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Pneumatic Non-Contact Roughness
Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy
McMaster University, Canada

F. Klocke
RWTH Aachen, Germany
www.taylor-hobson.com

www.taylor-hobson.com

Development towards in-process roughness estimation
Issues with machining debris and cutting fluid
Development of a pneumatic sensor

2/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Principle of pneumatic gauging
ps air
control orifice

pb

pressure transducer
P

xi

ps
work

Back pressure pb depends on xi
Primarily quasi-static applications

pb

xi

3/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Surface porosity detection in machined castings
air

piezoelectric
pressure transducer
Menzies & Koshy (2009)

work

transducer

workpiece

cutting tool

5 mm

nozzle

Sensor integrated
into the cutting tool
holder for in-process
application, in the
presence of a flood
coolant
4/23

Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Reliability of pneumatic
gauging deteriorates as
the peak-to-valley height
of the surface exceeds
about 3 µm
Related previous work

US patent 2,417,988 (1947)

Nicolau (1937)
Hamouda (1979)
Tanner (1982)
Wang & Hsu (1987)
Woolley (1992)

Nozzle is in contact with
workpiece, and is hence
not suitable for in-process
application

US patent 7,325,445 (2004)

5/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
The present work pertains
to non-contact roughness
assessment of moving
surfaces
Roughness is related to the
frequency content of the
back pressure signal

air
frequency
decomposition
P

pb
xi

work

6/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Working principle
nozzle

7/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Experiments on plane surfaces

piezo pressure
transducer
nozzle diameter (dn)

nozzle

1.5 mm

control orifice diameter (dc) 0.84 mm
supply pressure (ps)

138 kPa

stand-off distance (xi)

50 µm

nozzle feed rate

0.4 m/min

8/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Comparison of stylus and pneumatic signals from
milled and turned surfaces of roughness 3.2 µm Ra
Height (µm)

15

milled surface

turned surface

10
5
0

stylus

-5

Voltage (V)

-10
1.0
0.5
0.0

pneumatic

-0.5
-1.0
0

2

4

6

8

Distance (mm)

10 0

2

4

6

8

10

Distance (mm)

9/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Amplitude (V)

Amplitude (µm)

Frequency domain comparison of stylus and
pneumatic signals
6

milled surface

turned surface

4

stylus
2
0
0.45
0.30

pneumatic
0.15
0.00
0

1

2

3

4

5

Frequency (mm-1)

6 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Frequency (mm-1)
10/23

Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Frequency spectra corresponding to milled surfaces
of various roughness values

5 plots shown for each roughness

??
11/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Correlation of pneumatic indices to roughness
measured using a stylus instrument
Area under the frequency plot
Amplitude of dominant frequency
1.5
Amplitude (V)

Area (V/mm)

0.45
0.30
0.15
0.00

1.0

0.5
0.0

0

3

6

9

12 15

Roughness Ra (µm)

0

3

6

9

12 15

Roughness Ra (µm)

12/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Normalized amplitude

Effect of supply pressure
9
6
3
0

0

100

200

300

400

Supply pressure (kPa)
ps
dc

air

pb

P

xi

dn
work
13/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Effect of control orifice diameter dc
Normalized amplitude

3
dc = 0.50 mm

2

experimental

dc = 0.84 mm

1
0
3

dc = 0.50 mm

2

dc = 0.84 mm

1

analytical

0

ps

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Stand-off distance (µm)

dc

air

pb

xi

dn
work
14/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Experiments on rotating cylindrical surfaces
~25 mm

30 m/min

nozzle feed rate

0.2 mm/rev

stand-off distance (xi)

50 µm

supply pressure (ps)

138 kPa

nozzle diameter (dn)
turned surface

workpiece diameter

surface speed

nozzle

1.5 mm

control orifice diameter (dc)

0.84 mm

hardness

workpiece

nozzle

quenchant

15/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Effect of increasing roughness
increasing roughness
quenched end
of Jominy specimen

Amplitude (V)

0.4

1.2 µm Ra

3.8 µm Ra

1 mm

0.3

1 mm

0.2
0.1
0.0
0

8

16 24 32 40 48
Frequency (Hz)

0

8

16 24 32 40 48
Frequency (Hz)
16/23

Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Effect of relative speed between nozzle and work
Sensor response
can be improved by
minimizing the
volume of the
variable pressure
chamber

