 Let’s do this! Database with table Events UserIdentifier – who do we limit ActionIdentifier – what do we limit When – event timestamp so we can apply a query Filter attribute SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Events WHERE UserIdentifier = <user> AND ActionIdentifier = <action> AND When >= NOW() – X INSERT INTO Events (<user>, <action>, NOW()) DELETE FROM Events WHERE UserIdentifier = <user> AND ActionIdentifier = <action> AND When < NOW() – X
  • 16. 20 That database was a bad idea! Very flexible in defining various limits or doing combinations Very flexible in changing limits, e.g. changing the time period The database will suffer at scale... Every request is at least 2 – 3 queries Constant index churn We need to manually run DELETE to remove old events Database size!
  • 17. 21 That database was a bad idea! We created a denial of service opportunity! SELECT, INSERT, DELETE for every request Consider a simpler technique to limit # of operations Ideally just a simple counter “Buckets”
  • 18. 22 Quantized buckets Create “buckets” per <identifier> and <timespan> Use incr <bucket> on Redis and get back the current count per <timespan> public string GetBucketName(string operation, TimeSpan timespan) { var bucket = Math.Floor( DateTime.UtcNow.Ticks / timespan.TotalMilliseconds / 10000); return $"{operation}_{bucket}"; } Console.WriteLine(GetBucketName("someaction", TimeSpan.FromMinutes(10))); // someaction_106062120 <-- this will be the key for +/- 10 minutes
  • 19. 23 Quantized buckets Super easy and super cheap (atomic write and read on Redis, auto-expire LRU) Not accurate... (but that may be ok) (n-1)x2 / 10 sec Theoretically: max. 6 / 10 sec
  • 20. 24 Leaky bucket “Imagine a bucket where water is poured in at the top and leaks from the bottom. If the rate at which water is poured in exceeds the rate at which it leaks, the bucket overflows.“ Widely used in telecommunications to deal with bandwidth/bursts.
  • 21. 25 Leaky bucket Get <delta> tokens, with maximum <count> per <timespan> public int GetCallsLeft() { if (_tokens < _capacity) { var referenceTime = DateTime.UtcNow; var delta = (int)((referenceTime - _lastRefill).Ticks / _interval.Ticks); if (delta > 0) { _tokens = Math.Min(_capacity, _tokens + (delta * _capacity)); _lastRefill = referenceTime; } } return _tokens; }
  • 24. 28 Things to decide on Decide on the resources to limit Decide on a sensible limit Come up with an identifier to limit on Decide on exceptions to the rule
  • 25. 29 Which resources to limit? ...
  • 26. 30 Rate limit everything. - Maarten Balliauw
  • 27. 31 What are sensible limits? Approach 1 1. Figure out current # of requests for a certain resource 2. Set limits 3. Get angry phone calls from customers Approach 2 1. Figure out current # of requests for a certain resource 2. Set limits, but only log when a request would be limited 3. Analyze logs, set new limits, ... 4. Start rate limiting 5. Keep measuring
  • 28. 32 Will you allow bursts or not? Laddering! Different buckets per identifier and resource... 10 requests per second can be 36000 requests per hour. But 10 requests per second could also be 1000 requests per hour. Bucket Operation A Operation B Operation C Per second 10 10 100 Per minute 60 60 500 Per hour 3600 600 500 ... Steady flow of max. 10/sec Steady flow of max. 10/sec, but only 600/hour max. Bursts of up to 100/sec, but only 500/hour max.
  • 29. 33 What will be the identifier? Per IP address? But what with NAT/proxy? Per user? But how do you limit anonymous users? Per session? But what when the user starts a new session for every request? Or what if there is no such thing as a session? Per browser? But everyone uses Chrome! Probably a combination of these...
  • 30. 34 Decide on exceptions Do we rate limit all users? Do we have separate limits for certain users? Dynamic limiting Do we rate limit all IP addresses? What about ourselves? What about our monitoring tools? What about web crawlers? What about certain datacenter ranges? (https://github.com/client9/ipcat) “IP addresses that end web consumers should not be using"
  • 32. 36 What when the user hits the limit? Do we just “black hole” and close the connection? Do you tell the user? API: status code 429 Too Many Requests Web: error page stating rate limit exceeded / captcha (StackOverflow)
  • 33. 37 Try to always tell the user Format? Depends on Accept header (text/html vs. application/json) Tell them why they were throttled Can be a simple link to API documentation Tell them when to retry (e.g. GitHub does this even before rate limiting) Status: 200 OK X-RateLimit-Limit: 5000 X-RateLimit-Remaining: 4999 X-RateLimit-Reset: 1372700873
  • 34. 38 Where do we limit?
