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This document discusses common problems in research such as self-fulfilling prophecy and ways to avoid it like single-blind and double-blind experiments. It provides an example of the Milgram experiment which found that 62% of participants administered painful shocks when instructed by an authority figure. It also describes the placebo effect experiment which found that 53-80% of participants reported benefits from placebo drugs.

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Hypothesis testing.pdf

This document outlines the steps in hypothesis testing using the traditional method. It defines key terms like the null hypothesis (H0), alternative hypothesis (H1), type I and type II errors. The three main types of hypothesis tests are described - two-tailed, right-tailed, and left-tailed. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to state the null and alternative hypotheses for different conjectures. The document also explains the four possible outcomes of a hypothesis test and compares the process to a jury trial.

Basics of Hypothesis Testing

- Hypothesis testing involves evaluating claims about population parameters by comparing a null hypothesis to an alternative hypothesis.
- The null hypothesis states that there is no difference or effect, while the alternative hypothesis states that a difference or effect exists.
- There are three main methods for hypothesis testing: the critical value method which separates a critical region from a noncritical region, the p-value method which calculates the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the sample test statistic assuming the null is true, and the confidence interval method which rejects claims not included in the confidence interval.
- The steps of hypothesis testing are to state the hypotheses, calculate the test statistic, find the critical value, make a decision to reject

construct and variables in research methodology

This document discusses key concepts in understanding theory, including concepts, constructs, definitions, variables, propositions, and hypotheses. It defines concepts as bundles of meanings associated with events and objects, and notes that concepts provide a common ground for understanding. Constructs are specifically invented images or ideas used for research purposes. Definitions, especially operational definitions, provide a way to measure concepts. Variables represent constructs and can take various forms, and the relationship between variables can be independent, dependent, moderating, or extraneous. Propositions make statements about observable phenomena, while hypotheses are testable statements used for empirical research. A good hypothesis guides a study, limits what is studied, and is adequate, testable, and better than alternatives.

Inferential statistics-estimation

This document discusses inferential statistics and confidence intervals. It introduces confidence intervals for a population mean using the t-distribution when the sample size is small (less than 30). When the population variance is known, the z-distribution can be used. It provides examples of how to calculate 95% and 99% confidence intervals for a population mean using the t-distribution and normal distribution. Formulas for the standard error and reliability coefficients are also presented.

Formulating hypotheses

The document discusses key concepts related to formulating and testing hypotheses, including:
- Null and alternative hypotheses, which are mutually exclusive statements tested through sample analysis.
- Type I and Type II errors that can occur when making decisions to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
- The level of significance, critical region, and test statistics used to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis.
- The differences between one-tailed and two-tailed tests, parametric vs. non-parametric tests, and one-sample vs. two-sample tests.

Scientific research

The document discusses the key hallmarks of scientific research including:
1) Purposiveness - Research is undertaken with a clear purpose and objective to identify problems or areas of inquiry.
2) Rigor - A theoretical base and sound methodology add rigor and exactitude to research.
3) Testability - Research designs formulate hypotheses, collect data, and analyze it to achieve study objectives and make findings testable and replicable.
4) Generalizability - The results of fundamental research should be applicable and acceptable to a wide range of organizations.

t-test vs ANOVA

T-test and ANOVA are statistical techniques used to test hypotheses and compare population means. The t-test is used to compare the means of two samples or groups, while ANOVA can compare the means of more than two groups. Specifically, the t-test examines whether two sample means are significantly different and assumes a normal distribution and unknown standard deviation. ANOVA compares three or more population means by assessing variation within and between groups, and assumes samples are from normally distributed populations with equal variances. Researchers should use a t-test when comparing only two means and ANOVA when comparing more than two means to avoid increasing the chances of a Type I error.

What is a Research design and its types

The document provides an overview of different types of research designs including experimental, quasi-experimental, ex-post facto, correlational, and their key features. Experimental designs aim to test hypotheses and establish causation through random assignment and manipulation of independent variables. Quasi-experimental designs are similar but do not use random assignment. Ex-post facto designs examine causes of effects that have already occurred. Correlational designs measure relationships between non-manipulated variables. Different designs have advantages for different research questions depending on feasibility and need for control.

Hypothesis testing.pdf

This document outlines the steps in hypothesis testing using the traditional method. It defines key terms like the null hypothesis (H0), alternative hypothesis (H1), type I and type II errors. The three main types of hypothesis tests are described - two-tailed, right-tailed, and left-tailed. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to state the null and alternative hypotheses for different conjectures. The document also explains the four possible outcomes of a hypothesis test and compares the process to a jury trial.

Basics of Hypothesis Testing

- Hypothesis testing involves evaluating claims about population parameters by comparing a null hypothesis to an alternative hypothesis.
- The null hypothesis states that there is no difference or effect, while the alternative hypothesis states that a difference or effect exists.
- There are three main methods for hypothesis testing: the critical value method which separates a critical region from a noncritical region, the p-value method which calculates the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the sample test statistic assuming the null is true, and the confidence interval method which rejects claims not included in the confidence interval.
- The steps of hypothesis testing are to state the hypotheses, calculate the test statistic, find the critical value, make a decision to reject

construct and variables in research methodology

This document discusses key concepts in understanding theory, including concepts, constructs, definitions, variables, propositions, and hypotheses. It defines concepts as bundles of meanings associated with events and objects, and notes that concepts provide a common ground for understanding. Constructs are specifically invented images or ideas used for research purposes. Definitions, especially operational definitions, provide a way to measure concepts. Variables represent constructs and can take various forms, and the relationship between variables can be independent, dependent, moderating, or extraneous. Propositions make statements about observable phenomena, while hypotheses are testable statements used for empirical research. A good hypothesis guides a study, limits what is studied, and is adequate, testable, and better than alternatives.

Inferential statistics-estimation

This document discusses inferential statistics and confidence intervals. It introduces confidence intervals for a population mean using the t-distribution when the sample size is small (less than 30). When the population variance is known, the z-distribution can be used. It provides examples of how to calculate 95% and 99% confidence intervals for a population mean using the t-distribution and normal distribution. Formulas for the standard error and reliability coefficients are also presented.

