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PAINTINGS OF EXTERIOR AND
INTERIOR SURFACES
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF COATINGS
 PAINTS
 STAINS
 VARNISHES
PAINTS
A SOLUTION OF A PIGMENT IN WATER, OIL, OR ORGANIC SOLVENT, USED TO COVER WOOD
OR METAL ARTICLES EITHER FOR PROTECTION OR FOR APPEARANCE
FUNCTION/PURPOSE
 AN ECONOMIC METHOD OF SURFACE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION TO BUILDING
MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS.
 AN ECONOMIC METHOD OF SURFACE DECORATION TO BUILDING MATERIALS AND
COMPONENTS
PROPERTIES OF PAINT
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF WAYS TO JUDGE PAINT QUALITY :
 WEARABILITY
 COVERING ABILITY
 EASE OF CLEANING
 PROTECTION OF THE SUBSTRATE
 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
 AESTHETIC
 PRACTICAL AND COST EFFECTIVE
PAINTS
CLASSIFICATION
ARCHITECTURAL
PAINTS
COMMERCIAL PAINTS INDUSTRIAL PAINTS
ARE AIR-DRYING
MATERIALS APPLIED BY
BRUSH OR SPRAY TO
ARCHITECTURAL AND
STRUCTURAL SURFACES
AND FORMS FOR
DECORATIVE AND
PROTECTIVE PURPOSES
AIR-DRYING OR BAKING-
CURED MATERIALS
APPLIED BY BRUSH,
SPRAY, OR MAGNETIC
AGGLOMERATION TO
KITCHEN AND LAUNDRY
APPLIANCES,
AUTOMOBILE,
MACHINERY, AND
FURNITURE AND USED AS
HIGHWAY MARKING
MATERIALS
SUBDIVIDED BY THEIR
INTENDED SERVICE:
CORROSION-RESISTANT
COATINGS, HIGH
TEMPERATURE
COATINGS, AND
COATINGS FOR
IMMERSION SERVICE
BASIC COMPONENTS OF PAINT
PIGMENTS
SOLVENTS
RESINS/BINDERS
ADDITIVES
GIVES THE PAINT A COLOUR, BUT ALSO PLAYS A ROLE IN ITS CONSISTENCY, EASE OF APPLICATION,
DRYING ABILITY, DURABILITY AND HARDNESS
“VARNISH – NO PIGMENT”
BINDER MAKES THE COAT OF PAINT RETAIN ITS STRUCTURE, AND BINDS IT TO THE SURFACE TO
WHICH IT IS APPLIED
“STAIN – NO BINDER”
SOLVENT DISSOLVES THE PAINT TO MAKE IT USABLE AT NORMAL ROOM TEMPERATURES
ADDITIVES ARE ADDED IN VERY SMALL AMOUNT AND AREUSED TO IMPROVE THE FINISHED
APPEARANCE
PIGMENT CONSTITUENTS COMMENTS
Lead White Basic Lead Carbonate Highly Poisonous
Yellow Ochre Hydrated Ferric Oxide Highly Tolerant Externally
Cadmium Yellow Cadmium Sulphide Highly Poisonous
Red Ochre Ferric Oxide An Earth Pigment
Chrome Red Basic Lead Chromate Highly Poisonous
Prussian Blue Ferric Ferrocyanide Poisonous
Cobalt Blue Cobalt Aluminate Poisonous
Zinc Green Zinc Chromate Highly Poisonous
Umber Clay W/ Iron & Mang. From Ferric Oxide
Burnt Sienna Hydrated Ferric Oxide An Earth Pigment
Lamp Black Carbon
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIGMENTS
 BINDS OR GLUES INGREDIENTS (PIGMENTS AND ADDITIVES) OF PAINT TOGETHER.
 RESIN PROVIDES ADHESION TO THE SUBSTRATE.
 RESIN PROVIDES DURABILITY & RESISTANCE PROPERTIES:
 U-V RESISTANCE
 MOISTURE RESISTANCE
 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
 STAIN RESISTANCE
 FADE RESISTANCE
 CHALK RESISTANCE
 BLOCK RESISTANCE
RESINS
 FILLERS ARE A SPECIAL TYPE OF PIGMENT THAT SERVE TO THICKEN THE FILM, SUPPORT ITS
STRUCTURE AND SIMPLY INCREASE THE VOLUME OF THE PAINT.
 FILLERS ARE USUALLY COMPRISED OF CHEAP AND INERT MATERIALS, SUCH AS TALC, LIME,
CLAY, ETC.
SOLVENTS
FILLERS
 THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE SOLVENT IS TO ADJUST THE VISCOSITY OF THE PAINT.
 WATER IS THE MAIN VEHICLE FOR WATER-BASED PAINTS.
 SOLVENT-BASED PAINTS CAN HAVE VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF SOLVENTS AS THE VEHICLE,
INCLUDING ALIPHATIC, ALCOHOLS, ETC.
 THESE INCLUDE ORGANIC SOLVENTS SUCH AS PETROLEUM DISTILLATE, ESTERS, GLYCOL
ETHERS, AND THE LIKE.
 ADDITIVES ARE MIXED IN VERY SMALL AMOUNTS AND YET GIVE A VERY SIGNIFICANT
EFFECT ON THE PRODUCT.
 ADDITIVES ARE USED BECAUSE :
 MODIFY SURFACE TENSION.
 IMPROVE FLOW PROPERTIES.
