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Psychology 
Topics to be discuss: 
• Types of perception 
• Errors of perception
Types 
of 
Perception
Goal 
Myth – Perception = Sensation 
Reality – Perception ≠ Sensation
Perception 
The sorting out, 
interpretation, analysis, and 
integration of stimuli by the 
sense organs and brain.
Visual Perception 
Visual perception is one of the senses, 
consisting of the ability to detect light and 
interpret (see) it as the perception known as 
sight or naked eye vision. 
Vision has a specific sensory system, the visual 
system.
Visual Perception 
The major problem in visual perception is that 
what people see is not simply a translation of 
retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). 
Thus people interested in perception have 
long struggled to explain what visual 
processing does to create what we actually 
see.
Auditory Perception 
Auditory perception is the ability to perceive 
and understand sounds, usually with specific 
organs, such as a human's ears. Sound exists in 
the form of vibrations that travel through the air 
or through other substances. Ears detect such 
vibrations and convert them into nerve 
impulses, which are then sent to the brain 
where they can be interpreted.
Auditory Perception 
Deafness describes a condition in which 
individuals have no auditory perception; deaf 
individuals are not capable of perceiving or 
interpreting sounds. Different animals can 
perceive different sounds; dogs, for example, 
are capable of perceiving very high-pitched 
sounds that humans cannot perceive.
Gustatory Perception 
It seems that interaction between olfaction 
(smell sensation) and gustation (taste 
sensation) will stronger than other interactions 
among five senses, although no one has ever 
confirmed psychophysically.
Gustatory Perception 
In this study, we utilized synchrony perception 
task to confirm this specificity comparing 
control condition, interaction between vision 
and olfaction and one between vision and 
gustation.
Tactual Perception 
Tactual perception or is the awareness of 
physical objects through the sense of touch 
which is mediated by the somatosensory 
system.
Tactual Perception 
Touch may be considered one of five human 
senses; however, when a person touches 
something or somebody this gives rise to 
various feelings: the perception of pressure 
(hence shape, softness, texture, vibration, etc.), 
relative temperature and sometimes pain. Thus 
the term "touch" is actually the combined term 
for several senses.
The Gestalt Law of 
Organization 
A series of principles that describes 
how we organize bits and pieces of 
information into meaningful wholes.
The Gestalt Law of 
Organization 
Organizing these various bits and pieces of information into 
meaningful wholes constitutes some of the basic processes 
of perception which summed up in the gestalt law of 
organization.
The Gestalt Law of 
Organization 
Gestalt psychologists focused on how we GROUP objects together. 
We innately look at things in groups and not as isolated elements. 
Proximity (group objects that are close together as being part of 
same group) 
Similarity (objects similar in appearance are perceived as being part 
of same group) 
Continuity (objects that form a continuous form are perceived as 
same group) 
Closure (like top-down processing…we fill gaps in if we can 
recognize it)
Figure - Ground Relationship 
Our first 
perceptual 
decision is what 
is the image is 
the figure and 
what is the 
background.
Grouping & Reality 
Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, 
they may occasionally lead us astray.
Top – Down Processing 
Top-down processing refers to the use of 
contextual information in pattern recognition. 
For example, understanding difficult 
handwriting is easier when reading complete 
sentences than when reading single and 
isolated words. This is because the meaning of 
the surrounding words provide a context to 
aid understanding.
Top – Down Processing 
Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, 
w-ic- ha- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt- 
r m-ss-ng?
Top – Down Processing 
Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, w-ic- ha- ev-ry 
-hi-d l-tt-r m-ss-ng? 
Can you read this sentence, which has 
every third letter is missing?
Bottom – Up Processing 
Bottom-up processing is also known as data-driven 
processing, because perception 
begins with the stimulus itself. Processing is 
carried out in one direction from the retina to 
the visual cortex, with each successive stage 
in the visual pathway carrying out ever more 
complex analysis of the input.
Perceptual Constancy 
Phenomenon in which physical 
objects are perceived as unvarying 
and consistent despite changes in 
their appearance or in the physical 
environment.
Depth Perception 
The ability to view the world in 
three dimensions and to perceive 
distance.
Depth Perception 
• Eleanor Gibson and her Visual Cliff 
Experiment. 
• If you are old enough to crawl, you are 
old enough to see depth perception. 
• We see depth by using two cues that 
researchers have put in two categories: 
• Monocular Cues 
• Binocular Cues
Depth Perception 
Visual Cliff Experiment
Motion Perception 
Motion Perception depends on 
cues such as the perceived 
movement of an object across the 
retina and information about how 
the head and eyes are moving.
Perceptual Illusion 
Visual Illusions 
Physical stimuli that consistently 
produce errors in perception.
Extra Sensory Perception 
ESP refers to the ability to perceive stimuli 
that are outside the 5 senses 
Telepathy: the ability to read minds 
Clairvoyance: the ability to perceive objects or 
events 
Precognition: the ability to predict the future 
Psychokinesis: the ability to move objects
Errors 
Of 
perception
Illusion 
An illusion is a distortion of a sensory 
perception. Each of the human senses can 
be deceived by illusions, but visual illusions 
are the most well known. Some illusions are 
subjective; different people may 
experience an illusion differently, or not at 
all.
Any movement you see is an illusion!
Hallucination 
Hallucination, the experience of 
perceiving objects or events that do not 
have an external source, such as hearing 
one’s name called by a voice that no one 
else seems to hear. A hallucination is 
distinguished from an illusion, which is a 
misinterpretation of an actual stimulus.