Formulating hypotheses

The document discusses key concepts related to formulating and testing hypotheses, including:
- Null and alternative hypotheses, which are mutually exclusive statements tested through sample analysis.
- Type I and Type II errors that can occur when making decisions to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
- The level of significance, critical region, and test statistics used to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis.
- The differences between one-tailed and two-tailed tests, parametric vs. non-parametric tests, and one-sample vs. two-sample tests.

Scientific research

The document discusses the key hallmarks of scientific research including:
1) Purposiveness - Research is undertaken with a clear purpose and objective to identify problems or areas of inquiry.
2) Rigor - A theoretical base and sound methodology add rigor and exactitude to research.
3) Testability - Research designs formulate hypotheses, collect data, and analyze it to achieve study objectives and make findings testable and replicable.
4) Generalizability - The results of fundamental research should be applicable and acceptable to a wide range of organizations.

t-test vs ANOVA

T-test and ANOVA are statistical techniques used to test hypotheses and compare population means. The t-test is used to compare the means of two samples or groups, while ANOVA can compare the means of more than two groups. Specifically, the t-test examines whether two sample means are significantly different and assumes a normal distribution and unknown standard deviation. ANOVA compares three or more population means by assessing variation within and between groups, and assumes samples are from normally distributed populations with equal variances. Researchers should use a t-test when comparing only two means and ANOVA when comparing more than two means to avoid increasing the chances of a Type I error.

What is a Research design and its types

The document provides an overview of different types of research designs including experimental, quasi-experimental, ex-post facto, correlational, and their key features. Experimental designs aim to test hypotheses and establish causation through random assignment and manipulation of independent variables. Quasi-experimental designs are similar but do not use random assignment. Ex-post facto designs examine causes of effects that have already occurred. Correlational designs measure relationships between non-manipulated variables. Different designs have advantages for different research questions depending on feasibility and need for control.

General research methodology

This document outlines the research process from start to finish. It begins by defining research as a careful investigation aimed at discovering new information or revising current understanding. It then distinguishes between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The document describes each step of the research process in detail, including refining an idea based on background research, conducting experiments or investigations, documenting work, evaluating results, and presenting findings. The overall process involves starting with an idea, investigating previous work, refining the idea, doing the core investigative work, evaluating outcomes, identifying future work, and disseminating the research.

Test of hypothesis

The document discusses hypothesis testing in research. It defines a hypothesis as a proposition that can be tested scientifically. The key points are:
- A hypothesis aims to explain a phenomenon and can be tested objectively. Common hypotheses compare two groups or variables.
- Statistical hypothesis testing involves a null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (Ha). H0 is the initial assumption being tested, while Ha is what would be accepted if H0 is rejected.
- Type I errors incorrectly reject a true null hypothesis. Type II errors fail to reject a false null hypothesis. Hypothesis tests aim to control the probability of type I errors.
- The significance level is the probability of a type I error,

Research Design

This document discusses research design and its importance. It defines research design as the arrangement of conditions for collecting and analyzing data to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures. The key parts of research design discussed are sampling design, observational design, statistical design, and operational design. A good research design considers features like means of obtaining information, researcher skills and resources, research objectives, and time and funding available. The document also covers important concepts in research design like variables, hypotheses, experimental and control groups, and treatments.

Student T - test

The t-test is used to determine if two numbers are statistically different. There are three main types of t-tests: one-sample, two-sample, and paired. The two-sample t-test examines differences between two independent groups and is calculated using a formula that considers the averages, sample sizes, and standard deviations of each group. A degrees of freedom value and critical value must also be determined. If the absolute value of the calculated t-statistic is greater than the critical value, then the difference between the groups is considered statistically significant.

Hypothesis

This document discusses hypotheses, including:
1. A hypothesis is a prediction about possible outcomes of a study used to direct research. An example hypothesis predicts staff trained in change management will cope better with organizational changes.
2. Hypotheses should explain facts, direct relevant data collection, and prevent blind searches. They clarify research goals.
3. For a hypothesis to be good, it must be clear, testable, consistent with facts, and better than alternative hypotheses.

Research methodology

This document discusses key aspects of research methodology, including:
- Defining a research problem, which refers to a difficulty a researcher wants to solve through theoretical or practical means. Important criteria include having alternatives and outcomes.
- Selecting a research problem by considering novelty, importance, resources, and other factors like time and costs.
- Developing a research design that details the means of collecting information and procedures for studying the problem based on objectives, resources, and the nature of the problem.
- Experimental design principles include replication, randomization, and control groups to test hypotheses scientifically.

types of research

There are several basic types of research:
- Descriptive research describes the state of affairs as they currently exist, while analytical research analyzes existing facts and information to make evaluations.
- Applied research aims to solve immediate problems, whereas fundamental research generalizes knowledge through pure investigation.
- Quantitative research is based on measurable quantities, while qualitative research considers non-quantifiable phenomena like motivation.
- Conceptual research deals with abstract theories, while empirical research relies on experience and observation.

Hypothesis

This document discusses hypotheses, which are statements predicting the relationship between two or more variables. Hypotheses allow theories to be tested, guide research design and data analysis, and provide context for study results. They are typically derived from prior research, theoretical frameworks, or a researcher's experiences. Constructing hypotheses brings focus and clarity to an investigation and can have outcomes of being right, partially right, or wrong based on data collection and analysis. Hypotheses are classified as simple, involving one independent and dependent variable, or complex, involving multiple variables. Guidelines for critiquing hypotheses include assessing clarity, direct ties to the research problem, inclusion of variables, and precision of research questions.

The median test

I. The median test is used to determine if two independent groups have been drawn from populations with the same median. It requires at least ordinal scale data.
II. The combined median of both groups is calculated. Scores from each group are then split based on whether they are above or below the combined median. These frequencies are entered into a 2x2 contingency table.
III. The median test statistic (chi-square) is calculated and compared to a critical value based on the significance level and degrees of freedom to determine whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis that the two groups have the same median.

Sampling distribution

This chapter discusses sampling and sampling distributions. It defines key terms like population, parameter, sample, and statistic. It also differentiates between a population and a sample. The chapter covers different sampling methods like simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling. It describes the properties of the sampling distribution of the sample mean, including its expected value and standard deviation. The chapter also explains the central limit theorem.

