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Sensing an amusement park
for service innovation
 Service Design in Tourism conference
        23rd August, Innsbruck
         Leena Alakoski & Satu Luojus,
  Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo
Structure of the presentation
1. Research project
2. Frame of reference
   – Service business
   – Customer experience
   – Theory of multiple senses
   – Service design
3. Case Linnanmäki, years 2010 and 2011
4. Analysis and findings
5. Discussion
1. Research project
• Presentation is based on the studies in a
  project called “Multisensory service experience
  and service design in tourism companies’”
  (MMP) (www.multisensorisuus.fi)
• Eight Finnish companies participated in the
  empirical studies of the project
2. The Frame of Reference


   Multisensory                  Service Design
                                 (Tools)
                   Customer
                   Experience



                  Service Business
Customer Experience
    • Service process consists of steps, actions and
      activities
    • Customer experience takes place during service
      interaction process and
    • it is evaluated by the customer




Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry (2009) Services Marketing
Tourist’s Experience
• Tourist’s experience has been explored by many
  researchers (e.g. Cohen 1979, Light & Prentice
  1994, Nuryanti 1996, Edwards & Llurdés i Coint
  1996, Beeho & Prentice 1998, Rudd & Davis 1998,
  McIntosh & Prentice 1999, Wang 1999, Wanhill
  2000, Pretes 2002, Cole 2004, Uriely 2005, and
  Chronis 2005, Kim et al. 2012)
• A lot of components are identified: involvement,
  hedonism, happiness, pleasure, relaxation,
  stimulation, refreshment, social interaction,
  spontaneity, meaningfulness, knowledge, challenge,
  sense of separation, timelessness, adventure,
  personal relevance, novelty, escaping pressure,
  intellectual cultivation
• The literature that discusses multisensory
  experience in tourism is limited
Multisensory
    • Our entire understanding of the world is
      experienced through the senses
    • Sensorial strategies comprise the five common
      senses smell, sound, sight, taste and touch
    • Multisensory approach means that more than
      two sensory channels are being used to
      influence the customer experience at the same
      time


Hultén, Broweus & Dijak (2009) Sensory Marketing
Kim, Ritchie & McCormick (2012) Development of a Scale to Measure
Memorable Tourism Experiences
Lindstrom (2005) Brand Sense: How to build powerful brands through
touch, taste, smell, sight and sound
Why multisensory?
    • The activation of multiple senses
       – enhances customer experience
       – affects consumer behavior
       – promotes the basing and identification of
         the brand




Lindstrom (2009) Buyology – Truth and Lies About What We Buy
Service Design
    • SD often deals with topics and questions
      related to
       – how to create smooth services for users
       – how to stimulate, and activate user
          involvement
    • We acknowledge
       – deep understanding of users
       – users’ activity and participation
       – SD tools


Moritz (2005) Service Design – Practical access to an Evolving Field
Stickdorn & Schneider (2010) This is service design thinking
3. Case Linnanmäki,
        years 2010 and 2011
• 60 years old amusement park in Helsinki
  (www.linnanmaki.fi)
• One of the most popular tourist attractions in
  Finland (www.mek.fi)
• We have collaborated with the festival called
  “Light Carnival”, 10 days long annual festival in
  October
The objectives of the cases
• to evaluate customers´ experiences based on
  multiple sense observations
• to find out the usefulness of different service
  design tools for the purpose in evaluating the
  impact of multiple senses
Method and tools, 2010
• Test customers, 48 young adults, gathered data in
  small groups
• Observations were gathered by using different
  variations of the probe method
• Four Service Design tools
   – assignment notebook
   – observation table
   – photo-based storytelling
   – empathy tool with video observation
Analysing tools, 2010
• content analysis
• customer journey
• affinity-diagrams
Some findings, 2010
• As a great deal of data on sensory perceptions
  was acquired
• All of the tested tools were useful

• Data on sensory perceptions was useful for
  developing amusement park services
• The amusement park representative was very
  satisfied and acquired knowledge was
  immediately applied in service development
Findings of the tool
            usefulness, 2010
• The Observation table: a lot of systematic data, the most
  dominant senses were sight and sound
• The Empathy tool: although implementing the method
  was demanding, information was also generated on
  other perceptions besides visual perception
• The Storytelling and photos: the most traditional way to
  use the dairy tool. It concluded that the visual sense was
  the most dominant. Most of the stories emphasized
  feelings and emotions
• The Assignment notebook: open ended tool, and
  depended on the customers’ motivation and creativity
Method and tools, 2011
• Data gathering tools were chosen based on
  earlier findings :
   – An observation table and storytelling
     together
   – Sensory walking (test customers were
     instructed to go to previously defined
     locations in the fairground and pay
     attention to sensory perceptions)
   – Owela web-based data gathering tool
     (www.vtt.fi)
4. Findings
Findings, 2011
 Impact of the senses in different amusement park locations and rides