 IMPROVE THE FINISHED APPEARANCE.
 IMPROVE PIGMENT STABILITY.
 CONTROL FOAMING.
 CONTROL SKINNING.
ADDITIVES
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINT
1. ACRYLIC PAINT
2. AUTOMOTIVE PAINT
3. CONCRETE PAINT
4. EGGSHELL PAINT
5. EPOXY PAINT
5. EMULSION PAINT
6. ENAMEL PAINT
7. LATEX PAINT
8. METALLIC PAINT
9. TEXTURE PAINT
ACRYLIC PAINT
 OTTO AND ROHM INTRODUCED BY
1950’S
 FAST DRYING PAINT
 COMBINE PIGMENT AND EMULSION
 NO STRONG CHEMICAL SMELL
 AVAILABLE IN MANY VARIETIES
 WATER-BASED PAINT
AUTOMOTIVE PAINT
 FOUR TYPES SUCH AS LACQUER,
URETHANE, WATER BASED AND ENAMEL
 LACQUER GIVES SMOOTH AND GLOSSY
SHINE
 URETHANE ARE HIGHLY TOXIC, USE
SAFETY
 ENAMEL ALSO GIVES NICE GLOSSY FINISH
 WATER BASED IS NON TOXIC, BEST FOR
USE
CONCRETE PAINT
 TWO INGREDIENTS RESIN AND HARDENER
 INGREDIENTS LIME PORTLAND CEMENT
ETC.
 SAME COMPONENTS USED IN EPOXY PAINT
 RUST, CORROSION, WATERPROOF, HEAT
RESISTANT
 USED INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SURFACES
 MAINLY USED AT DRIVEWAYS, GARAGES,
ETC.
 POPULAR FOR STANDING HEAVY TRAFFIC
IN IT
EGGSHELL PAINT
 HARD WEARING EASY TO USE IN
ROOMS
 GOOD TO USED ON DOORS WINDOWS
 SLIGHTLY LUSTER COMPARE TO FLAT
FINISH
 USED IN BATHROOM, KITCHEN, KID’S
ROOM ETC.
 STRONG PAINT DIFFICULT TO DAMAGE
 DURABLE PROTECTING COATING
 WASHABLE, DIRT RESISTANT
EPOXY PAINT
 MADE FROM RESINS AND OTHER
ADDITIVES
 USED FOR HARD SURFACES SUCH AS
FLOORS, WALLS
 GIVES VERY GLOSSY SHEEN LOOK
 UV, HEAT, WATER AND CORROSIVE
RESISTANT
 TWO TYPES OF COATING
 WATERBORNE EPOXY COATING
 EPOXY POWDER COATING
EMULSION PAINT
 Made of synthetic particles, pigment,
water
 Less toxic, less voc, less harmful to
health
 Easy to apply and dry quickly
 Used for wood, metal, indoor, outdoor
 Available in many varieties such as:
 Eggshell
 Matt
 Satin etc.
ENAMEL PAINT
 USED FOR HARD, GLOSSY, AND OPAQUE
FINISH
 CLEANED BY PAINT THINNER OR
MINERAL SPIRITS
 USED IN INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR HOUSE
SURFACES
 CONTAINS HEAT RESISTANT PROPERTIES
 AVAILABLE IN WATER OR SOLVENT BASE:
 URETHANE
 POLYURETHANE
LATEX PAINT
 INVENTED IN 1940’S AT CANADA
 MADE OF RESIN USING RUBBER TREE
WITH BINDER
 LATEST SYNTHETIC BINDER USED FOR
LATEX PAINT
 CRACKING, PEELING, SCRATCHES
RESISTANT
 RESISTANT (WATER, ALKALI CLEANERS,
MILDEW)
 SYNTHETIC LATEX MADE FROM
CHEMICALS
 LATEX PAINTS ARE FAMOUS IN US
METALLIC PAINT
 ALSO CALLED AS POLYCHROMATIC,
 PAINT AVAILABLE IN MANY COLORS
 RUST RESISTANT, ANTI-CORROSION
 MODERN TECHNIQUES MAKE EASY TO
REPAINT
 METALLIC PAINT IS EXPENSIVE
 CONSISTS BASE COAT WITH LACQUER,
URETHANE
TEXTURE PAINT
 MADE FOR HOLDING TEXTURE DESIGN
 GOOD WALL DESIGNS AS COMPARE
PLANE WALLS
 RESINS AND OTHER ADDITIVES TO
TEXTURE INTACT
 UV, STAINING, CRACKING (RESISTANT)
 ALSO USED FOR OLD PANELING, WALLS,
HOLES
 TOOLS SUCH AS ROLLERS, STAMPS,
SPONGES
 EFFECTS SUCH AS STUCCO, METALLIC
AND SAND
 STAIN IS A SOLUTION OF DYE OR SUSPENSION OF PIGMENT IN A VEHICLE, APPLIED TO
PENETRATE AND COLOR A WOOD SURFACE WITHOUT OBSCURING THE GRAIN
 PENETRATING STAIN PERMEATE A WOOD SURFACE, LEAVING A VERY THIN FILM ON THE
SURFACE
STAINS
1. WATER STAIN
A PENETRATING STAIN MADE BY DISSOLVING DYE IN A WATER VEHICLE.
2. SPIRIT STAIN
A PENETRATING STAIN MADE BY DISSOLVING DYE IN AN ALCOHOL OR SPIRIT VEHICLE.