Research hypothesis

The document discusses hypotheses in research. It defines a hypothesis as a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Hypotheses help translate research problems into clear predictions and guide investigation. They provide objectivity, direction for data collection, and goals for researchers. Well-stated hypotheses are testable, consistent with existing knowledge, and help establish a link between theory and empirical research. Different types of hypotheses, such as simple, complex, associative, causal, directional, and null hypotheses are described. Sources for developing hypotheses include theoretical frameworks, previous research findings, literature, and experiences.

Degree of freedom

Degree of freedom refers to the number of independent pieces of information used to calculate a statistic. In an example where heights of 5 students were measured, taking a single sample of 1 student's height of 8 feet to calculate variance would have 1 degree of freedom. Taking 2 independent samples of heights 8 feet and 5 feet would have 2 degrees of freedom. When estimating the population mean from samples to then calculate variance, the degrees of freedom is the number of samples minus 1, as the values are not fully independent after estimating the mean.

Different types of distributions

This document provides an introduction to probability theory and different probability distributions. It begins with defining probability as a quantitative measure of the likelihood of events occurring. It then covers fundamental probability concepts like mutually exclusive events, additive and multiplicative laws of probability, and independent events. The document also introduces random variables and common probability distributions like the binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. It provides examples of how each distribution is used and concludes with characteristics of the normal distribution.

Business research-process

This document summarizes the key stages of the business research process:
1) Problem discovery and definition involves identifying an opportunity or issue and clearly defining the research objectives.
2) Research design determines the appropriate research method such as surveys, experiments, or secondary data analysis.
3) Data gathering involves sampling, collection of primary or secondary data.
4) Data analysis and processing interprets the findings.
5) Conclusions and reporting communicates the research results and recommendations. The goal is to reduce uncertainty and focus business decision making.

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.BP KOIRALA INSTITUTE OF HELATH SCIENCS,, NEPAL

This document provides an overview of nursing research concepts including the history of nursing research, trends in nursing research, and types of research designs. It discusses Florence Nightingale's pioneering work in the 1850s that helped establish nursing as a research-based practice. Current trends focus on areas like leadership, primary health care, education, and technology. The main types of research designs covered are experimental, quasi-experimental, qualitative, quantitative, surveys, and correlational designs.Quantitative research

The document summarizes the results of a quantitative questionnaire given to 15 people about their viewing habits and preferences related to short films. Most respondents were female, white, and between ages 15-25 or 36-45. Respondents generally watch at least one film per week and prefer horror and drama genres. They have a difficult time accessing short films and do not go out of their way to watch them regularly. Themes around inaccurate adult perceptions and underrepresentation of parents in films could provide opportunities for new short films.

Non Parametric Tests

v When to Choose a Statistical Tests OR When NOT to Choose? v Parametric vs. Non-Parametric Tests (Comparison)
v Parameters to check when Choosing a Statistical Test:
- Distribution of Data
- Type of data/Variable
- Types of Analysis (What’s the hypothesis)
- No of groups or data-sets
- Data Group Design
v Snapshot of all statistical test and “How” to Choose using above parameters v Explanation using Examples:
- Mann Whitney U Test
- Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test
- Spearman’s co-relation
- Chi-Square Test
v Conclusion

Statistical hypothesis

The document defines a hypothesis as a conjectural statement or tentative explanation about the relationship between two or more variables that can be tested. Several authors contribute definitions stating that a hypothesis makes a specific, testable prediction and must be falsifiable. Key aspects of a hypothesis include identifying variables, having explanatory power, and being testable, quantifiable, and generalizable. The document also distinguishes between statistical hypotheses about population parameters, null hypotheses being tested, and critical regions for rejecting null hypotheses based on sample data.

R M Notes

This document provides an overview of a research methodology course taught by Farha Hassan at PIMSR. The course covers key topics in research methods including defining a research problem, research design, data collection methods, data analysis techniques, and writing a research report. Reference texts for the course are also listed. The course aims to teach students the relevant concepts and steps involved in conducting research in management.

Statistics: Probability

This document introduces key concepts in probability:
- Probability is the likelihood of an event occurring, which can be measured numerically or described qualitatively.
- Events can be classified as exhaustive, favorable, mutually exclusive, equally likely, complementary, and independent.
- There are three approaches to defining probability: classical, frequency, and axiomatic. The classical approach defines probability as the number of favorable outcomes over the total number of possible outcomes. The frequency approach defines probability as the limit of the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of trials. The axiomatic approach defines probability based on axioms or statements assumed to be true.
- Key properties of probability include that the probability of an event is between 0

Problems Faced By Researcher

Researchers face several problems including a lack of time and money, lack of computerization of data, and lack of confidence from business units in sharing information. Additionally, poor library management can waste a researcher's time finding relevant materials. Researchers also struggle with distance from primary data sources and a lack of scientific training in research methodology. Timely access to published data and complete library collections can also pose issues.

Research Methodology report writing

This document outlines the steps and guidelines for writing an effective research report. It discusses analyzing the subject matter, creating an outline, drafting the report, and rewriting. It also covers formatting the bibliography, writing the final draft, and including preliminary pages, the main text with an introduction and findings, and end materials like appendices and bibliography. Finally, it provides precautions like maintaining reader interest, avoiding jargon, ensuring availability and understandability of findings, and including sources consulted.

General research methodology

This document outlines the research process from start to finish. It begins by defining research as a careful investigation aimed at discovering new information or revising current understanding. It then distinguishes between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The document describes each step of the research process in detail, including refining an idea based on background research, conducting experiments or investigations, documenting work, evaluating results, and presenting findings. The overall process involves starting with an idea, investigating previous work, refining the idea, doing the core investigative work, evaluating outcomes, identifying future work, and disseminating the research.

Test of hypothesis

The document discusses hypothesis testing in research. It defines a hypothesis as a proposition that can be tested scientifically. The key points are:
- A hypothesis aims to explain a phenomenon and can be tested objectively. Common hypotheses compare two groups or variables.
- Statistical hypothesis testing involves a null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (Ha). H0 is the initial assumption being tested, while Ha is what would be accepted if H0 is rejected.
- Type I errors incorrectly reject a true null hypothesis. Type II errors fail to reject a false null hypothesis. Hypothesis tests aim to control the probability of type I errors.
- The significance level is the probability of a type I error,

Research Design

This document discusses research design and its importance. It defines research design as the arrangement of conditions for collecting and analyzing data to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures. The key parts of research design discussed are sampling design, observational design, statistical design, and operational design. A good research design considers features like means of obtaining information, researcher skills and resources, research objectives, and time and funding available. The document also covers important concepts in research design like variables, hypotheses, experimental and control groups, and treatments.