60 m/min

0.10
100 m/min

200 m/min

0.05

Amplitude (V)

0.15

0.00

0

20

40

60

80

Frequency (Hz)
17/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Effect of application of cutting fluid

without cutting fluid

0.3

with cutting fluid

0.2

0.1

Amplitude (V)

0.4

0.0

0

8

16

24

32

40

48

Frequency (Hz)

Flood coolant application
has minimal influence on
sensor performance

18/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
20
15
10
5
0

0.1 µm Ra ground

Amplitude (mV)

0

6
4
2
0

Amplitude (mV)

Amplitude (mV)

Recent work on extension to fine surfaces

15

5

10
15
20
-1)
Frequency (mm

12

25

30

9

6

0.1 µm Ra lapped

20
15
10
5
0
0

5

pressure

25

30

4

6

2

3
0

0

23

0 24 3

6

25 9

12

26
15

18

27
21

20
24

27

21
30

1.5

Amplitude (mV)

10
15
20
Frequency (mm-1)

vibration

1.2

0.9
0.6

0.3
0.0
0

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

Frequency (1/mm)
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

24

27

22

23

24

Back pressure
signals are
noisy, and are
affected by
vibration 

30
19/23
59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Principal Components Analysis
Observations

Variables
X1

X2

X3

…

…

G1
G2

X2

L1
L2

…

t2

P
S

X3

t1

X1
20/23

Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Application of principal components analysis

Workset
Predictionset

95% limit

20
lapped

tPS[2]
t2

10
0
-10

ground

-20

Filled symbols refer
to test data not
considered when
building the model

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

t1
tPS[1]
SIMCA-P 11.5 - 5/29/2009 9:40:58 AM

21/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Conclusions
Proof-of-concept of pneumatic non-contact roughness
assessment of moving surfaces has been established
In its present state of development, the system is best
suited for in-situ process monitoring based on
appropriate calibration
The system exhibits potential for in-process application
in the presence of machining debris and cutting fluid
that generally obscure the measurement process when
using optical instruments
Future work will focus on the physics of jets impinging
on laterally moving surfaces, taking roughness into
consideration
22/23
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009
Thank you
for
your attention!

Natural Sciences & Engineering
Research Council of Canada

For more details please see: D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke, Pneumatic non-contact
roughness assessment of moving surfaces, CIRP Annals 58 (2009) 515-518.
Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces
D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke

23/23
59th CIRP General Assembly
Boston, August 26, 2009

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Pneumatic Non-Contact Roughness Assessment