TYPES
 VARNISH IS A LIQUID PREPARATION OF A RESIN DISSOLVED IN AN OIL OR IN ALCOHOL THAT
WHEN SPREAD AND ALLOWED TO DRY FORMS A HARD, LUSTROUS AND TRANSPARENT
COATING.
 OIL BASED ARE OIL VARNISH WHILE ALCOHOL BASED ARE SPIRIT STAIN.
VARNISHES
TYPES
1. SPAR
MARINE VARNISH IS A DURABLE, WEATHER RESISTANT VARNISH MADE FROM DURABLE RESINS
AND LINSEED OR TUNG OIL.
2. POLYURETHANE
VARNISH OF EXCEPTIONALLY HARD, ABRASION RESISTANT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT VARNISH
MADE FROM PLASTIC RESIN OF THE SAME NAME.
3. LACQUER
REFERS TO ANY OF VARIOUS CLEAR OR COLORED SYNTHETIC COATINGS CONSISTING OF
NITROCELLULOSE OR OTHER CELLULOSE DERIVATIVE DISSOLVED IN A SOLVENT THAT DRIES BY
EVAPORATION TO FORM A HIGH GLOSS FILM.
4. SHELLAC
SPIRIT VARNISH MADE BY DISSOLVING PURIFIED LAC FLAKES IN DENATURED ALCOHOL.
TYPES
 DIFFERENT PAINTS HAVE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONALITIES. EACH PAINT HAS IT’S OWN INDIVIDUAL
SPECIALTY.
 SOME PAINTS ARE USED TO SMOOTHEN THE WALL TEXTURES, THESE ARE KNOWN AS PRIMERS.
PRIMERS ASSURES PAINT LONGEVITY.
 ENAMEL PAINTS ARE USED IN TEXTURES, SUBJECTED TO HEAVY WEARS. BEST USED FOR
EXTERIOR WALL PAINTINGS.
 INTERIOR PAINTS SPECIALIZES IN PAINTING THE INTERIORS OF YOUR HOUSE. PLACES LIKE YOUR
BED ROOM, KITCHEN & BATHROOM. EMULSIONS ARE BEST USES OF INTERIOR PAINTS.
 EXTERIOR PAINTS SPECIALIZES IN PAINTING THE EXTERIOR WALLS OF YOUR HOUSE. WALLS THAT
ARE MORE EXPOSED & SUBJECTED TO NATURE, WEAR & TEAR.
 OIL PAINTS ARE POPULAR FOR GLOSSY WOODWORK, DOORS, AND FURNITURE, AS WELL AS
DEMANDING SURFACES SUCH AS FLOORS.
WHY YOU NEED DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINTS
1. RAW MATERIAL : RESIN, PIGMENT AND ADDITIVE AGENTS ARE GENERALLY MAJOR
COMPONENTS OF PAINT.
2. MIXING : RESIN, PIGMENT AND SOLVENT ARE MIXED TO PRODUCE AN EVEN MILL BASE.
3. MILLING : MILL BASE PRODUCED AT THE PRE-MIXING PROCESS IS SENT TO THE
DISPERSER TO FINELY DISPERSE THE PIGMENT PARTICLES.
4. BLENDING: RESIN, ADDITIVE AGENTS AND SO ON ARE ADDED TO THE MILL
BASE, THE DISPERSION OF WHICH IS COMPLETED. ALSO, THE COLOR PHASE
IS ADJUSTED WITH COLOR MATERIALS.
5. FILTERING: BLENDED AND TONED PAINT IS FILTRATED.
6. PACKING: FILTRATED PAINT IS PACKED INTO A CONTAINER.
THE MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
If weigh
60% then
Feeder
Weigh
Mixing
Storage of mixing
Milling
If fine
material
then
Final Storage Paste
Labeling
Thinning
Packing
Start
Solvent, Driers,
Plasticizers
Additives, Binders,
Pigments & Fillers
If paste
40% then
Thinning
SludgeScreening
Filling
Storage &
Dispaching
End
No
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
PLANT OVERVIEW
 BRUSH
 SPRAY
 ROLLER
PAINTS CAN BE APPLIED BY
PREVIOUSLY PAINTED SURFACES :
 SCRAPE OFF LOOSE PAINT AND SAND SMOOTH.
 OLD, FADING PAINT MUST BE REMOVED TO
PROVIDE GOOD ADHESION FOR THE NEW COATS OF
PAINT.
 NAIL BACK LOOSE BOARDS, COUNTERSINK THE
NAIL HEADS AND FILL WITH PUTTY.
 TO PREVENT DISCOLORATION OF PAINT LATER,
SEAL KNOTS AND RESINOUS SPOTS WITH A THIN
COAT OF SHELLAC.
SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR)
NEW WOOD EXTERIORS :
 THE SURFACE MUST BE CLEAN AND DRY
 ROUGH SPOTS IN SIDING SHOULD BE SANDED SMOOTH
 ALL NEW WOOD MUST BE PRIMED
 AFTER THE PRIME COAT HAS BEEN DRIED, PUTTY AND FILL ALL NAIL HOLES AND CRACKS
 CAULK JOINT AROUND DOORS AND WINDOW FRAMES
 IF PRE-PRIMED SIDING IS HARD AND SLICK, IT SHOULD BE RE-PRIMED
SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR)
MASONRY FLOORS :
 INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR CONCRETE FLOORS MUST BE ALLOWED
TO DRY APPROXIMATELY 90 DAYS FOR PROPER AGING.