Student T - test

The t-test is used to determine if two numbers are statistically different. There are three main types of t-tests: one-sample, two-sample, and paired. The two-sample t-test examines differences between two independent groups and is calculated using a formula that considers the averages, sample sizes, and standard deviations of each group. A degrees of freedom value and critical value must also be determined. If the absolute value of the calculated t-statistic is greater than the critical value, then the difference between the groups is considered statistically significant.

Hypothesis

This document discusses hypotheses, including:
1. A hypothesis is a prediction about possible outcomes of a study used to direct research. An example hypothesis predicts staff trained in change management will cope better with organizational changes.
2. Hypotheses should explain facts, direct relevant data collection, and prevent blind searches. They clarify research goals.
3. For a hypothesis to be good, it must be clear, testable, consistent with facts, and better than alternative hypotheses.

Research methodology

This document discusses key aspects of research methodology, including:
- Defining a research problem, which refers to a difficulty a researcher wants to solve through theoretical or practical means. Important criteria include having alternatives and outcomes.
- Selecting a research problem by considering novelty, importance, resources, and other factors like time and costs.
- Developing a research design that details the means of collecting information and procedures for studying the problem based on objectives, resources, and the nature of the problem.
- Experimental design principles include replication, randomization, and control groups to test hypotheses scientifically.

types of research

There are several basic types of research:
- Descriptive research describes the state of affairs as they currently exist, while analytical research analyzes existing facts and information to make evaluations.
- Applied research aims to solve immediate problems, whereas fundamental research generalizes knowledge through pure investigation.
- Quantitative research is based on measurable quantities, while qualitative research considers non-quantifiable phenomena like motivation.
- Conceptual research deals with abstract theories, while empirical research relies on experience and observation.

Hypothesis

This document discusses hypotheses, which are statements predicting the relationship between two or more variables. Hypotheses allow theories to be tested, guide research design and data analysis, and provide context for study results. They are typically derived from prior research, theoretical frameworks, or a researcher's experiences. Constructing hypotheses brings focus and clarity to an investigation and can have outcomes of being right, partially right, or wrong based on data collection and analysis. Hypotheses are classified as simple, involving one independent and dependent variable, or complex, involving multiple variables. Guidelines for critiquing hypotheses include assessing clarity, direct ties to the research problem, inclusion of variables, and precision of research questions.

The median test

I. The median test is used to determine if two independent groups have been drawn from populations with the same median. It requires at least ordinal scale data.
II. The combined median of both groups is calculated. Scores from each group are then split based on whether they are above or below the combined median. These frequencies are entered into a 2x2 contingency table.
III. The median test statistic (chi-square) is calculated and compared to a critical value based on the significance level and degrees of freedom to determine whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis that the two groups have the same median.

Sampling distribution

This chapter discusses sampling and sampling distributions. It defines key terms like population, parameter, sample, and statistic. It also differentiates between a population and a sample. The chapter covers different sampling methods like simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling. It describes the properties of the sampling distribution of the sample mean, including its expected value and standard deviation. The chapter also explains the central limit theorem.

Research hypothesis

The document discusses hypotheses in research. It defines a hypothesis as a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Hypotheses help translate research problems into clear predictions and guide investigation. They provide objectivity, direction for data collection, and goals for researchers. Well-stated hypotheses are testable, consistent with existing knowledge, and help establish a link between theory and empirical research. Different types of hypotheses, such as simple, complex, associative, causal, directional, and null hypotheses are described. Sources for developing hypotheses include theoretical frameworks, previous research findings, literature, and experiences.

Degree of freedom

Degree of freedom refers to the number of independent pieces of information used to calculate a statistic. In an example where heights of 5 students were measured, taking a single sample of 1 student's height of 8 feet to calculate variance would have 1 degree of freedom. Taking 2 independent samples of heights 8 feet and 5 feet would have 2 degrees of freedom. When estimating the population mean from samples to then calculate variance, the degrees of freedom is the number of samples minus 1, as the values are not fully independent after estimating the mean.

Different types of distributions

This document provides an introduction to probability theory and different probability distributions. It begins with defining probability as a quantitative measure of the likelihood of events occurring. It then covers fundamental probability concepts like mutually exclusive events, additive and multiplicative laws of probability, and independent events. The document also introduces random variables and common probability distributions like the binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions. It provides examples of how each distribution is used and concludes with characteristics of the normal distribution.

Business research-process

This document summarizes the key stages of the business research process:
1) Problem discovery and definition involves identifying an opportunity or issue and clearly defining the research objectives.
2) Research design determines the appropriate research method such as surveys, experiments, or secondary data analysis.
3) Data gathering involves sampling, collection of primary or secondary data.
4) Data analysis and processing interprets the findings.
5) Conclusions and reporting communicates the research results and recommendations. The goal is to reduce uncertainty and focus business decision making.

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.BP KOIRALA INSTITUTE OF HELATH SCIENCS,, NEPAL

This document provides an overview of nursing research concepts including the history of nursing research, trends in nursing research, and types of research designs. It discusses Florence Nightingale's pioneering work in the 1850s that helped establish nursing as a research-based practice. Current trends focus on areas like leadership, primary health care, education, and technology. The main types of research designs covered are experimental, quasi-experimental, qualitative, quantitative, surveys, and correlational designs.Quantitative research

The document summarizes the results of a quantitative questionnaire given to 15 people about their viewing habits and preferences related to short films. Most respondents were female, white, and between ages 15-25 or 36-45. Respondents generally watch at least one film per week and prefer horror and drama genres. They have a difficult time accessing short films and do not go out of their way to watch them regularly. Themes around inaccurate adult perceptions and underrepresentation of parents in films could provide opportunities for new short films.

