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Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in
electrical discharge machining
Alexander Goodlet & Philip Koshy
McMaster University
Canada
Cape Town
1/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Belmont
njpt.com
Flushing is arguably the
most important factor that
determines productivity
and surface quality in
EDM
Belmont
Pressure and flow rate do
not necessarily reflect the
extent of useful dielectric
flow in the working gap
2/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Jeswani (1981)
light source
photodiode
dielectric fluid
Measurement of gap contamination based on absorption of
a light beam in the dielectric fluid
3/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Frei et al. (1987)
td
V
t
dielectric fluid
test cell
Jeswani & Frei et al. did not consider the role of gas bubbles
Assessment of dielectric state in terms of average ignition time
delay for a given field intensity
4/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Imai et al. (2001)
ultrasonic tool work
gas bubbles
ultrasonic
dielectric fluid
Transmission of ultrasonic waves decreases monotonically with
an increase in the volume fraction of gas in the gap
The technique is however insensitive to metallic debris
5/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
There is a need for a technique for
the in-process monitoring of gap
flushing in EDM, which can be
easily integrated into machine tools
6/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
AE sensor
The present work demonstrates the application of acoustic
emission for the real-time quantification, monitoring and
optimization of gap flushing
gemmfg.com
7/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
The nature of acoustic emission in EDM as it relates to
fundamental process mechanisms pertinent to gap flushing
is also presented
8/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
disk electrode
workpiece
25 mm
AE sensor
feed direction
average voltage 75 V
peak current 4.4 A
polarity copper disk tool (+)
pulse on-time 154 µs
pulse off-time 37 µs
machining area 3.2 x 25.4 mm2
Rotating disk electrode
provided quantifiable and
consistent flushing
9/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
AE RMS scales
with the material
removal rate
AE has unique
information not
present in the
current signal
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.00
0 25 50 75 100 125
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
AERMS(V)currentRMS(V)
electrode peripheral speed (m/min)
MRR(mm3/min)
(a)
(b)
(c)
10/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-2
0
2
time (s)
acousticemissionsignal(V)
(a) 0.5 m/min
(b) 75 m/min
(c) 125 m/min
raw AE signal
AE bursts at
optimal speed
Pockets of time devoid of any AE
activity signify discharge instability
insignificant AE
at low speed
lower amplitude
at higher speed
11/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
frequency (kHz)
amplitude (V)
dielectric state
(a)
(b)
(c)
gap artificially
contaminated with
metallic debris
baseline
2 minutes after gap
was contaminated
Unlike the ultrasonic technique, AE is sensitive to metallic debris
in the gap
12/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
frequency (kHz)
pressure (kPa)
amplitude (V)
AE amplitude scales also with the dielectric flow pressure
13/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
AERMS(V)
current density (A/cm2)
75 m/min
14 m/min
no flushing
Optimal current density decreases when flushing is non-optimal
AE RMS is maximized at a current density of 10 A/cm2, which is a
rule of thumb used in EDM practice
14/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
-2
0
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-2
0
2
time (s)
acousticemission(V)
(a) dry
(b) wet
Melting of workpiece during dry EDM
discounted thermal origin of AE
Aligns with the finding of
Kunieda et al. (2003) that
discharges in a liquid
dielectric correspond to a
significantly higher force
relative to those in air
Acoustic emission in EDM
refers to the dynamics of
gas bubbles in the gap
15/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
2
4
time (x10−3 s)
current(A)
-2
-1
0
1
2
AEsignal(V) (a)
(b)
Not all discharges
manifest an AE burst
For 2 consecutive discharges, the
force from the 2nd discharge is
insignificant, as it occurs through
the gas bubble from the first
discharge − Kunieda et al. (2003)
Material removal rate
decreases significantly as
gas bubbles fill the gap −
Imai et al. (2001)
Hypothesis: acoustic burst relates to discharge initiated in a liquid,
as opposed to in a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface
16/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
0 25 50 75 100 125
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
#AEbursts/#ofdischarges
electrode peripheral speed (m/min)
Should the hypothesis be true, the number of
acoustic bursts per discharge should increase with
the electrode peripheral speed, as the fluid flow
expedites gas bubble evacuation from the gap …
… it does!
17/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
pulse off-time (µs)
#AEbursts/#discharges
Similarly, the number of acoustic bursts per
discharge should increase with pulse off-time,
since there is more time available for the
evacuation of gas bubbles from the gap …
… and it does again!