 FRESH CEMENT CONTAINS ALKALI WHICH WILL BURN PAINT.
 FLOORS SUBJECTED TO EXCESSIVE MOISTURE SEEPAGE, OR
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, CANNOT BE SUCCESSFULLY PAINTED.
METAL SURFACES:
 ALL METAL SURFACES MUST BE CLEANED AND DRY
 REMOVE ANY RUST, MILL SCALE OR LOOSE PAINT BY WIRE BRUSHING,
SANDBLASTING/SANDPAPERING
 BARE SPOTS ON SHOP-COATED STEEL MUST BE WIRE BRUSHED AND SPOT PRIMED
 REMOVE OIL AND GREASE WITH PAINT THINNER OR MINERAL SPIRITS
 NO PRIMING NECESSARY WHEN APPLYING EXTERIOR LATEX TO WEATHERED GALVANIZED
METAL
SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR)
 THE SURFACE TO BE PAINTED MUST BE CLEAN AND FREE OF
WAX, DIRT OR GREASE
 CRACKS AND HOLES MUST BE REPAIRED WITH PATCHING
PLASTER
 PATCHED AREAS MUST BE SPOT PRIMED
 OLD GLOSSY SURFACES SHOULD BE PREPARED BY SANDING
SURFACE PREPARATION (INTERIOR)
PROPER APPLICATION
 AVOID PAINTING IN THE HOT SUN. TRY TO PAINT THOSE
SURFACES THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN EXPOSED TO SUNLIGHT
 APPLY A COAT OF PAINT PRIMER
 FINISH WITH TWO-COAT OF TOP COATS
DEFECTS IN PAINTING
1. FADING:
HE GRADUAL LOSS OF COLOR IS KNOWN AS FADING. THIS MAY BE DUE TO THE EFFECT OF SUN
RAYS.
2. FLAKING OR PEELING:
DUE TO THE POOR ADHESION, PAINT MAY PEEL OFF FROM THE SURFACE.
3. BLISTERING:
THIS IS CAUSED BY WATER VAPOUR, WHICH IS TRAPPED BEHIND THE PAINTED SURFACE.
IT MAY OCCUR DUE TO IMPERFECT SEASONING OF TIMBER.
4. BLOOM:
THE FORMATION OF DULL PATCHES ON THE FINISHED SURFACE IS KNOWN AS BLOOM.
IT MAY OCCUR DUE TO BAD VENTILATION OR DEFECTIVE PAINT.
5. RUNNING:
THE PAINT RUNS BACK AND LEAVES SOME AREAS OF SURFACE UN COVERED.
THIS DEFECT OCCURS WHEN SURFACE IS TOO THICKLY PAINTED SAGGING WILL OCCUR.
6. WRINKLING:
IF THE HORIZONTAL SURFACE IS TOO THICKLY PAINTED WRINKLING WILL OCCUR.
7. FLASHING:
THE PATCHES SEEN ON THE PAINTED SURFACE IS KNOWN AS FLASHING.
IT MAY BE DUE TO POOR WORKMANSHIP, WEATHER ACTION, OR POOR QUALITY OF PAINT.
8. GRINING:
IF THE OPACITY OF THE FINAL COAT IS INSUFFICIENT, THE BACK GROUND OF THE PAINTED SURFACE
IS CLEARLY VISIBLE, THIS IS KNOWN AS GRINNING.
9. EFFLORESCENCE:
 EFFLORESCENCE OR FORMATION OF WHITE POWDERY DEPOSIT ON WALLS AFTER PAINTING IS
CAUSED DUE TO SALTS PRESENT IN THE BUILDING MATERIAL LIKE BRICK AND MORTAR, WHICH
SURFACE LATER ON.
 THE SOLUTION - GIVE A LONG TIME GAP BETWEEN PLASTERING AND PAINTING (ABOUT 6
MONTHS INCLUDING ONE MONSOON) USE PAINT WITH A POROUS FILM LIKE EMULSIONS AND
DISTEMPERS.
10. BRUSH MARKS:
 BRUSH MARKS ARE CAUSED DUE TO UNDER-THINNING OF PAINTS OR DUE TO POOR
APPLICATION OF THE FINAL COAT OF PAINT OR DUE TO POOR QUALITY BRUSH.
 THE SOLUTION - ENSURE PAINT OF THE RIGHT VISCOSITY IS APPLIED USING A GOOD BRUSH.
DEFECTS IN PAINTING
FLAKING BLISTERING
PEELING WRINKLING
LACK OF ADHESION EFFLORECENCE
BRUSH MARKS
1. CEMENT
COMPANY NAMES:- SNOWCEM, DECOCEL,
GARDCEM
450-1300RS -25KG
4 YEARS
PROCESS:- ROUGH SURFACE IS MADE
WASH WITH WATER
2COATS OF CEMENT PAINT
CURING WATER AFTER PAINT
2. ACRYLICS
 1ST QUALITY
 2ND QUALITY
8 YEARS DURABLE
COMPANY: ASIAN, NEROLAC, BURGER,
AKZONOBLE
POWDER
•OIL BOND -80KG-WITH PRIMER AND
LAMBI
•OIL PAINTS – 265RS/LT- WITH
PRIMER AND LAMBI
•PLASTIC PAINTS-275RS/LT WITH
PRIMER AND LAMBI
•LUSTER FINISH 250RS/LT
•VELVET / ROYAL 495RS/LT
EXTERIOR PAINTS
CEMENT
ACRYLICS
INTERIOR TYPES
•DRY DISTAMPLE WITHOUT PRIMER
3KG- 85RS
25KG-630RS
COST
THANK YOU!