Non Parametric Tests

v When to Choose a Statistical Tests OR When NOT to Choose? v Parametric vs. Non-Parametric Tests (Comparison)
v Parameters to check when Choosing a Statistical Test:
- Distribution of Data
- Type of data/Variable
- Types of Analysis (What’s the hypothesis)
- No of groups or data-sets
- Data Group Design
v Snapshot of all statistical test and “How” to Choose using above parameters v Explanation using Examples:
- Mann Whitney U Test
- Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test
- Spearman’s co-relation
- Chi-Square Test
v Conclusion

Statistical hypothesis

The document defines a hypothesis as a conjectural statement or tentative explanation about the relationship between two or more variables that can be tested. Several authors contribute definitions stating that a hypothesis makes a specific, testable prediction and must be falsifiable. Key aspects of a hypothesis include identifying variables, having explanatory power, and being testable, quantifiable, and generalizable. The document also distinguishes between statistical hypotheses about population parameters, null hypotheses being tested, and critical regions for rejecting null hypotheses based on sample data.

R M Notes

This document provides an overview of a research methodology course taught by Farha Hassan at PIMSR. The course covers key topics in research methods including defining a research problem, research design, data collection methods, data analysis techniques, and writing a research report. Reference texts for the course are also listed. The course aims to teach students the relevant concepts and steps involved in conducting research in management.

Statistics: Probability

This document introduces key concepts in probability:
- Probability is the likelihood of an event occurring, which can be measured numerically or described qualitatively.
- Events can be classified as exhaustive, favorable, mutually exclusive, equally likely, complementary, and independent.
- There are three approaches to defining probability: classical, frequency, and axiomatic. The classical approach defines probability as the number of favorable outcomes over the total number of possible outcomes. The frequency approach defines probability as the limit of the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of trials. The axiomatic approach defines probability based on axioms or statements assumed to be true.
- Key properties of probability include that the probability of an event is between 0

General research methodology

General research methodology

Test of hypothesis

Test of hypothesis

Research Design

Research Design

Student T - test

Student T - test

Hypothesis

Hypothesis

Research methodology

Research methodology

types of research

types of research

Hypothesis

Hypothesis

The median test

The median test

Sampling distribution

Sampling distribution

Research hypothesis

Research hypothesis

Degree of freedom

Degree of freedom

Different types of distributions

Different types of distributions

Business research-process

Business research-process

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.

basic research concepts, history, trends & types of study.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research

Non Parametric Tests

Non Parametric Tests

Statistical hypothesis

Statistical hypothesis

R M Notes

R M Notes

Statistics: Probability

Statistics: Probability

Problems Faced By Researcher

Researchers face several problems including a lack of time and money, lack of computerization of data, and lack of confidence from business units in sharing information. Additionally, poor library management can waste a researcher's time finding relevant materials. Researchers also struggle with distance from primary data sources and a lack of scientific training in research methodology. Timely access to published data and complete library collections can also pose issues.

Research Methodology report writing

This document outlines the steps and guidelines for writing an effective research report. It discusses analyzing the subject matter, creating an outline, drafting the report, and rewriting. It also covers formatting the bibliography, writing the final draft, and including preliminary pages, the main text with an introduction and findings, and end materials like appendices and bibliography. Finally, it provides precautions like maintaining reader interest, avoiding jargon, ensuring availability and understandability of findings, and including sources consulted.

Basics of Report Writing

The document provides an overview of the basics of report writing, including the purpose and elements of effective reports. It discusses determining the scope, considering the audience, gathering and analyzing information, determining solutions, and organizing the report. Key steps in report writing include defining the problem, providing background information, presenting supporting data, and stating conclusions and recommendations. The document also covers using graphics and maintaining an objective, impersonal writing style.

Ppt on research

This document provides an overview of research in management. It begins by defining research and outlining the basic steps: posing a question, collecting data to answer it, and presenting an answer. It then describes the main types of research - basic research, applied research, qualitative research, and quantitative research. Finally, it discusses the significance of research, criteria for good research, and common problems researchers face in India, such as a lack of scientific training.

Sampling Errors

This document discusses different types of errors that can occur in survey research. It defines sampling error as occurring when a sample is not truly representative of the population, and notes that sampling error decreases with more homogeneous populations and is eliminated with a census. Total error has two components: sampling error and non-sampling error. Non-sampling error includes errors from non-response, response errors, and researcher errors like incorrectly defining the target population or using a flawed sampling frame. Response errors occur when respondents provide inaccurate answers or their responses are misrecorded or misanalyzed. Researcher errors can also stem from using surrogate information instead of desired data or having measurement errors in question wording or response recording and analysis.

Research methodology (2)

This document outlines the steps for preparing a research report. It discusses including an introduction, objective methodology, summary of findings, main report with conclusions, and end matter with appendices, bibliography and index. The main text should present information in a logical sequence with sections. Charts and illustrations should only be used if they clearly present information. Calculated confidence limits and constraints must be stated. The purpose of the research report is to effectively communicate findings to others, as the research is not fully completed until the report is presented.

SAMPLING AND SAMPLING ERRORS

This document discusses various sampling methods used for data collection. It defines key terms like population, sample, parameter, and statistic. It describes probability sampling methods like simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, and multistage sampling. It also discusses non-probability sampling methods such as convenience sampling, purposive sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling, and self-selection sampling. The document concludes by explaining the different types of sampling errors like sample errors and non-sample errors.

Scientific methods of research

This document discusses the scientific method. It defines scientific methods as systematic investigations aimed at developing general knowledge about natural phenomena through objective and empirical means. The characteristics described include being orderly, attempting to control external factors, and basing findings on evidence that can be generalized. The purposes are listed as description, exploration, explanation, prediction, control, prescription, and identifying relationships. The steps outlined are selecting a topic, defining objectives and variables, stating hypotheses, designing the study, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings. Limitations discussed include ethical issues with human subjects, complexity of human behavior, measurement challenges, and difficulty controlling external variables.

Characteristics and criteria of good research

This document outlines the characteristics and criteria of good research. It defines research as the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to increase understanding. Good research is guided by a question or problem, has a clear goal and plan, and divides main problems into subproblems. It relies on collecting and interpreting data in a cyclical process. Good research clearly defines its scope, explains its process so others can reproduce it, and has a planned, objective design with ethical standards and justified conclusions. The research process involves raising a question, suggesting hypotheses, reviewing literature, acquiring data, analyzing and interpreting data, and determining if hypotheses are supported.

