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Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
Ramy Nastasi, Philip Koshy 
McMaster UniversityCanada 
NANTES
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
mcmachinery.com 
The objective of this 
research was to enhance productivity in electrical discharge drilling (EDD) 
The research involved 
aspects of gap flushing, and computational fluid dynamic analyses of dielectric flow 
2/20
horizontal EDM 
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Gap flushing is of critical importance in EDM processes in terms of removal rate, geometric accuracy and surface integrity 
through-tool flow 
jet flushing 
jump EDM 
orbital EDM 
Reuleaux kinematics 
3/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Computational fluid dynamics software are being widely used for modelling fluid flow in EDM 
Wang & Han (2014) 
Simulation of debris transport 
4/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Cetin et al. (2004) 
Flow fields in jump EDM 
5/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Okada et al. (2009) 
Flow analysis in wire EDM 
6/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
In EDD, at low rotational speeds, fluid in the frontal gap 
flows along concentric flow patterns, which redistributes the debris without ejecting it 
frontal gap 
With increasing speed, the emergence of centrifugal 
forces drives a radial fluid outflow, but the close proximity of the lateral workpiece wall tends to recirculate the fluid 
7/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
This work examined the efficacy of introducing geometric features into cylindrical rotating tools to enhance flushing in the drilling of blind macro holes 
In particular, the emphasis was on the design, analysis 
and testing of slotted tools 
8/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Computational fluid dynamics was used as a tool to generate corresponding flow fields 
This enabled insights into experimental observations, and the assessment as well as optimization of the geometric features 
9/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Meshing of the fluid domain proved to be challenging due to the gap being small relative to tool diameter and machining depth 
Ironically this is much the same issue that renders flushing difficult 
Frontal and lateral gaps of 200 μm were assumed 
Typical computational cycle times were < 20 minutes on a desktop computer 
10/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
φ15.8 mm 
Over the entire speed range tested, the slotted tool 
outperformed the cylindrical and helical tools 
At small depths flushing is not quite an issue 
single start |22°helix angle 
machining depth < 1mm 
4 slots |2 x 1.5 mm2 
11/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
60 rpm tool speed 
For the cylindrical tool, at an aspect ratio of ~3, 
the removal rate is just 30% of that at the surface 
The 
removal rate of the slotted tool is 200% of that of the cylindrical tool 
12/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Computed flow fields highlight the distinct difference between the flow patterns of the helical and slotted tools 
ingress and egress through 
distinct channels within slot 
slotted 
ingress through lateral gap; 
egress through helical channel 
helical 
13/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Particle tracking was activated in the numerical model 
to characterize flushing effectiveness 
Flushing was quantified in terms of the steady state flux of 
particles ejected through the annular gap at the workpiece surface 
Particles were dispersed in 
the frontal gap, and their flow through and out of the lateral gap was tracked 
14/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Good linear correlation 
validates the numerical model 
Open data points that deviate the most from the linear trend correspond to combinations of extreme machining depths and tool speeds 
computed tool performance relative to arbitrary datum 
removal rates were experimentally measured over machining depths of 1-50 mm and tool speeds of 60-240 rpm (cylindrical electrodes) 
15/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Slot height wields more influence than the slot width 
This is important in order to not compromise machining power 
Bands of fluid ingress & egress are aligned along the slot height 
16/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Tool with a 
single slot is comparable to the helical tool 
More slots 
enhance tool performance 
For identical slot area & width, 
a tool with a single deep slot performs better than the one with several detached slots 
17/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
The removal rate of the tool with a single extended slot was verified experimentally to be 300% of that of a cylindrical one 
300% 
18/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Computed pressure distribution indicates the single extended slot to correspond to a higher pressure gradient 
This combined with the larger radial sweep all but eliminates recirculation near the tool center 
19/20
64th CIRP General Assembly 
Nantes, August 25, 2014 
Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling 
R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 
Conclusions 
Helical and radial slot features in cylindrical tools enhance 
flushing and removal rates in electrical discharge drilling 
Numerical flow modeling was developed to gain qualitative insights into flushing performance, and as a quantitative tool for the design, assessment and optimization of tool geometric features 
A tool with a single slot approaching the tool center related to the most effective flushing, and yielded a 300% increase in removal rate relative to that of a conventional rotating cylindrical tool, at a hole aspect ratio of just 3 
An enhancement of such magnitude was attained at just a 6% decrease in tool section area, which does not compromise the machining power that scales with the tool frontal area 
20/20
Thank you 
for your kind attention! 
Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada 
Canadian Network for 
Research & Innovation in 
Machining Technology

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Slotted tools for electrical discharge drilling

  • 1. Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling Ramy Nastasi, Philip Koshy McMaster UniversityCanada NANTES
  • 2. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy mcmachinery.com The objective of this research was to enhance productivity in electrical discharge drilling (EDD) The research involved aspects of gap flushing, and computational fluid dynamic analyses of dielectric flow 2/20
  • 3. horizontal EDM 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Gap flushing is of critical importance in EDM processes in terms of removal rate, geometric accuracy and surface integrity through-tool flow jet flushing jump EDM orbital EDM Reuleaux kinematics 3/20
  • 4. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Computational fluid dynamics software are being widely used for modelling fluid flow in EDM Wang & Han (2014) Simulation of debris transport 4/20
  • 5. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Cetin et al. (2004) Flow fields in jump EDM 5/20
  • 6. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Okada et al. (2009) Flow analysis in wire EDM 6/20
  • 7. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy In EDD, at low rotational speeds, fluid in the frontal gap flows along concentric flow patterns, which redistributes the debris without ejecting it frontal gap With increasing speed, the emergence of centrifugal forces drives a radial fluid outflow, but the close proximity of the lateral workpiece wall tends to recirculate the fluid 7/20
  • 8. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy This work examined the efficacy of introducing geometric features into cylindrical rotating tools to enhance flushing in the drilling of blind macro holes In particular, the emphasis was on the design, analysis and testing of slotted tools 8/20
  • 9. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Computational fluid dynamics was used as a tool to generate corresponding flow fields This enabled insights into experimental observations, and the assessment as well as optimization of the geometric features 9/20
  • 10. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Meshing of the fluid domain proved to be challenging due to the gap being small relative to tool diameter and machining depth Ironically this is much the same issue that renders flushing difficult Frontal and lateral gaps of 200 μm were assumed Typical computational cycle times were < 20 minutes on a desktop computer 10/20
  • 11. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy φ15.8 mm Over the entire speed range tested, the slotted tool outperformed the cylindrical and helical tools At small depths flushing is not quite an issue single start |22°helix angle machining depth < 1mm 4 slots |2 x 1.5 mm2 11/20
  • 12. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy 60 rpm tool speed For the cylindrical tool, at an aspect ratio of ~3, the removal rate is just 30% of that at the surface The removal rate of the slotted tool is 200% of that of the cylindrical tool 12/20
  • 13. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Computed flow fields highlight the distinct difference between the flow patterns of the helical and slotted tools ingress and egress through distinct channels within slot slotted ingress through lateral gap; egress through helical channel helical 13/20
  • 14. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Particle tracking was activated in the numerical model to characterize flushing effectiveness Flushing was quantified in terms of the steady state flux of particles ejected through the annular gap at the workpiece surface Particles were dispersed in the frontal gap, and their flow through and out of the lateral gap was tracked 14/20
  • 15. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Good linear correlation validates the numerical model Open data points that deviate the most from the linear trend correspond to combinations of extreme machining depths and tool speeds computed tool performance relative to arbitrary datum removal rates were experimentally measured over machining depths of 1-50 mm and tool speeds of 60-240 rpm (cylindrical electrodes) 15/20
  • 16. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Slot height wields more influence than the slot width This is important in order to not compromise machining power Bands of fluid ingress & egress are aligned along the slot height 16/20
  • 17. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Tool with a single slot is comparable to the helical tool More slots enhance tool performance For identical slot area & width, a tool with a single deep slot performs better than the one with several detached slots 17/20
  • 18. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy The removal rate of the tool with a single extended slot was verified experimentally to be 300% of that of a cylindrical one 300% 18/20
  • 19. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Computed pressure distribution indicates the single extended slot to correspond to a higher pressure gradient This combined with the larger radial sweep all but eliminates recirculation near the tool center 19/20
  • 20. 64th CIRP General Assembly Nantes, August 25, 2014 Analysis and Performance of Slotted Tools in Electrical Discharge Drilling R. Nastasi, P. Koshy Conclusions Helical and radial slot features in cylindrical tools enhance flushing and removal rates in electrical discharge drilling Numerical flow modeling was developed to gain qualitative insights into flushing performance, and as a quantitative tool for the design, assessment and optimization of tool geometric features A tool with a single slot approaching the tool center related to the most effective flushing, and yielded a 300% increase in removal rate relative to that of a conventional rotating cylindrical tool, at a hole aspect ratio of just 3 An enhancement of such magnitude was attained at just a 6% decrease in tool section area, which does not compromise the machining power that scales with the tool frontal area 20/20
  • 21. Thank you for your kind attention! Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada Canadian Network for Research & Innovation in Machining Technology