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PAINTINGS OF EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR SURFACES

  • 1. PAINTINGS OF EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR SURFACES
  • 2. PRINCIPAL TYPES OF COATINGS  PAINTS  STAINS  VARNISHES
  • 3. PAINTS A SOLUTION OF A PIGMENT IN WATER, OIL, OR ORGANIC SOLVENT, USED TO COVER WOOD OR METAL ARTICLES EITHER FOR PROTECTION OR FOR APPEARANCE FUNCTION/PURPOSE  AN ECONOMIC METHOD OF SURFACE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION TO BUILDING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS.  AN ECONOMIC METHOD OF SURFACE DECORATION TO BUILDING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
  • 4. PROPERTIES OF PAINT THERE ARE A NUMBER OF WAYS TO JUDGE PAINT QUALITY :  WEARABILITY  COVERING ABILITY  EASE OF CLEANING  PROTECTION OF THE SUBSTRATE  ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY  AESTHETIC  PRACTICAL AND COST EFFECTIVE
  • 5. PAINTS CLASSIFICATION ARCHITECTURAL PAINTS COMMERCIAL PAINTS INDUSTRIAL PAINTS ARE AIR-DRYING MATERIALS APPLIED BY BRUSH OR SPRAY TO ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL SURFACES AND FORMS FOR DECORATIVE AND PROTECTIVE PURPOSES AIR-DRYING OR BAKING- CURED MATERIALS APPLIED BY BRUSH, SPRAY, OR MAGNETIC AGGLOMERATION TO KITCHEN AND LAUNDRY APPLIANCES, AUTOMOBILE, MACHINERY, AND FURNITURE AND USED AS HIGHWAY MARKING MATERIALS SUBDIVIDED BY THEIR INTENDED SERVICE: CORROSION-RESISTANT COATINGS, HIGH TEMPERATURE COATINGS, AND COATINGS FOR IMMERSION SERVICE
  • 7. PIGMENTS SOLVENTS RESINS/BINDERS ADDITIVES GIVES THE PAINT A COLOUR, BUT ALSO PLAYS A ROLE IN ITS CONSISTENCY, EASE OF APPLICATION, DRYING ABILITY, DURABILITY AND HARDNESS “VARNISH – NO PIGMENT” BINDER MAKES THE COAT OF PAINT RETAIN ITS STRUCTURE, AND BINDS IT TO THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED “STAIN – NO BINDER” SOLVENT DISSOLVES THE PAINT TO MAKE IT USABLE AT NORMAL ROOM TEMPERATURES ADDITIVES ARE ADDED IN VERY SMALL AMOUNT AND AREUSED TO IMPROVE THE FINISHED APPEARANCE
  • 8. PIGMENT CONSTITUENTS COMMENTS Lead White Basic Lead Carbonate Highly Poisonous Yellow Ochre Hydrated Ferric Oxide Highly Tolerant Externally Cadmium Yellow Cadmium Sulphide Highly Poisonous Red Ochre Ferric Oxide An Earth Pigment Chrome Red Basic Lead Chromate Highly Poisonous Prussian Blue Ferric Ferrocyanide Poisonous Cobalt Blue Cobalt Aluminate Poisonous Zinc Green Zinc Chromate Highly Poisonous Umber Clay W/ Iron & Mang. From Ferric Oxide Burnt Sienna Hydrated Ferric Oxide An Earth Pigment Lamp Black Carbon DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIGMENTS
  • 9.  BINDS OR GLUES INGREDIENTS (PIGMENTS AND ADDITIVES) OF PAINT TOGETHER.  RESIN PROVIDES ADHESION TO THE SUBSTRATE.  RESIN PROVIDES DURABILITY & RESISTANCE PROPERTIES:  U-V RESISTANCE  MOISTURE RESISTANCE  CHEMICAL RESISTANCE  STAIN RESISTANCE  FADE RESISTANCE  CHALK RESISTANCE  BLOCK RESISTANCE RESINS
  • 10.  FILLERS ARE A SPECIAL TYPE OF PIGMENT THAT SERVE TO THICKEN THE FILM, SUPPORT ITS STRUCTURE AND SIMPLY INCREASE THE VOLUME OF THE PAINT.  FILLERS ARE USUALLY COMPRISED OF CHEAP AND INERT MATERIALS, SUCH AS TALC, LIME, CLAY, ETC. SOLVENTS FILLERS  THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE SOLVENT IS TO ADJUST THE VISCOSITY OF THE PAINT.  WATER IS THE MAIN VEHICLE FOR WATER-BASED PAINTS.  SOLVENT-BASED PAINTS CAN HAVE VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF SOLVENTS AS THE VEHICLE, INCLUDING ALIPHATIC, ALCOHOLS, ETC.  THESE INCLUDE ORGANIC SOLVENTS SUCH AS PETROLEUM DISTILLATE, ESTERS, GLYCOL ETHERS, AND THE LIKE.