Report Writing - Introduction section

The document discusses the typical parts and structure of a report. It outlines the key sections as the title page, table of contents, executive summary, introduction, findings, conclusions, recommendations, bibliography/references, and appendices. It focuses on explaining the introduction section in detail. The introduction typically includes the purpose, background, method of investigation, and scope. It provides examples and emphasizes using the present tense for purpose and past tense for background. The method discusses primary and secondary sources of data.

sampling ppt

Sampling is the process of selecting a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. There are several sampling techniques including simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, and non-probability sampling. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages related to accuracy, cost, and generalizability. Proper sampling helps reduce sampling errors and increase the reliability of making inferences about the population from a sample.

Meaning and characteristics of research

This document outlines the key concepts and components of research. It defines research as the systematic study of trends or events through careful data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Some key points discussed include:
- The characteristics of good research, which include being empirical, logical, analytical, critical, and methodical.
- The qualities of a good researcher, such as being resourceful, creative, honest, and religious.
- The values of research to humanity, such as improving quality of life, instruction, and satisfying needs through new discoveries and applications.
- The different types of research like basic, applied, and developmental research.
- How research classifications include library, field, and laboratory research.

Types of Research

The document discusses various types of research including applied research, basic research, correlational research, descriptive research, ethnographic research, experimental research, and exploratory research. Applied research seeks practical solutions to problems, while basic research expands knowledge without a direct application. Correlational research examines relationships between variables without determining cause and effect. Descriptive research provides accurate portrayals of characteristics, and ethnographic research involves in-depth study of cultures. Experimental research establishes cause-and-effect through controlled manipulation of variables.

Problems Faced By Researcher

Problems Faced By Researcher

Research Methodology report writing

Research Methodology report writing

Basics of Report Writing

Basics of Report Writing

Ppt on research

Ppt on research

Sampling Errors

Sampling Errors

Research methodology (2)

Research methodology (2)

SAMPLING AND SAMPLING ERRORS

SAMPLING AND SAMPLING ERRORS

Scientific methods of research

Scientific methods of research

Characteristics and criteria of good research

Characteristics and criteria of good research

Report Writing - Introduction section

Report Writing - Introduction section

sampling ppt

sampling ppt

Meaning and characteristics of research

Meaning and characteristics of research

Types of Research

Types of Research

Methods in psychology

This document discusses various methods used in psychology, including the scientific method, descriptive methods like observation and case studies, surveys, experiments, and correlations. It provides details on how each method works, such as the steps of the scientific method and experiments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches.

Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. Early approaches included structuralism, which used introspection to study the mind, behaviorism which focused only on observable behavior, and psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud which examined the unconscious mind. Descriptive research methods like naturalistic observation, surveys, and case studies describe behavior without explaining it, while experimental methods create conditions to observe, manipulating an independent variable and measuring its effect on a dependent variable. Correlation examines the relationship between naturally occurring variables without manipulation.

Topic 11 Research methods - How do you carry out psychological research?

This document provides information about how to conduct psychological research, including defining key terms and concepts. It discusses:
- Independent and dependent variables - the variable manipulated by the researcher (independent) and the outcome measured (dependent).
- Extraneous variables that could interfere with the study if not controlled, such as situational factors or participant characteristics. Ways to control these include standardizing procedures, counterbalancing, and random assignment.
- Hypotheses for a study, including the null hypothesis which predicts no effect or relationship between variables, versus the alternative hypothesis which predicts an effect or relationship.

PSY 424 Research Paper

This study examined the effects of locus of control (internal vs. external) and feedback situation (positive vs. negative) on self-efficacy. 42 undergraduate students completed Rotter's locus of control scale and a mock quiz. They were then given either positive or negative bogus feedback about their quiz performance. The study found an interaction between locus of control, feedback situation, and resulting self-efficacy ratings. Specifically, those with an external locus of control rated their self-efficacy higher after positive feedback but lower after negative feedback, while those with an internal locus maintained consistently high self-efficacy ratings regardless of feedback. The results suggest self-efficacy can be influenced by situational factors for those with an external but not

RESEARCH VARIABLES

This document discusses research variables and their classification. It defines variables and explains that they can be qualitative or quantitative. The main types of variables discussed are independent and dependent variables, which are seen in experimental research; research variables, which are observed without manipulation in descriptive studies; demographic variables like age and gender; and extraneous variables, which are not part of the study but could influence results. Examples are provided to illustrate each variable type.

Psychology Methodology

The document outlines the key steps and components of designing a research study in psychology, including developing an aim, methodology, and analyzing findings and conclusions. It discusses developing an aim that identifies the independent and dependent variables and target population. For methodology, it describes important considerations like participants/sampling, control conditions, design, validity, and reliability. It then covers specific methodology elements like treatment and control groups, repeated measures vs independent sample designs, reliability, and threats to internal and external validity.

Psy 101 lec5

The document provides an overview of various scientific and non-scientific approaches to knowledge as well as several key research methods used in psychology, including observation, the experimental method, correlational research, surveys, case studies, and interviews. It discusses the defining characteristics, advantages, and limitations of each method.

Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

The document summarizes key concepts in psychology research methods. It defines psychology as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The four main goals of psychology are described as description, control, understanding, and prediction. Scientific methods like the scientific method, hypotheses, theories, experiments with variables, groups, and blinds are explained. Other research methods like clinical studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys are also outlined. Different types of populations studied like case studies, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional studies are defined.

Research methods revision 2015

The document outlines key concepts for research study design including experimental research methodology, variables, sampling procedures, research designs, data collection techniques, and statistics. It discusses identifying independent and dependent variables and controlling for confounding variables. It describes different sampling methods, research designs, and data collection techniques. It also explains descriptive statistics like measures of central tendency and the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics which allow testing of hypotheses and making generalizations.

Research Ethics

1. Ethical dilemmas in research occur when participants' rights and study demands conflict, requiring codes of ethics to guide researchers.
2. Major codes discussed include the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and guidelines for nursing and psychology research.
3. Key ethical principles for protecting participants include beneficence, respecting human dignity, justice, and informed consent. Researchers must consider risks of harm, confidentiality, and deception in their studies.