Delusion 
Delusion, in psychology, a rigid system of beliefs 
with which a person is preoccupied and to which 
the person firmly holds, despite the logical 
absurdity of the beliefs and a lack of supporting 
evidence. Delusions are symptomatic of such 
mental disorders as paranoia, schizophrenia, and 
major depression and of such physiological 
conditions as senile psychosis and delirium.
Miano, Jay-Vee M. 
Psychology - Types of 
Perception and Errors 
of Perception 
 Feldman. Psychology and Your Life. 
Mc Graw Hill Companies. 2010. 
THANK 
YOU FOR 
USING THIS 
AS A 
REFERENCE

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Perception

  • 1. Psychology Topics to be discuss: • Types of perception • Errors of perception
  • 3. Goal Myth – Perception = Sensation Reality – Perception ≠ Sensation
  • 4. Perception The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain.
  • 5. Visual Perception Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. Vision has a specific sensory system, the visual system.
  • 6. Visual Perception The major problem in visual perception is that what people see is not simply a translation of retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). Thus people interested in perception have long struggled to explain what visual processing does to create what we actually see.
  • 7. Auditory Perception Auditory perception is the ability to perceive and understand sounds, usually with specific organs, such as a human's ears. Sound exists in the form of vibrations that travel through the air or through other substances. Ears detect such vibrations and convert them into nerve impulses, which are then sent to the brain where they can be interpreted.
  • 8. Auditory Perception Deafness describes a condition in which individuals have no auditory perception; deaf individuals are not capable of perceiving or interpreting sounds. Different animals can perceive different sounds; dogs, for example, are capable of perceiving very high-pitched sounds that humans cannot perceive.
  • 9. Gustatory Perception It seems that interaction between olfaction (smell sensation) and gustation (taste sensation) will stronger than other interactions among five senses, although no one has ever confirmed psychophysically.
  • 10. Gustatory Perception In this study, we utilized synchrony perception task to confirm this specificity comparing control condition, interaction between vision and olfaction and one between vision and gustation.
  • 11. Tactual Perception Tactual perception or is the awareness of physical objects through the sense of touch which is mediated by the somatosensory system.
  • 12. Tactual Perception Touch may be considered one of five human senses; however, when a person touches something or somebody this gives rise to various feelings: the perception of pressure (hence shape, softness, texture, vibration, etc.), relative temperature and sometimes pain. Thus the term "touch" is actually the combined term for several senses.
  • 13. The Gestalt Law of Organization A series of principles that describes how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  • 14. The Gestalt Law of Organization Organizing these various bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes constitutes some of the basic processes of perception which summed up in the gestalt law of organization.
  • 15. The Gestalt Law of Organization Gestalt psychologists focused on how we GROUP objects together. We innately look at things in groups and not as isolated elements. Proximity (group objects that are close together as being part of same group) Similarity (objects similar in appearance are perceived as being part of same group) Continuity (objects that form a continuous form are perceived as same group) Closure (like top-down processing…we fill gaps in if we can recognize it)
  • 16. Figure - Ground Relationship Our first perceptual decision is what is the image is the figure and what is the background.
  • 17. Grouping & Reality Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray.
  • 18.
  • 19. Top – Down Processing Top-down processing refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition. For example, understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meaning of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding.
  • 20. Top – Down Processing Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, w-ic- ha- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt- r m-ss-ng?
  • 21. Top – Down Processing Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, w-ic- ha- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt-r m-ss-ng? Can you read this sentence, which has every third letter is missing?
  • 22. Bottom – Up Processing Bottom-up processing is also known as data-driven processing, because perception begins with the stimulus itself. Processing is carried out in one direction from the retina to the visual cortex, with each successive stage in the visual pathway carrying out ever more complex analysis of the input.
  • 23. Perceptual Constancy Phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment.
  • 24. Depth Perception The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance.
  • 25. Depth Perception • Eleanor Gibson and her Visual Cliff Experiment. • If you are old enough to crawl, you are old enough to see depth perception. • We see depth by using two cues that researchers have put in two categories: • Monocular Cues • Binocular Cues
  • 26. Depth Perception Visual Cliff Experiment
  • 27. Motion Perception Motion Perception depends on cues such as the perceived movement of an object across the retina and information about how the head and eyes are moving.
  • 28. Perceptual Illusion Visual Illusions Physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception.
  • 29. Extra Sensory Perception ESP refers to the ability to perceive stimuli that are outside the 5 senses Telepathy: the ability to read minds Clairvoyance: the ability to perceive objects or events Precognition: the ability to predict the future Psychokinesis: the ability to move objects
  • 31. Illusion An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception. Each of the human senses can be deceived by illusions, but visual illusions are the most well known. Some illusions are subjective; different people may experience an illusion differently, or not at all.
  • 32. Any movement you see is an illusion!
  • 33. Hallucination Hallucination, the experience of perceiving objects or events that do not have an external source, such as hearing one’s name called by a voice that no one else seems to hear. A hallucination is distinguished from an illusion, which is a misinterpretation of an actual stimulus.
  • 34. Delusion Delusion, in psychology, a rigid system of beliefs with which a person is preoccupied and to which the person firmly holds, despite the logical absurdity of the beliefs and a lack of supporting evidence. Delusions are symptomatic of such mental disorders as paranoia, schizophrenia, and major depression and of such physiological conditions as senile psychosis and delirium.
  • 35. Miano, Jay-Vee M. Psychology - Types of Perception and Errors of Perception  Feldman. Psychology and Your Life. Mc Graw Hill Companies. 2010. THANK YOU FOR USING THIS AS A REFERENCE