  • 11.  ADDITIVES ARE MIXED IN VERY SMALL AMOUNTS AND YET GIVE A VERY SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE PRODUCT.  ADDITIVES ARE USED BECAUSE :  MODIFY SURFACE TENSION.  IMPROVE FLOW PROPERTIES.  IMPROVE THE FINISHED APPEARANCE.  IMPROVE PIGMENT STABILITY.  CONTROL FOAMING.  CONTROL SKINNING. ADDITIVES
  • 12. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINT 1. ACRYLIC PAINT 2. AUTOMOTIVE PAINT 3. CONCRETE PAINT 4. EGGSHELL PAINT 5. EPOXY PAINT 5. EMULSION PAINT 6. ENAMEL PAINT 7. LATEX PAINT 8. METALLIC PAINT 9. TEXTURE PAINT
  • 13. ACRYLIC PAINT  OTTO AND ROHM INTRODUCED BY 1950’S  FAST DRYING PAINT  COMBINE PIGMENT AND EMULSION  NO STRONG CHEMICAL SMELL  AVAILABLE IN MANY VARIETIES  WATER-BASED PAINT AUTOMOTIVE PAINT  FOUR TYPES SUCH AS LACQUER, URETHANE, WATER BASED AND ENAMEL  LACQUER GIVES SMOOTH AND GLOSSY SHINE  URETHANE ARE HIGHLY TOXIC, USE SAFETY  ENAMEL ALSO GIVES NICE GLOSSY FINISH  WATER BASED IS NON TOXIC, BEST FOR USE
  • 14. CONCRETE PAINT  TWO INGREDIENTS RESIN AND HARDENER  INGREDIENTS LIME PORTLAND CEMENT ETC.  SAME COMPONENTS USED IN EPOXY PAINT  RUST, CORROSION, WATERPROOF, HEAT RESISTANT  USED INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SURFACES  MAINLY USED AT DRIVEWAYS, GARAGES, ETC.  POPULAR FOR STANDING HEAVY TRAFFIC IN IT EGGSHELL PAINT  HARD WEARING EASY TO USE IN ROOMS  GOOD TO USED ON DOORS WINDOWS  SLIGHTLY LUSTER COMPARE TO FLAT FINISH  USED IN BATHROOM, KITCHEN, KID’S ROOM ETC.  STRONG PAINT DIFFICULT TO DAMAGE  DURABLE PROTECTING COATING  WASHABLE, DIRT RESISTANT
  • 15. EPOXY PAINT  MADE FROM RESINS AND OTHER ADDITIVES  USED FOR HARD SURFACES SUCH AS FLOORS, WALLS  GIVES VERY GLOSSY SHEEN LOOK  UV, HEAT, WATER AND CORROSIVE RESISTANT  TWO TYPES OF COATING  WATERBORNE EPOXY COATING  EPOXY POWDER COATING EMULSION PAINT  Made of synthetic particles, pigment, water  Less toxic, less voc, less harmful to health  Easy to apply and dry quickly  Used for wood, metal, indoor, outdoor  Available in many varieties such as:  Eggshell  Matt  Satin etc.
  • 16. ENAMEL PAINT  USED FOR HARD, GLOSSY, AND OPAQUE FINISH  CLEANED BY PAINT THINNER OR MINERAL SPIRITS  USED IN INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR HOUSE SURFACES  CONTAINS HEAT RESISTANT PROPERTIES  AVAILABLE IN WATER OR SOLVENT BASE:  URETHANE  POLYURETHANE LATEX PAINT  INVENTED IN 1940’S AT CANADA  MADE OF RESIN USING RUBBER TREE WITH BINDER  LATEST SYNTHETIC BINDER USED FOR LATEX PAINT  CRACKING, PEELING, SCRATCHES RESISTANT  RESISTANT (WATER, ALKALI CLEANERS, MILDEW)  SYNTHETIC LATEX MADE FROM CHEMICALS  LATEX PAINTS ARE FAMOUS IN US
  • 17. METALLIC PAINT  ALSO CALLED AS POLYCHROMATIC,  PAINT AVAILABLE IN MANY COLORS  RUST RESISTANT, ANTI-CORROSION  MODERN TECHNIQUES MAKE EASY TO REPAINT  METALLIC PAINT IS EXPENSIVE  CONSISTS BASE COAT WITH LACQUER, URETHANE TEXTURE PAINT  MADE FOR HOLDING TEXTURE DESIGN  GOOD WALL DESIGNS AS COMPARE PLANE WALLS  RESINS AND OTHER ADDITIVES TO TEXTURE INTACT  UV, STAINING, CRACKING (RESISTANT)  ALSO USED FOR OLD PANELING, WALLS, HOLES  TOOLS SUCH AS ROLLERS, STAMPS, SPONGES  EFFECTS SUCH AS STUCCO, METALLIC AND SAND
  • 18.  STAIN IS A SOLUTION OF DYE OR SUSPENSION OF PIGMENT IN A VEHICLE, APPLIED TO PENETRATE AND COLOR A WOOD SURFACE WITHOUT OBSCURING THE GRAIN  PENETRATING STAIN PERMEATE A WOOD SURFACE, LEAVING A VERY THIN FILM ON THE SURFACE STAINS 1. WATER STAIN A PENETRATING STAIN MADE BY DISSOLVING DYE IN A WATER VEHICLE. 2. SPIRIT STAIN A PENETRATING STAIN MADE BY DISSOLVING DYE IN AN ALCOHOL OR SPIRIT VEHICLE. TYPES
  • 19.  VARNISH IS A LIQUID PREPARATION OF A RESIN DISSOLVED IN AN OIL OR IN ALCOHOL THAT WHEN SPREAD AND ALLOWED TO DRY FORMS A HARD, LUSTROUS AND TRANSPARENT COATING.  OIL BASED ARE OIL VARNISH WHILE ALCOHOL BASED ARE SPIRIT STAIN. VARNISHES TYPES 1. SPAR MARINE VARNISH IS A DURABLE, WEATHER RESISTANT VARNISH MADE FROM DURABLE RESINS AND LINSEED OR TUNG OIL. 2. POLYURETHANE VARNISH OF EXCEPTIONALLY HARD, ABRASION RESISTANT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT VARNISH MADE FROM PLASTIC RESIN OF THE SAME NAME.