# 1st lect 1 intro to interventional research

This document outlines a lecture on intervention research and clinical trials. It begins by defining basic concepts like the hierarchy of evidence and different research designs. It then discusses the classical experiment, noting that it involves independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and pre-testing and post-testing. The document goes on to enumerate different types of clinical trials based on their purpose, number of participants, randomization approach, study design, and other factors. It concludes by listing the major ethical principles in clinical trials, including beneficence, respect for rights, and justice.

Chapter 1

This document provides an overview of the key concepts in psychology, including:
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It aims to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes.
- The major perspectives in psychology are psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, sociocultural, biopsychological, and evolutionary.
- Key professionals in psychology include psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, psychologists, and psychiatric social workers.
- Psychology uses scientific methods like experiments, case studies, surveys, and correlations to study behavior, though correlations do not prove causation. Experiments aim to establish cause-and-effect relationships through manipulation of independent variables.

Psychology Chapter 2

Jane Goodall observed chimpanzees in Tanzania for over 30 years using naturalistic observation. Researchers must decide on a specific question and methodology before beginning research. Samples are small groups of participants studied out of the total population. Common research methods include naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, experiments, and correlations. Ethical issues around animal research have become prominent.

Unit 2 ap power point methods and statistics

This document outlines a psychology unit on research methods, including describing the scientific method, comparing quantitative and qualitative research designs, and identifying ethical standards in human participant research. It provides an overview of key concepts and lessons to be covered, such as the different steps of the scientific method, types of variables, and common biases in psychological studies. Students are expected to understand how to apply concepts like experimental design, control groups, random assignment, and potential confounding variables when evaluating psychological research.

AQA Psychology A Level Revision Cards - Social Influence Topic

revision cards for aqa psych paper 1 social influence topic. please excuse spelling or grammar mistakes! made entirely by me using the standard year 1 textbook, for reference i achieved an a* :)

Unit2appowerpointmethodsandstatistics 150924001242-lva1-app6892

Psychologists use a variety of scientific research methods to draw reasonable conclusions about human behavior and mental processes. These include quantitative and qualitative methods as well as experimental and non-experimental designs. Psychologists are bound by ethical guidelines regarding informed consent, protection from harm, privacy, and deception when conducting research with human participants. The scientific method involves forming a hypothesis and using systematic empirical observation, experimentation, and data analysis to test the hypothesis. Common research methods include experiments, surveys, case studies, and naturalistic observation. Statistical analysis of data includes measures of central tendency, variability, and correlation to help psychologists interpret results.

Obedience ( milgram's experiment)

1) Stanley Milgram conducted a famous experiment in the 1960s where participants were instructed to administer electric shocks to a learner as part of a memory test. In reality, the learner was not actually receiving shocks.
2) Against expectations, 65% of participants administered the maximum 450 volt shock, even as the learner pleaded to be released. Participants obeyed the experimenter's instructions.
3) The experiment demonstrated people's strong tendency to obey authority figures, even when it involves harming others. However, it was criticized for creating an unethical situation and could not be conducted today.

Pscyhology methodology pp

This document outlines the key steps and considerations for designing a psychology research study, including defining the aim, determining the methodology, and establishing reliability and validity. It discusses experimental and non-experimental research designs. For the methodology, it emphasizes choosing appropriate participants and controls, such as treatment and control groups, and blind studies. Reliability depends on replicating findings across experiments, while validity measures how well a study reflects real-world situations.

experimental method.pptx

The document discusses the experimental method. It describes the steps involved in conducting an experiment, including identifying the problem, reviewing literature, formulating hypotheses, designing the experiment, conducting it, analyzing data, and presenting conclusions. Key aspects of experiments are identified, such as the experimenter, subjects (which are divided into control and experimental groups), and variables (independent and dependent). Controlled experiments use experimental and control groups to isolate the effect of the independent variable. Double-blind studies are described as protecting against biases by keeping both participants and experimenters unaware of group assignments.

Bias and confounding

This document discusses bias and confounding in epidemiological studies. It defines bias as systematic error that results in incorrect estimation of exposure-outcome associations. Selection bias and information bias are two common types of bias. Confounding occurs when another exposure is associated with both the disease and exposure being studied, independently of the exposure-disease relationship. Methods to control for confounding include restriction, matching, randomization, stratification, and multivariate analysis at the design and analysis stages of a study.

Methods in psychology

Methods in psychology

Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods

Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods

Topic 11 Research methods - How do you carry out psychological research?

Topic 11 Research methods - How do you carry out psychological research?

PSY 424 Research Paper

PSY 424 Research Paper

RESEARCH VARIABLES

RESEARCH VARIABLES

Psychology Methodology

Psychology Methodology

Psy 101 lec5

Psy 101 lec5

Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

Research methods revision 2015

Research methods revision 2015

Research Ethics

Research Ethics

# 1st lect 1 intro to interventional research

# 1st lect 1 intro to interventional research

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Psychology Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2

Unit 2 ap power point methods and statistics

Unit 2 ap power point methods and statistics

AQA Psychology A Level Revision Cards - Social Influence Topic

AQA Psychology A Level Revision Cards - Social Influence Topic

Unit2appowerpointmethodsandstatistics 150924001242-lva1-app6892

Unit2appowerpointmethodsandstatistics 150924001242-lva1-app6892

Obedience ( milgram's experiment)

Obedience ( milgram's experiment)

Pscyhology methodology pp

Pscyhology methodology pp

experimental method.pptx

experimental method.pptx

Bias and confounding

Bias and confounding

7.1 notes

The Scientific Revolution began in the 16th century due to curiosity, observation, and questioning of ancient beliefs which led to new scientific instruments, experimentation, and use of mathematics. Key developments included Copernicus formulating the heliocentric theory in 1543, Kepler creating laws of planetary motion in 1609 using models and charts, and Galileo providing proof of heliocentric theory using a telescope for observations in 1632, despite criticism from the church. These advances in astronomy, physics, anatomy, chemistry, and mathematics laid the foundation for modern science.

