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Personal Best Goals
Agenda
 Context
 Experiments (incl. 2 quizzes ;) )
 Goal theories in practice
What’s a ‘goal’?
‘An internal representation of desired states.’
(Austin & Vancouver, 1988)
Outcomes, events, processesRange = [Biological set points,
complex cognitive depiction]
1990 2002 20062001 20152012
year
2011
Locke – Goal-setting (GS) theory
Elliot - Achievement goal orientation
Martin - Personal best (PB) goal
A Timeline
Goal theories prior to PB goals
Pintrich (2000,
2002) - motivation
driven goal-setting
& Self-regulated
learning (SRL)
Schunk (2002) -
Goal-setting and
self-efficacy
Situated in Organizational psychology.
Task performance focused;
Emphasize specific & difficult goals.
Situated in Psychology
Competence focused,
Emphasize task-based & self-based goals
Testing PB Goals in Education
1. Specific
2. Challenging
3. Self-referenced
4. Self-improvement based
Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d)
PB
Goals
Self-
efficacy
Intrinsic
motivation
Achievement
goal
Flow
(Csikszentmih
alyi, 1990)
Task-specific goals
situation-specific goals
(Elliot & Sheldon, 1997)
Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d)
Sample survey questions on ‘Specific goals’
Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d)
Adopted from (Martin, 2006), p811.
Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d)
Martin, A.J., 2006, p814.
First order factors
Higher-order factor
Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d)
Zone 4 Zone 1
Zone 3 Zone 2
Figure 2, Martin, A.J. 2006, p815
A proposed model & a key message
So what’s PB Goal? (1st quiz)
It ‘articulates a target performance standard that
matches or exceeds one’s previous best.’ (Liem et
al., 2012)
Situated in Organizational
psychology.
Task performance focused;
Emphasized specific & difficult
goals.
Situated in psychology
Competence focused,
Emphasized task-based & self-
based goals.
Situated in Education psychology,
Performance & self-paced
progress focused,
Emphasized ‘self’
Testing PB goal in Academic & Social
Functioning
Academic: 3 hypothesis
PB Goals -> deep learning
PB Goals -> academic flow
PB Goals -> academic buoyancy
Social: 2 hypothesis
PB Goals -> student cooperation
PB Goals -> teacher relationship
The experiment design
The results
Table 1. descriptive of survey results (Liem et al., 2012), p226
The results (cont’d)
Table 3. (Liem et al., 2012), p226
The results (cont’d)
Figure 2. (Liem et al.,
2012), p228
Academic: 3 hypothesis
PB Goals -> deep learning
PB Goals -> academic flow
PB Goals -> academic buoyancy
Social: 2 hypothesis
PB Goals -> student cooperation
PB Goals -> teacher relationship
So what do the results tell us? (2nd quiz)
Further study – mediator: persistence
Further study – mediators: gender,
group activity,
assessment
Need to couch students how to set a PB goal!
Recent research on PB goals
The role of PB & achievement goals in students’ academic
motivation and engagement (Martin & Elliot, 2015)
The role of personal best (PB) goal setting in students'
academic achievement gains (Martin & Elliot, 2016)
Elliot’s 3 by 2 achievement goal orientation
model
Fig. 1, Elliot, Murayama & Pekrun (2011), p635
Goal theories in practice
Locke’s goal-setting theory
Fig 4 (Locke & Latham, 2002), p714
What would a PB Goal tool look like?
Appendix:
Reference:
Liem, G., Ginns, P., Martin, A.J., Stone, B., & Herett, M. (2012). Personal best goals and academic and social
functioning: A longitudinal perspective. Learning and Instruction, 22, 222-230. doi:10.1016/ j.learninstruc.2011.11.003
Martin, A.J. (2006). Personal bests (PBs): A proposed multidimensional model and empirical analysis. British Journal of
Educational Psychology, 76, 803-825.
Schunk (1990) Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy During Self-Regulated Learning, Educational Psychologist, 25:1, 71-86,
DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep2501_6
Elliot, A.J., Murayama K., & Pekrun R. (2011) A 3 X 2 Achievement Goal Model, Journal of Educational Psychology,
103 (3), 632–648
Pintrich, P.R. (2000) An Achievement Goal Theory Perspective on Issues in Motivation Terminology, Theory, and
Research, Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 92–104. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1017
Martin, A.J. & Elliot, A.J. (2016) The role of personal best (PB) and dichotomous achievement goals in students’
academic motivation and engagement: a longitudinal investigation, Educational Psychology, 36:7, 1285-1302, DOI:
10.1080/01443410.2015.1093606
Martin, A.J. and Elliot, A.J. (2015) The role of personal best (PB) goal setting in students' academic achievement gains,
Learning and Individual Differences 45 (2016) 222–227
Locke, E. & Latham, G. Goal-setting theory. 1994.
Latham, S. G., & Locke, A. E. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year
odyssey. The American Psychologist.