  • 20. 3. LACQUER REFERS TO ANY OF VARIOUS CLEAR OR COLORED SYNTHETIC COATINGS CONSISTING OF NITROCELLULOSE OR OTHER CELLULOSE DERIVATIVE DISSOLVED IN A SOLVENT THAT DRIES BY EVAPORATION TO FORM A HIGH GLOSS FILM. 4. SHELLAC SPIRIT VARNISH MADE BY DISSOLVING PURIFIED LAC FLAKES IN DENATURED ALCOHOL. TYPES
  • 21.  DIFFERENT PAINTS HAVE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONALITIES. EACH PAINT HAS IT’S OWN INDIVIDUAL SPECIALTY.  SOME PAINTS ARE USED TO SMOOTHEN THE WALL TEXTURES, THESE ARE KNOWN AS PRIMERS. PRIMERS ASSURES PAINT LONGEVITY.  ENAMEL PAINTS ARE USED IN TEXTURES, SUBJECTED TO HEAVY WEARS. BEST USED FOR EXTERIOR WALL PAINTINGS.  INTERIOR PAINTS SPECIALIZES IN PAINTING THE INTERIORS OF YOUR HOUSE. PLACES LIKE YOUR BED ROOM, KITCHEN & BATHROOM. EMULSIONS ARE BEST USES OF INTERIOR PAINTS.  EXTERIOR PAINTS SPECIALIZES IN PAINTING THE EXTERIOR WALLS OF YOUR HOUSE. WALLS THAT ARE MORE EXPOSED & SUBJECTED TO NATURE, WEAR & TEAR.  OIL PAINTS ARE POPULAR FOR GLOSSY WOODWORK, DOORS, AND FURNITURE, AS WELL AS DEMANDING SURFACES SUCH AS FLOORS. WHY YOU NEED DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINTS
  • 22. 1. RAW MATERIAL : RESIN, PIGMENT AND ADDITIVE AGENTS ARE GENERALLY MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PAINT. 2. MIXING : RESIN, PIGMENT AND SOLVENT ARE MIXED TO PRODUCE AN EVEN MILL BASE. 3. MILLING : MILL BASE PRODUCED AT THE PRE-MIXING PROCESS IS SENT TO THE DISPERSER TO FINELY DISPERSE THE PIGMENT PARTICLES. 4. BLENDING: RESIN, ADDITIVE AGENTS AND SO ON ARE ADDED TO THE MILL BASE, THE DISPERSION OF WHICH IS COMPLETED. ALSO, THE COLOR PHASE IS ADJUSTED WITH COLOR MATERIALS. 5. FILTERING: BLENDED AND TONED PAINT IS FILTRATED. 6. PACKING: FILTRATED PAINT IS PACKED INTO A CONTAINER. THE MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE
  • 23. No Yes Yes No Yes If weigh 60% then Feeder Weigh Mixing Storage of mixing Milling If fine material then Final Storage Paste Labeling Thinning Packing Start Solvent, Driers, Plasticizers Additives, Binders, Pigments & Fillers If paste 40% then Thinning SludgeScreening Filling Storage & Dispaching End No PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
  • 25.
  • 26.  BRUSH  SPRAY  ROLLER PAINTS CAN BE APPLIED BY
  • 27. PREVIOUSLY PAINTED SURFACES :  SCRAPE OFF LOOSE PAINT AND SAND SMOOTH.  OLD, FADING PAINT MUST BE REMOVED TO PROVIDE GOOD ADHESION FOR THE NEW COATS OF PAINT.  NAIL BACK LOOSE BOARDS, COUNTERSINK THE NAIL HEADS AND FILL WITH PUTTY.  TO PREVENT DISCOLORATION OF PAINT LATER, SEAL KNOTS AND RESINOUS SPOTS WITH A THIN COAT OF SHELLAC. SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR)
  • 28. NEW WOOD EXTERIORS :  THE SURFACE MUST BE CLEAN AND DRY  ROUGH SPOTS IN SIDING SHOULD BE SANDED SMOOTH  ALL NEW WOOD MUST BE PRIMED  AFTER THE PRIME COAT HAS BEEN DRIED, PUTTY AND FILL ALL NAIL HOLES AND CRACKS  CAULK JOINT AROUND DOORS AND WINDOW FRAMES  IF PRE-PRIMED SIDING IS HARD AND SLICK, IT SHOULD BE RE-PRIMED SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR) MASONRY FLOORS :  INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR CONCRETE FLOORS MUST BE ALLOWED TO DRY APPROXIMATELY 90 DAYS FOR PROPER AGING.  FRESH CEMENT CONTAINS ALKALI WHICH WILL BURN PAINT.  FLOORS SUBJECTED TO EXCESSIVE MOISTURE SEEPAGE, OR HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, CANNOT BE SUCCESSFULLY PAINTED.
