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1!




                                                   fOSSa Conference
                                                     Grenoble 17/11/2009



                                                OSS & LAW


   Luc Grateau
   Direction du Transfert et de l’Innovation

                                                  !!"#"$%&#'$(

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
2!


      (Open Source ?) software and Law(s)
      Back to the basics


    Introduction (Open Source Assets Management at INRIA)
    Open Source Project Lifecycle
    Reminder IPR related to software & License
    The Freedom Matrix : (co) ownership & code reuse
    The developers needs vs obligations
    Exploitation intentions
    Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Tracking Models
    IPR Tracking Methodology

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
3!

Introduction: KNOWLEDGE and TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AT INRIA


!! Knowledge provider: Scientific Papers and Technical Reports
   (Open Archive HAL-INRIA launched in April 2005)

!! Prototype Technology Provider
    "! Software components / libraries and prototype applications (component based)
                Proprietary or Open Source development licensing and spin-off creation
                Software development and transfer policies
                     - G-forge based infrastructure
                      Dedicated support services (SED)

                      A focus on software “quality” (including IPR management issues in
                     development best practices)

                     A recent position Paper on Open Source (OSWF 2009)




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
4!




   Introduction
   Open Source Assets Management at INRIA
 •! more than 400 Open Source Projects
 with open repositories involving INRIA and




                                                                                            2009 www.antelink.com
 its partners (Universities, CNRS, etc…)

 •! more than 1500 projects hosted on
 INRIAGforge service




                                                                                            © INRIA Université Paris Diderot -
 ROW :

 •! ! 300 000 Projects with available source
 code (not always open source components)




                                                                              OW2 forge


                Massive code reuse =>           by INRIA                      INRIAGforge

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau   from INRIA   Size: number of committers
5!


Open Source Project Lifecycle
example Scilab: The open source platform for numerical
computation
   ! 1980 kernel for
   numerical computation

   1994 Open code project

   2003 Consortium
   (transition phase)
                                                © INRIA Université Paris Diderot -   2009 www.antelink.com



   2008 New editor
   Digitéo Foundation
   Open Source Project

   ! 2 M lines of code
   ! 17 000 files

                                                            After: Anthony Senyard and Martin Michlmayr
!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
Legal Maturity
                                                                                                                6!
                0
                                100 %
                %

                                                                                                     Residual
                                                                                                       risk
                                                                                                     (patent, etc…)
                                            First
                                           release

                    Legal maturity
   Legal risk




                                                                        Unacceptable legal risk




          100 %
                                     0
                                          “Cathedral”       Transition           Bazaar Phase        time
                                     %


                                         Functional Proof   Architectural       Technical maturity
                                           of concept         prototype


                                                               Technical maturity

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
7!


Software: definition(s)                         Preparatory works (specifications)
                                                Code
                                                Documentation
                                Scilab




                                                                    Scicos




                              2 levels

                              The level of the component (component license)
                              The level of the components based system (software license)
 Scilab kernel could be
  a part of an
 embedded software            Software = components based (and collaboratively developed)
                              software typically an OSS project



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
8!




      IPR related to software & License

      International law framework (Berne           convention)
      National / regional differences


      Moral rights           Owner = author(s)
      Patrimonial rights =
                Exploitation Right with 3 main features (reproduction, modification,
                distribution of original or modified works)
                 Owner = employer of the author

      License = contract on exploitation rights +
        owner’s provisions (i.e. Citation provision) =>
        “licence jungle”

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
9!




                        Freedom Matrix: Exploitation & enforcement
                                                    CASE 2: Medium risk             CASE 4: High risk

                                                     (licenses compatibility)       (licenses compatibility



                                              yes
                                                                                          contracts –
                       (open source or not)

                                                      Freedom to exploit ?       choice of exploitation license)
          Code reuse


                                                      Freedom to enforce ?
                                                                                     Freedom to exploit ?
                                                                                     Freedom to enforce ?

                                                                                CASE 3: Medium risk
                                                     CASE 1: Low risk
                                                                                         (contracts –
                                                                                choice of exploitation license)
                                              no




                                                      Freedom to exploit
                                                      Freedom to enforce            Freedom to exploit ?
                                                                                    Freedom to enforce ?




                                                              No                              yes
                                                        (sol ownership)

                                                                Collaborative development


!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
10!




      OPEN SOURCE LICENSES (FSF/OSI)
      “ROUGH” TYPOLOGY
            PERMISSIVE LICENCES: no restriction on exploitation
            Example : BSD
            NON PERMISSIVE LICENCES:
            Restriction provisions on exploitation
                  –! Limited at the component level as such Example : GNU LGPL
                     Non permissive in derivation
                     Permissive in composition
                     (when composed with other CB software proprietary or OSS with appropriate
                     “composition rule”/link)
                  –! Non limited (copyleft) Example : GNU GPL
                     Non permissive in derivation
                     Non Permissive in composition
                     Obligation to redistribute the CB software under the “component” licence
                     Not effective to control Software as a Service component based Software
                  –! GNU Affero GPL (to cover SaaS exploitation model) obligation to make available
                     the source code of the CB software integrating a component under GNU Affero
                     GPL




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
11!