  • 35. 39 Rate limiting – where? MvcThrottle Runs as action filter Requests per timespan Per action, user, IP, ... (so knows about actions) Owin.Limits Runs as OWIN middleware Bandwidth, concurrent requests, ... No knowledge about application specifics Many, many others
  • 37. 41 How far do we allow traffic before saying no? KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE OPERATION RESOURCES SPENT
  • 38. 42 How far do we allow traffic before saying no? KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE OPERATION RESOURCES SPENT
  • 39. 43 What options are there? In our application ActionFilter / Middleware / HttpModule / ... Easy to add custom logic, based on request details On the server Outside of our server Outside of our datacenter
  • 40. 44 What options are there? In our application On the server IIS has dynamic IP restrictions, bit rate throttling, <limits /> Kestrel minimum speed throttle Found these less flexible in terms of configuraton... E.g. IIS dynamic IP restrictions returns 403 Forbidden, wth! Not a big fan, as these are usually HttpModules anyway (and thus hit our app) Outside of our server Outside of our datacenter
  • 41. 45 What options are there? In our application On the server Outside of our server Reverse proxy (IIS Application Request Routing, NGinx, HAProxy, Squid, ...) Traffic does not even hit our application server, yay! Outside of our datacenter
  • 42. 46 Rate limiting with NGinx Demo
  • 43. 47 What options are there? In our application On the server Outside of our server Outside of our datacenter Azure API management, CloudFlare, ... Filters traffic very early in the request, yay! Often also handle DDoS attacks Often more expensive
  • 45. 49 Imagine... Your marketing team decided to bridge the physical world with the virtual: “Use our in-store wifi to join this online contest and win!”
  • 46. 50 Monitor your rate limiting! Monitor what is happening in your application Who are we rate limiting, when, why Allow for circuit breakers (“exceptional exceptions”) “This flood of requests is fine for now”
  • 48. 52 Conclusion Users are crazy! (unintentional) We need rate limiting Decide on the resources to limit (everything!) Decide on a sensible limit (measure!) Come up with an identifier to limit on Decide on exceptions What when the user reaches a limit? Decide where in the request/response flow to limit Monitor your rate limiting

Editor's Notes

  1. https://pixabay.com
  2. https://pixabay.com/en/tires-used-tires-pfu-garbage-1846674/
  3. https://pixabay.com/en/tires-used-tires-pfu-garbage-1846674/
  4. Prerequisites: create database and make sure it works! Open demo 01 - DemoLetsDoThis.sln In Startup.cs explain adding EF context and show how EventsContext is built Next, show RateLimitFilter is applied to every request Implementation of RateLimitFilter Uses an identifier for the user (either User.Identity.Username or “anonymous” + IP address) Uses ControllerActionDescriptor to determine controller + action We then check if there are > 5 requests to this resource We always add an event to the DB – DANGEROUS!!! And drop older events Show in Fiddler, requesting: http://localhost:56983/api/hello/maarten
  5. Open MvcThrottle, in project MvcThrottle.Demo Show HomeController, show EnableThrottling attribute Run the application - http://localhost:53048/Home/About – see it in action after a few refreshes Mention we can respond to throttlign depending on the client type! Open MvcThrottleCustomFilter See filterContext.HttpContext.Request.AcceptTypes.Any(accept => accept.Contains("html")) -> custom view result Mention we can filter based on client IP In FilterConfig.cs, there is an IP whitelist of folks we never want to throttle Same goes with user agents Same goes with endpoints The REALLY nice thing: I can enable/disable per action in MVC Show BlogController REALLY NICE, throttling follows my logic The SAD thing: open 04-snapshot I did a load test – non scientific! This thing has low overhead (did a few thousand requests) but still my aplication spent 12% of its time rate limiting requests
  6. Run the nginx docker container from 05-nginx Show a few requests: http://localhost:8080/ proxies MyGet http://localhost:8080/F/googleanalyticstracker/api/v2 proxies a feed A few refreshes of http://localhost:8080/F/googleanalyticstracker/api/v2 get throttled So we proxy our app, and get to rate limit some calls, sweet! Open nginx.conf and go through some boiler-plate: Worker processes and worker connections (typically == to # cores) http section sets up a web server, we can add SSL etc here as well Under server, we define the different resources / just proxies www.myget.org and injects a header /Content proxies and caches (yay added bonus of NGinx) /F/ is where things get interesting – we limit requests to this one using “mylimit” Defines a key, names a zone, names the timespan, names the limit Can mix and match to create key: limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr$http_authorization zone=mylimit:10m rate=2r/s;