                                                                                                                               Näkö
                                                                                                                               Kuulo
                                                                                                                               Kosketus
                                                                                                                               Hajut, maut
                                                                                                                               Muut ihmiset



Pääsisäänkäynti      Vuoristorata      Safari-ravintola      Pelihalli      Sumujen silta       Juhlatori      Pluton alue




                                                          Overall experience




                                                                                                                                 kokonaismiellyttävyys
   Pääsisäänkäynti      Vuoristorata      Safari-ravintola      Pelihalli     Sumujen silta /      Juhlatori     Pluton alue
                                                                                Hurjakuru
Multiple senses in experiences
• In order to create satisfying customer
  experiences, experiences should appeal to
  multiple senses
• Service experience is more effective when
  many senses are in use at the same time

• The activation of multiple senses gives a
  stronger sense of authenticity and experience,
  and this way makes the customer happier with
  the experience and more willing to tell and
  recommend the experience to others
• Looking at the service experience from the
  senses point of view, gives new ideas for the
  further development of the service
Multiple senses in experiences
It has also been shown
• that we process senses differently depending
    on age
• sight was the dominant sense in Light Carneval
• but co-experience and feelings of others were
    very important
• sound helps generate moods by creating
    feelings
• most people attach a meaning to a sound, and
    music is used as a source of inspiration
Multiple senses in experiences
• Sense expressions, separately or together, can
  visualize services, and the service landscape
• Smell appears to be the most persuasive sense
  after sight and is closely related to emotional
  life
• Scents often have a strong impact on emotions
  and memories. It is shown that pleasant scents
  create pleasant states of moods
5. Discussion
• Qualitative descriptions are required in order
  to understand the overall customer experience
• The overall experience is what matters, rather
  than a knowledge of which separate sense
  stimulates the experience
• When evaluating different senses separately
  the customers couldn’t describe the overall
  experience clearly
• A multisensory aspects enhances the creation
  of a positive service experience only if sensory
  stimulants create a harmonious whole
• Very strong perceptions can create a negative
  customer experiences
• Disregard of a sense may create an
  experience of negative quality
   – e.g. when the person is unable to see the
     performance or hear the music
• Excluding one of the senses may emphasise
  the effect of other senses
   – e.g. the experience of a roller coaster ride was
     stronger in the dark – the experience becomes
     different and thus stronger
• The stories about sensory experiences were
  predictable in some way
• We received new types of findings that annual
  customer satisfaction surveys in amusement
  park have failed to generate

• Museums and game industry have made
  diverse use of the multisensory aspects in their
  services

• Further multisensory research is recommended
Thank you for your attention!

     leena.alakoski@laurea.fi
       satu.luojus@laurea.fi

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SDT2012 (P3.2): Sensing an amusement park for service innovation