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Presentation slides v2

  • 2. Agenda  Context  Experiments (incl. 2 quizzes ;) )  Goal theories in practice
  • 3. What’s a ‘goal’? ‘An internal representation of desired states.’ (Austin & Vancouver, 1988) Outcomes, events, processesRange = [Biological set points, complex cognitive depiction]
  • 4. 1990 2002 20062001 20152012 year 2011 Locke – Goal-setting (GS) theory Elliot - Achievement goal orientation Martin - Personal best (PB) goal A Timeline
  • 5. Goal theories prior to PB goals Pintrich (2000, 2002) - motivation driven goal-setting & Self-regulated learning (SRL) Schunk (2002) - Goal-setting and self-efficacy Situated in Organizational psychology. Task performance focused; Emphasize specific & difficult goals. Situated in Psychology Competence focused, Emphasize task-based & self-based goals
  • 6. Testing PB Goals in Education 1. Specific 2. Challenging 3. Self-referenced 4. Self-improvement based
  • 7. Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d) PB Goals Self- efficacy Intrinsic motivation Achievement goal Flow (Csikszentmih alyi, 1990) Task-specific goals situation-specific goals (Elliot & Sheldon, 1997)
  • 8. Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d) Sample survey questions on ‘Specific goals’
  • 9. Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d) Adopted from (Martin, 2006), p811.
  • 10. Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d) Martin, A.J., 2006, p814. First order factors Higher-order factor
  • 11. Testing PB Goals in Education (cont’d) Zone 4 Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Figure 2, Martin, A.J. 2006, p815
  • 12. A proposed model & a key message
  • 13. So what’s PB Goal? (1st quiz) It ‘articulates a target performance standard that matches or exceeds one’s previous best.’ (Liem et al., 2012) Situated in Organizational psychology. Task performance focused; Emphasized specific & difficult goals. Situated in psychology Competence focused, Emphasized task-based & self- based goals. Situated in Education psychology, Performance & self-paced progress focused, Emphasized ‘self’
  • 14. Testing PB goal in Academic & Social Functioning Academic: 3 hypothesis PB Goals -> deep learning PB Goals -> academic flow PB Goals -> academic buoyancy Social: 2 hypothesis PB Goals -> student cooperation PB Goals -> teacher relationship
  • 16. The results Table 1. descriptive of survey results (Liem et al., 2012), p226
  • 17. The results (cont’d) Table 3. (Liem et al., 2012), p226
  • 18. The results (cont’d) Figure 2. (Liem et al., 2012), p228
  • 19. Academic: 3 hypothesis PB Goals -> deep learning PB Goals -> academic flow PB Goals -> academic buoyancy Social: 2 hypothesis PB Goals -> student cooperation PB Goals -> teacher relationship So what do the results tell us? (2nd quiz) Further study – mediator: persistence Further study – mediators: gender, group activity, assessment Need to couch students how to set a PB goal!
  • 20. Recent research on PB goals The role of PB & achievement goals in students’ academic motivation and engagement (Martin & Elliot, 2015) The role of personal best (PB) goal setting in students' academic achievement gains (Martin & Elliot, 2016)
  • 21. Elliot’s 3 by 2 achievement goal orientation model Fig. 1, Elliot, Murayama & Pekrun (2011), p635
  • 22. Goal theories in practice
  • 23. Locke’s goal-setting theory Fig 4 (Locke & Latham, 2002), p714
  • 24. What would a PB Goal tool look like?
  • 26. Reference: Liem, G., Ginns, P., Martin, A.J., Stone, B., & Herett, M. (2012). Personal best goals and academic and social functioning: A longitudinal perspective. Learning and Instruction, 22, 222-230. doi:10.1016/ j.learninstruc.2011.11.003 Martin, A.J. (2006). Personal bests (PBs): A proposed multidimensional model and empirical analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 803-825. Schunk (1990) Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy During Self-Regulated Learning, Educational Psychologist, 25:1, 71-86, DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep2501_6 Elliot, A.J., Murayama K., & Pekrun R. (2011) A 3 X 2 Achievement Goal Model, Journal of Educational Psychology, 103 (3), 632–648 Pintrich, P.R. (2000) An Achievement Goal Theory Perspective on Issues in Motivation Terminology, Theory, and Research, Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 92–104. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1017 Martin, A.J. & Elliot, A.J. (2016) The role of personal best (PB) and dichotomous achievement goals in students’ academic motivation and engagement: a longitudinal investigation, Educational Psychology, 36:7, 1285-1302, DOI: 10.1080/01443410.2015.1093606 Martin, A.J. and Elliot, A.J. (2015) The role of personal best (PB) goal setting in students' academic achievement gains, Learning and Individual Differences 45 (2016) 222–227 Locke, E. & Latham, G. Goal-setting theory. 1994. Latham, S. G., & Locke, A. E. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey. The American Psychologist.

Editor's Notes

  1. Need to set out the context properly to identify- What the problem is? Why is looking at personal best goal relevant to addressing this problem? And in the context of this course- individual differences, how is personal best goals situated in? And what does it explain towards individual difference. If a concept is introduced, its association with personal best goals should be clearly articulated. Grit - how it can be measured Test anxiety - would we be anxious if we did not achieve our goals. Validation of quesionnaire should refer to external variables in a learning context e.g. turning up in class, learning gains in learning tasks and assessment tasks
  2. Achievement goal – the purpose for engaging in achievement behaviour
  3. Locke – talked about commitment, persistence
  4. Output of SEM, suggest the four goal factors and a PB orientation predict the other four educational measures (right) Gender & age are covariate, where female with a PB orientation are more likely to experience (the four on the right) But andrew did not stop here, he wanted to explore alternative ways to explain PB orientation. Schunk said a goal orientation is - Goal orientations are sets of behavioral intentions that influence how students approach and engage in learning activities.
  5. These factors do not fall under a linear relationship. Example – Competitively self-referenced goals are high on self-competition focus by low on clear goal focus. Multidimensional scaling- a clear goal focus and a self-competition focus
  6. Transit – andrew published a couple of papers on PB for education, then in 2012
  7. Standardized beta coefficient Shaded coefficients denote auto-regressive paths Point out the differences in time 1 & 2
  8. Transit – andrew published a couple of papers on PB for education, then in 2012
  9. How would characteristics of PB goals inform the design and delivery of these goal setting tools?