  • 1. Pneumatic Non-Contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy McMaster University, Canada F. Klocke RWTH Aachen, Germany
  • 2. www.taylor-hobson.com www.taylor-hobson.com Development towards in-process roughness estimation Issues with machining debris and cutting fluid Development of a pneumatic sensor 2/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 3. Principle of pneumatic gauging ps air control orifice pb pressure transducer P xi ps work Back pressure pb depends on xi Primarily quasi-static applications pb xi 3/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 4. Surface porosity detection in machined castings air piezoelectric pressure transducer Menzies & Koshy (2009) work transducer workpiece cutting tool 5 mm nozzle Sensor integrated into the cutting tool holder for in-process application, in the presence of a flood coolant 4/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 5. Reliability of pneumatic gauging deteriorates as the peak-to-valley height of the surface exceeds about 3 µm Related previous work US patent 2,417,988 (1947) Nicolau (1937) Hamouda (1979) Tanner (1982) Wang & Hsu (1987) Woolley (1992) Nozzle is in contact with workpiece, and is hence not suitable for in-process application US patent 7,325,445 (2004) 5/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 6. The present work pertains to non-contact roughness assessment of moving surfaces Roughness is related to the frequency content of the back pressure signal air frequency decomposition P pb xi work 6/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 7. Working principle nozzle 7/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 8. Experiments on plane surfaces piezo pressure transducer nozzle diameter (dn) nozzle 1.5 mm control orifice diameter (dc) 0.84 mm supply pressure (ps) 138 kPa stand-off distance (xi) 50 µm nozzle feed rate 0.4 m/min 8/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 9. Comparison of stylus and pneumatic signals from milled and turned surfaces of roughness 3.2 µm Ra Height (µm) 15 milled surface turned surface 10 5 0 stylus -5 Voltage (V) -10 1.0 0.5 0.0 pneumatic -0.5 -1.0 0 2 4 6 8 Distance (mm) 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Distance (mm) 9/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 10. Amplitude (V) Amplitude (µm) Frequency domain comparison of stylus and pneumatic signals 6 milled surface turned surface 4 stylus 2 0 0.45 0.30 pneumatic 0.15 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency (mm-1) 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency (mm-1) 10/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 11. Frequency spectra corresponding to milled surfaces of various roughness values 5 plots shown for each roughness ?? 11/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 12. Correlation of pneumatic indices to roughness measured using a stylus instrument Area under the frequency plot Amplitude of dominant frequency 1.5 Amplitude (V) Area (V/mm) 0.45 0.30 0.15 0.00 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 Roughness Ra (µm) 0 3 6 9 12 15 Roughness Ra (µm) 12/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 13. Normalized amplitude Effect of supply pressure 9 6 3 0 0 100 200 300 400 Supply pressure (kPa) ps dc air pb P xi dn work 13/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 14. Effect of control orifice diameter dc Normalized amplitude 3 dc = 0.50 mm 2 experimental dc = 0.84 mm 1 0 3 dc = 0.50 mm 2 dc = 0.84 mm 1 analytical 0 ps 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Stand-off distance (µm) dc air pb xi dn work 14/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 15. Experiments on rotating cylindrical surfaces ~25 mm 30 m/min nozzle feed rate 0.2 mm/rev stand-off distance (xi) 50 µm supply pressure (ps) 138 kPa nozzle diameter (dn) turned surface workpiece diameter surface speed nozzle 1.5 mm control orifice diameter (dc) 0.84 mm hardness workpiece nozzle quenchant 15/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 16. Effect of increasing roughness increasing roughness quenched end of Jominy specimen Amplitude (V) 0.4 1.2 µm Ra 3.8 µm Ra 1 mm 0.3 1 mm 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 Frequency (Hz) 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 Frequency (Hz) 16/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 17. Effect of relative speed between nozzle and work Sensor response can be improved by minimizing the volume of the variable pressure chamber 60 m/min 0.10 100 m/min 200 m/min 0.05 Amplitude (V) 0.15 0.00 0 20 40 60 80 Frequency (Hz) 17/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 18. Effect of application of cutting fluid without cutting fluid 0.3 with cutting fluid 0.2 0.1 Amplitude (V) 0.4 0.0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 Frequency (Hz) Flood coolant application has minimal influence on sensor performance 18/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 19. 20 15 10 5 0 0.1 µm Ra ground Amplitude (mV) 0 6 4 2 0 Amplitude (mV) Amplitude (mV) Recent work on extension to fine surfaces 15 5 10 15 20 -1) Frequency (mm 12 25 30 9 6 0.1 µm Ra lapped 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 pressure 25 30 4 6 2 3 0 0 23 0 24 3 6 25 9 12 26 15 18 27 21 20 24 27 21 30 1.5 Amplitude (mV) 10 15 20 Frequency (mm-1) vibration 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Frequency (1/mm) Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 24 27 22 23 24 Back pressure signals are noisy, and are affected by vibration  30 19/23 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 20. Principal Components Analysis Observations Variables X1 X2 X3 … … G1 G2 X2 L1 L2 … t2 P S X3 t1 X1 20/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 21. Application of principal components analysis Workset Predictionset 95% limit 20 lapped tPS[2] t2 10 0 -10 ground -20 Filled symbols refer to test data not considered when building the model -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 t1 tPS[1] SIMCA-P 11.5 - 5/29/2009 9:40:58 AM 21/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 22. Conclusions Proof-of-concept of pneumatic non-contact roughness assessment of moving surfaces has been established In its present state of development, the system is best suited for in-situ process monitoring based on appropriate calibration The system exhibits potential for in-process application in the presence of machining debris and cutting fluid that generally obscure the measurement process when using optical instruments Future work will focus on the physics of jets impinging on laterally moving surfaces, taking roughness into consideration 22/23 Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009
  • 23. Thank you for your attention! Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada For more details please see: D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke, Pneumatic non-contact roughness assessment of moving surfaces, CIRP Annals 58 (2009) 515-518. Pneumatic Non-contact Roughness Assessment of Moving Surfaces D. Grandy, P. Koshy, F. Klocke 23/23 59th CIRP General Assembly Boston, August 26, 2009