  • 1. Sensing an amusement park for service innovation Service Design in Tourism conference 23rd August, Innsbruck Leena Alakoski & Satu Luojus, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo
  • 2. Structure of the presentation 1. Research project 2. Frame of reference – Service business – Customer experience – Theory of multiple senses – Service design 3. Case Linnanmäki, years 2010 and 2011 4. Analysis and findings 5. Discussion
  • 3. 1. Research project • Presentation is based on the studies in a project called “Multisensory service experience and service design in tourism companies’” (MMP) (www.multisensorisuus.fi) • Eight Finnish companies participated in the empirical studies of the project
  • 4. 2. The Frame of Reference Multisensory Service Design (Tools) Customer Experience Service Business
  • 5. Customer Experience • Service process consists of steps, actions and activities • Customer experience takes place during service interaction process and • it is evaluated by the customer Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry (2009) Services Marketing
  • 6. Tourist’s Experience • Tourist’s experience has been explored by many researchers (e.g. Cohen 1979, Light & Prentice 1994, Nuryanti 1996, Edwards & Llurdés i Coint 1996, Beeho & Prentice 1998, Rudd & Davis 1998, McIntosh & Prentice 1999, Wang 1999, Wanhill 2000, Pretes 2002, Cole 2004, Uriely 2005, and Chronis 2005, Kim et al. 2012) • A lot of components are identified: involvement, hedonism, happiness, pleasure, relaxation, stimulation, refreshment, social interaction, spontaneity, meaningfulness, knowledge, challenge, sense of separation, timelessness, adventure, personal relevance, novelty, escaping pressure, intellectual cultivation • The literature that discusses multisensory experience in tourism is limited
  • 7. Multisensory • Our entire understanding of the world is experienced through the senses • Sensorial strategies comprise the five common senses smell, sound, sight, taste and touch • Multisensory approach means that more than two sensory channels are being used to influence the customer experience at the same time Hultén, Broweus & Dijak (2009) Sensory Marketing Kim, Ritchie & McCormick (2012) Development of a Scale to Measure Memorable Tourism Experiences Lindstrom (2005) Brand Sense: How to build powerful brands through touch, taste, smell, sight and sound
  • 8. Why multisensory? • The activation of multiple senses – enhances customer experience – affects consumer behavior – promotes the basing and identification of the brand Lindstrom (2009) Buyology – Truth and Lies About What We Buy
  • 9. Service Design • SD often deals with topics and questions related to – how to create smooth services for users – how to stimulate, and activate user involvement • We acknowledge – deep understanding of users – users’ activity and participation – SD tools Moritz (2005) Service Design – Practical access to an Evolving Field Stickdorn & Schneider (2010) This is service design thinking
  • 10. 3. Case Linnanmäki, years 2010 and 2011 • 60 years old amusement park in Helsinki (www.linnanmaki.fi) • One of the most popular tourist attractions in Finland (www.mek.fi) • We have collaborated with the festival called “Light Carnival”, 10 days long annual festival in October
  • 11. The objectives of the cases • to evaluate customers´ experiences based on multiple sense observations • to find out the usefulness of different service design tools for the purpose in evaluating the impact of multiple senses
  • 12. Method and tools, 2010 • Test customers, 48 young adults, gathered data in small groups • Observations were gathered by using different variations of the probe method • Four Service Design tools – assignment notebook – observation table – photo-based storytelling – empathy tool with video observation
  • 13. Analysing tools, 2010 • content analysis • customer journey • affinity-diagrams
  • 14. Some findings, 2010 • As a great deal of data on sensory perceptions was acquired • All of the tested tools were useful • Data on sensory perceptions was useful for developing amusement park services • The amusement park representative was very satisfied and acquired knowledge was immediately applied in service development
  • 15. Findings of the tool usefulness, 2010 • The Observation table: a lot of systematic data, the most dominant senses were sight and sound • The Empathy tool: although implementing the method was demanding, information was also generated on other perceptions besides visual perception • The Storytelling and photos: the most traditional way to use the dairy tool. It concluded that the visual sense was the most dominant. Most of the stories emphasized feelings and emotions • The Assignment notebook: open ended tool, and depended on the customers’ motivation and creativity
  • 16. Method and tools, 2011 • Data gathering tools were chosen based on earlier findings : – An observation table and storytelling together – Sensory walking (test customers were instructed to go to previously defined locations in the fairground and pay attention to sensory perceptions) – Owela web-based data gathering tool (www.vtt.fi)
  • 18. Findings, 2011 Impact of the senses in different amusement park locations and rides Näkö Kuulo Kosketus Hajut, maut Muut ihmiset Pääsisäänkäynti Vuoristorata Safari-ravintola Pelihalli Sumujen silta Juhlatori Pluton alue Overall experience kokonaismiellyttävyys Pääsisäänkäynti Vuoristorata Safari-ravintola Pelihalli Sumujen silta / Juhlatori Pluton alue Hurjakuru
  • 19. Multiple senses in experiences • In order to create satisfying customer experiences, experiences should appeal to multiple senses • Service experience is more effective when many senses are in use at the same time • The activation of multiple senses gives a stronger sense of authenticity and experience, and this way makes the customer happier with the experience and more willing to tell and recommend the experience to others • Looking at the service experience from the senses point of view, gives new ideas for the further development of the service
  • 20. Multiple senses in experiences It has also been shown • that we process senses differently depending on age • sight was the dominant sense in Light Carneval • but co-experience and feelings of others were very important • sound helps generate moods by creating feelings • most people attach a meaning to a sound, and music is used as a source of inspiration
  • 21. Multiple senses in experiences • Sense expressions, separately or together, can visualize services, and the service landscape • Smell appears to be the most persuasive sense after sight and is closely related to emotional life • Scents often have a strong impact on emotions and memories. It is shown that pleasant scents create pleasant states of moods
  • 22. 5. Discussion • Qualitative descriptions are required in order to understand the overall customer experience • The overall experience is what matters, rather than a knowledge of which separate sense stimulates the experience • When evaluating different senses separately the customers couldn’t describe the overall experience clearly • A multisensory aspects enhances the creation of a positive service experience only if sensory stimulants create a harmonious whole • Very strong perceptions can create a negative customer experiences
  • 23. • Disregard of a sense may create an experience of negative quality – e.g. when the person is unable to see the performance or hear the music • Excluding one of the senses may emphasise the effect of other senses – e.g. the experience of a roller coaster ride was stronger in the dark – the experience becomes different and thus stronger
  • 24. • The stories about sensory experiences were predictable in some way • We received new types of findings that annual customer satisfaction surveys in amusement park have failed to generate • Museums and game industry have made diverse use of the multisensory aspects in their services • Further multisensory research is recommended
  • 25. Thank you for your attention! leena.alakoski@laurea.fi satu.luojus@laurea.fi