18/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
acousticemissionsignal(V)
time (s)
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1 (a) water dielectric
(b) water with air ingress
Similarly, introducing
air into the gap
reduces acoustic
activity significantly
This conclusively proves the hypothesis that acoustic bursts
correspond to discharges initiated in a liquid, as opposed to
those in a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface
19/20
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Since discharges initiated through a liquid are generally more
effective in removing material, acoustic emission encapsulates
valuable information on process productivity, at the scale of
single discharges
Kunieda et al. (2015)
This information is unique, as it is not as readily
obtained from the electrical waveforms
20/20
Conclusions
Acoustic emission in EDM is sensitive to gap
contamination from both metallic debris and gas bubbles
Time-averaged acoustic emission scales with the material
removal rate when flushing is varied, and is hence
applicable for on-line determination of optimal flushing
Acoustic emission constitutes a burst when the discharge
is initiated through the liquid medium, as opposed to
through a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface
Acoustic emission have great potential for complementing
electrical waveforms for process monitoring and control
65th CIRP General Assembly
Cape Town, August 26, 2015
Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining
A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
Thank you
for your kind attention!Natural Sciences & Engineering Research
Council of Canada
Canadian Network for
Research & Innovation in
Machining Technology

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Real time evaluation of gap flushing in EDM

  • 1. Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining Alexander Goodlet & Philip Koshy McMaster University Canada Cape Town
  • 2. 1/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy Belmont njpt.com Flushing is arguably the most important factor that determines productivity and surface quality in EDM Belmont Pressure and flow rate do not necessarily reflect the extent of useful dielectric flow in the working gap
  • 3. 2/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy Jeswani (1981) light source photodiode dielectric fluid Measurement of gap contamination based on absorption of a light beam in the dielectric fluid
  • 4. 3/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy Frei et al. (1987) td V t dielectric fluid test cell Jeswani & Frei et al. did not consider the role of gas bubbles Assessment of dielectric state in terms of average ignition time delay for a given field intensity
  • 5. 4/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy Imai et al. (2001) ultrasonic tool work gas bubbles ultrasonic dielectric fluid Transmission of ultrasonic waves decreases monotonically with an increase in the volume fraction of gas in the gap The technique is however insensitive to metallic debris
  • 6. 5/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy There is a need for a technique for the in-process monitoring of gap flushing in EDM, which can be easily integrated into machine tools
  • 7. 6/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy AE sensor The present work demonstrates the application of acoustic emission for the real-time quantification, monitoring and optimization of gap flushing gemmfg.com
  • 8. 7/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy The nature of acoustic emission in EDM as it relates to fundamental process mechanisms pertinent to gap flushing is also presented
  • 9. 8/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy disk electrode workpiece 25 mm AE sensor feed direction average voltage 75 V peak current 4.4 A polarity copper disk tool (+) pulse on-time 154 µs pulse off-time 37 µs machining area 3.2 x 25.4 mm2 Rotating disk electrode provided quantifiable and consistent flushing
  • 10. 9/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy AE RMS scales with the material removal rate AE has unique information not present in the current signal 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.00 0 25 50 75 100 125 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.00 AERMS(V)currentRMS(V) electrode peripheral speed (m/min) MRR(mm3/min) (a) (b) (c)
  • 11. 10/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy -2 0 2 -2 0 2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -2 0 2 time (s) acousticemissionsignal(V) (a) 0.5 m/min (b) 75 m/min (c) 125 m/min raw AE signal AE bursts at optimal speed Pockets of time devoid of any AE activity signify discharge instability insignificant AE at low speed lower amplitude at higher speed
  • 12. 11/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy frequency (kHz) amplitude (V) dielectric state (a) (b) (c) gap artificially contaminated with metallic debris baseline 2 minutes after gap was contaminated Unlike the ultrasonic technique, AE is sensitive to metallic debris in the gap
  • 13. 12/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy frequency (kHz) pressure (kPa) amplitude (V) AE amplitude scales also with the dielectric flow pressure
  • 14. 13/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 AERMS(V) current density (A/cm2) 75 m/min 14 m/min no flushing Optimal current density decreases when flushing is non-optimal AE RMS is maximized at a current density of 10 A/cm2, which is a rule of thumb used in EDM practice
  • 15. 14/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy -2 0 2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -2 0 2 time (s) acousticemission(V) (a) dry (b) wet Melting of workpiece during dry EDM discounted thermal origin of AE Aligns with the finding of Kunieda et al. (2003) that discharges in a liquid dielectric correspond to a significantly higher force relative to those in air Acoustic emission in EDM refers to the dynamics of gas bubbles in the gap
  • 16. 15/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 2 4 time (x10−3 s) current(A) -2 -1 0 1 2 AEsignal(V) (a) (b) Not all discharges manifest an AE burst For 2 consecutive discharges, the force from the 2nd discharge is insignificant, as it occurs through the gas bubble from the first discharge − Kunieda et al. (2003) Material removal rate decreases significantly as gas bubbles fill the gap − Imai et al. (2001) Hypothesis: acoustic burst relates to discharge initiated in a liquid, as opposed to in a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface
  • 17. 16/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy 0 25 50 75 100 125 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 #AEbursts/#ofdischarges electrode peripheral speed (m/min) Should the hypothesis be true, the number of acoustic bursts per discharge should increase with the electrode peripheral speed, as the fluid flow expedites gas bubble evacuation from the gap … … it does!
  • 18. 17/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 pulse off-time (µs) #AEbursts/#discharges Similarly, the number of acoustic bursts per discharge should increase with pulse off-time, since there is more time available for the evacuation of gas bubbles from the gap … … and it does again!
  • 19. 18/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 acousticemissionsignal(V) time (s) -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 (a) water dielectric (b) water with air ingress Similarly, introducing air into the gap reduces acoustic activity significantly This conclusively proves the hypothesis that acoustic bursts correspond to discharges initiated in a liquid, as opposed to those in a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface
  • 20. 19/20 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy Since discharges initiated through a liquid are generally more effective in removing material, acoustic emission encapsulates valuable information on process productivity, at the scale of single discharges Kunieda et al. (2015) This information is unique, as it is not as readily obtained from the electrical waveforms
  • 21. 20/20 Conclusions Acoustic emission in EDM is sensitive to gap contamination from both metallic debris and gas bubbles Time-averaged acoustic emission scales with the material removal rate when flushing is varied, and is hence applicable for on-line determination of optimal flushing Acoustic emission constitutes a burst when the discharge is initiated through the liquid medium, as opposed to through a gas bubble or at the gas-liquid interface Acoustic emission have great potential for complementing electrical waveforms for process monitoring and control 65th CIRP General Assembly Cape Town, August 26, 2015 Real-time evaluation of gap flushing in electrical discharge machining A. Goodlet, P. Koshy
  • 22. Thank you for your kind attention!Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada Canadian Network for Research & Innovation in Machining Technology