  • 29. METAL SURFACES:  ALL METAL SURFACES MUST BE CLEANED AND DRY  REMOVE ANY RUST, MILL SCALE OR LOOSE PAINT BY WIRE BRUSHING, SANDBLASTING/SANDPAPERING  BARE SPOTS ON SHOP-COATED STEEL MUST BE WIRE BRUSHED AND SPOT PRIMED  REMOVE OIL AND GREASE WITH PAINT THINNER OR MINERAL SPIRITS  NO PRIMING NECESSARY WHEN APPLYING EXTERIOR LATEX TO WEATHERED GALVANIZED METAL SURFACE PREPARATION (EXTERIOR)
  • 30.  THE SURFACE TO BE PAINTED MUST BE CLEAN AND FREE OF WAX, DIRT OR GREASE  CRACKS AND HOLES MUST BE REPAIRED WITH PATCHING PLASTER  PATCHED AREAS MUST BE SPOT PRIMED  OLD GLOSSY SURFACES SHOULD BE PREPARED BY SANDING SURFACE PREPARATION (INTERIOR) PROPER APPLICATION  AVOID PAINTING IN THE HOT SUN. TRY TO PAINT THOSE SURFACES THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN EXPOSED TO SUNLIGHT  APPLY A COAT OF PAINT PRIMER  FINISH WITH TWO-COAT OF TOP COATS
  • 31. DEFECTS IN PAINTING 1. FADING: HE GRADUAL LOSS OF COLOR IS KNOWN AS FADING. THIS MAY BE DUE TO THE EFFECT OF SUN RAYS. 2. FLAKING OR PEELING: DUE TO THE POOR ADHESION, PAINT MAY PEEL OFF FROM THE SURFACE. 3. BLISTERING: THIS IS CAUSED BY WATER VAPOUR, WHICH IS TRAPPED BEHIND THE PAINTED SURFACE. IT MAY OCCUR DUE TO IMPERFECT SEASONING OF TIMBER. 4. BLOOM: THE FORMATION OF DULL PATCHES ON THE FINISHED SURFACE IS KNOWN AS BLOOM. IT MAY OCCUR DUE TO BAD VENTILATION OR DEFECTIVE PAINT. 5. RUNNING: THE PAINT RUNS BACK AND LEAVES SOME AREAS OF SURFACE UN COVERED. THIS DEFECT OCCURS WHEN SURFACE IS TOO THICKLY PAINTED SAGGING WILL OCCUR. 6. WRINKLING: IF THE HORIZONTAL SURFACE IS TOO THICKLY PAINTED WRINKLING WILL OCCUR.
  • 32. 7. FLASHING: THE PATCHES SEEN ON THE PAINTED SURFACE IS KNOWN AS FLASHING. IT MAY BE DUE TO POOR WORKMANSHIP, WEATHER ACTION, OR POOR QUALITY OF PAINT. 8. GRINING: IF THE OPACITY OF THE FINAL COAT IS INSUFFICIENT, THE BACK GROUND OF THE PAINTED SURFACE IS CLEARLY VISIBLE, THIS IS KNOWN AS GRINNING. 9. EFFLORESCENCE:  EFFLORESCENCE OR FORMATION OF WHITE POWDERY DEPOSIT ON WALLS AFTER PAINTING IS CAUSED DUE TO SALTS PRESENT IN THE BUILDING MATERIAL LIKE BRICK AND MORTAR, WHICH SURFACE LATER ON.  THE SOLUTION - GIVE A LONG TIME GAP BETWEEN PLASTERING AND PAINTING (ABOUT 6 MONTHS INCLUDING ONE MONSOON) USE PAINT WITH A POROUS FILM LIKE EMULSIONS AND DISTEMPERS. 10. BRUSH MARKS:  BRUSH MARKS ARE CAUSED DUE TO UNDER-THINNING OF PAINTS OR DUE TO POOR APPLICATION OF THE FINAL COAT OF PAINT OR DUE TO POOR QUALITY BRUSH.  THE SOLUTION - ENSURE PAINT OF THE RIGHT VISCOSITY IS APPLIED USING A GOOD BRUSH. DEFECTS IN PAINTING
  • 34. LACK OF ADHESION EFFLORECENCE BRUSH MARKS
  • 35. 1. CEMENT COMPANY NAMES:- SNOWCEM, DECOCEL, GARDCEM 450-1300RS -25KG 4 YEARS PROCESS:- ROUGH SURFACE IS MADE WASH WITH WATER 2COATS OF CEMENT PAINT CURING WATER AFTER PAINT 2. ACRYLICS  1ST QUALITY  2ND QUALITY 8 YEARS DURABLE COMPANY: ASIAN, NEROLAC, BURGER, AKZONOBLE POWDER •OIL BOND -80KG-WITH PRIMER AND LAMBI •OIL PAINTS – 265RS/LT- WITH PRIMER AND LAMBI •PLASTIC PAINTS-275RS/LT WITH PRIMER AND LAMBI •LUSTER FINISH 250RS/LT •VELVET / ROYAL 495RS/LT EXTERIOR PAINTS CEMENT ACRYLICS INTERIOR TYPES •DRY DISTAMPLE WITHOUT PRIMER 3KG- 85RS 25KG-630RS COST