6.5 notes

During the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe, people believed in superstitions because they had little control over their destinies and science was primitive. Women without husbands were often targeted as witches and faced death by being burned at the stake. Forms of recreation included games, traveling shows, holidays with costumes, and poking fun at village traditions. Close-knit communities caused violence towards anyone who upset traditions or behaved oddly. Knowledge spread through printed works, traveling preachers, and primary schools as Europe transitioned from rural poverty and plague to growing populations and urbanization between 1400 and 1600.

Catholic reformation

The document discusses key figures and events of the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. It outlines Ignatius de Loyola founding the Jesuit order in 1534 to emphasize salvation through good deeds and strict obedience. Popes Paul III and Paul IV took actions like recognizing the Jesuits and establishing the Index of Forbidden Books to combat heresy, revive spirituality, and slow the spread of Protestantism. In the long run, there were many churches in Europe, more education, but remaining intolerance of new ideas and decreased papal power with stronger national governments.

John hancock

John Hancock was born in Braintree, Massachusetts in 1737. He inherited wealth and became an outspoken leader against oppressive British taxation in the colonies. As tensions increased, Hancock supported the patriot cause through boycotts, political positions, and privately advocating for demonstrations like the Boston Tea Party. During the Revolutionary War, Hancock funded the army and revolutionary movement. He signed the Declaration of Independence and served as Governor of Massachusetts, demonstrating his influential role in the founding of the United States.

Protestant reformation notes

The Protestant Reformation began in response to perceived issues within the Catholic Church, including that it had become more focused on wealth than spiritual matters, the pope had become too political, and some priests had engaged in misconduct. Martin Luther helped spark the Reformation by posting his 95 Theses criticizing the Church and certain doctrines like the selling of indulgences. He went on to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church and establish the Lutheran Church, emphasizing salvation through faith alone rather than good deeds. The Reformation then spread through the establishment of new Protestant denominations across Europe in the 1500s-1600s.

Language development

Stages of Language Development can be summarized in 3 sentences:
Infants first communicate through prelinguistic sounds like crying and cooing before learning single words to express thoughts and needs. Toddlers then move to two and three word expressions that show an awareness of basic linguistic rules. By ages 3 to 5, children start using longer sentences with grammar and can ask questions, using language similar to adults.

Northern renaissance

The document summarizes key aspects of the Northern Renaissance, including:
The printing press spread new ideas and learning through universities, higher literacy, and interest in education, while some saw books as less beautiful and scribes lost work. Northern writers like Erasmus and More were critical of the Church and governments. Northern artists like the Van Eycks captured detail and emotion in paintings, while Durer, Brueghel and Holbein created influential works in engraving, woodcuts and portraiture. Northern humanism reflected a more realistic view of society than Italian art.

Napoleon

Napoleon consolidated power in France by becoming the first consul and controlling the executive and legislative branches. He established the Napoleonic Code, Bank of France, and expanded public education. Napoleon crowned himself emperor and expanded French territory through military victories, though he eventually faced setbacks from British naval power and inspired nationalism in other countries. After multiple campaigns, the allies defeated Napoleon and restored the French monarchy under King Louis XVIII.

French republic

The document summarizes key events and developments during the French Revolution including:
1) The National Convention established a republic after ending the monarchy and executing Louis XVI.
2) Foreign threats led to the formation of the Committee of Public Safety led by Danton and Robespierre to direct the military and suppress opposition through the Revolutionary Tribunal and conscription.
3) The Reign of Terror from 1793-1794 saw the suppression of opposition through executions to quell revolts under the increasing fanaticism of Robespierre before he was arrested and executed in 1794.

French revolution

The document summarizes key events of the French Revolution including the "Great Fear" peasant uprising, the storming of the Bastille, emigres fleeing the country and plotting against the revolution, the women's march on Versailles, reforms establishing departments and elections, the Declaration of Rights of Man, the limited constitutional monarchy established in 1791, foreign invasion threatening France, and the end of the monarchy.

French revolution

The document summarizes key events of the French Revolution including the "Great Fear" peasant uprising, the storming of the Bastille prison in Paris, nobles fleeing the country, a women's march on Versailles, government reforms establishing departments and elections, the Declaration of Rights of Man, the limited constitutional monarchy established in 1791, foreign countries calling for war with France, and the monarchy being ended.

Roots of revolution

The document summarizes the political and economic conditions in France prior to the French Revolution. It describes the divisions of the three estates, with 97% of the population in the Third Estate. The Third Estate faced high taxes and lacked political power. The French monarchy accumulated large debts under several kings and was forced to call the Estates General in 1789 to approve new taxes, but the Third Estate refused to vote as one with the other estates and instead formed the National Assembly, marking the beginning of the Revolution.

7.1 notes

7.1 notes

6.5 notes

6.5 notes

Catholic reformation

Catholic reformation

John hancock

John hancock

Protestant reformation notes

Protestant reformation notes

Language development

Language development

Northern renaissance

Northern renaissance

Napoleon

Napoleon

French republic

French republic

French revolution

French revolution

French revolution

French revolution

Roots of revolution

Roots of revolution

- 1. Problems and Solutions in Research
- 2. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior Those behaviors can then influence the participant’s behavior
- 3. Two ways to avoid self- fulfilling prophecy Single Blind - an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants have received the treatment Double Blind - an experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenter know which participants receive which treatment
- 4. Milgram Experiment Hypothesis - Would participants administer painful shocks because an authority figure had instructed them to do so Independent variable - instructed to deliver shocks from authority figure Dependent variable - administer shocks and increasing the level
- 5. Design of the experiment
- 8. Participants - 200 college students and adults (told participants are studying affects or punishment on learning) Results - 62% pushed the button to the severe level. Ordinary individuals could easily inflict pain on others when instructed by an authority figure
- 9. Type of experiment - single blind criticism - deception in research and ethical principle Swarthmore college - young, liberal minded, highly educated students would not conform as the WWII generation 88%
- 10. Placebo Effect Hypothesis - If people are given and told about a certain drug then they will believe in it’s affects Independent variable - Type of drug Dependent variable - response to placebo
- 11. Participants experimental group - “new tranquilizer” “new energizer” Control group - no drugs
- 12. Results - 53% - 80% reported that they had benefitted from the drug Type of experiment - double blind

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