     Developers needs
   Use pre-existing components (do not reinvent the wheel)
   Modify them
   Compose components :
            integrate parts, combine, link pre-existing components or ex-nihilo
   components

   Distribute the resulting Software

   Open source licensed components fulfilled developer needs, with some
   restrictions
   Software development is a domain with no standardised terminology

   Combined files, composed, integrated, derived works, « copyleft » licenses, « contaminantes », « viral »,
   « hereditary », permissive, non permissive, … components, files, modules, etc…)
   Vocabulary could be technology related. Sometimes defined within the license itself (Glossary). The
   license denomination varies (GPL, GNU GPL, GNU GPL V2) and the licenses change with time. The
   license attached to a component may change with time



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
12!


Exploitation intentions


        (except on service activities)
          Capture part of the value                                          Permissive
                                                                             Licensing
                                                 Freeware
                                         no
                                                 (Free SaaS)                 (Open SaaS ?)

                                                                   Mixt
                                                                   Modes



                                               Proprietary Licensing       Double/Dual
                                         yes




                                               (Commercial SaaS)
                                                                           Licensing


                                                         no                       yes

                                                    Give access to the source Code


!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
13!
     Developers / Editor / Contributor obligations
     3 Principles/key legal issues of responsible open source projects
     contribution or edition

     1.! respect the provisions of the licenses attached to the used pre-existing
     components (and their text integrity) Be aware of open code but not open source
     licensed components
     2.! verify the license compatibility of each pre-existing component with the
     distribution license of the CBCD Software you intend to use
     3.! be owner of the parts you produce (do not create uncontrolled “de facto” joint-
     ownership with physical contributors/committers)
     (ex : assignment of IPR –patrimonial- of summer interns working for you and
     under your authority)
     !! Respect other contracts/grants or IPR assets attached to components
     i.e. : confidentiality provisions, special access right to sponsoring states, patents,
           trademarks, moral rights of authors, etc…
     If a license attached to a file is a clearly defined legal object, it is not the case for a set of
           licences and other legal obligations attached to a (sometimes large) set of files and
           components.

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
14!




                                                       Graphic
                              Configuration            Interface




                                    Install            Kernel
                                    parameterization

        LGPL
       GPL                                             Libraries
                              Documentation
      BSD




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
15!




    GNU GPL
    Text integrity issue
    (ex : mixt between
    GNU GPL & LGPL)

    No Licence
     Summer intern developed
     Component with no IPR
     Assignment

     LGPL
     Proprietary
      BSD



              This lead us to propose the notion of legal situation of a CBCD
                  software


!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
16!

IPR Legal issues

  !! Assumption of « legal - development good practices »


  We assume “development in good faith” when it comes to use pre-existing components

  (nevertheless, developers should be aware and informed that advanced code reuse detection
      technologies (nextB, palamida, blackduck, etc … ) can prove unfair practices or
      counterfeiting of that kind; “development good practices” must be the rule and other
      practices should be strictly prohibited).

  This means, for example, that developers do not:

  "! delete existing headers
  "! do not modify licence attached to external components, without formal authorisation of the
     IPR owners of the external components.
  "! try to hide the origin of external code, by reengineering it, changing the names of variables
     or doing other non authorised practices.




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
17!

 Legal situation (1/3)"

 !! IDENTIFY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
       #! Identify all authors (?=contributors)
       #! Identify copyright owners (? employee)"
       #! Identify all components, kind of dependencies
               (! wording “combined”, “link”, “derived”)"
       #! Contractual issues (Consortium agreement)"
       #! Applicable law (moral and patrimonial rights)"
       #! Related content repository
       #! ...


 $!NEED FOR A “HIGH LEVEL” FORMALISATION



  !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

Confidentiel INRIA   26/11/08
18!

 Legal situation 1st implementation (2/3)

 !! 1 Position in chain of rights
    #! Initial software
    #! Derived software
    #! Heterogeneous software

 !! 2 IPR Owners
    #! Morals rights
    #! Patrimonial rights

 !! 3 Legal condition of exploitation
    #! Exploitation is restricted by an agreement
    #! Exploitation is restricted by law
    #! Exploitation is restricted by license (s) or license components compatibility
    #! Exploitation Is restricted by another binding rule or legal provision

 !! 2 Other enforceable IPR against software
    #! Patent
    #! Trademark
       #! copyright


  !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

Confidentiel INRIA   26/11/08
19!

 a need for a software component implementation (3/3)


 !! Definition of normalised OSS licence denominations

 !! Data extraction with licence checker tools to feed Legal Situation Meta-data
 !! Applied to a large set of source code from various development communities




  !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

Confidentiel INRIA   26/11/08
20!

                                      IPR Tracking models
    Selection of pre-existing

                                        Content controlled           Content & legal
      Certified database

                                yes
                                            process                      checking
         components

                                                                    controlled process
              from




                                      Post-development audit        Legal checking
                                no




                                         oriented process          controlled process




                                                no                            yes

                                         Integration of IPR Tracking methodology
                                               to the development process
                                                 (continuous or sequential)

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
21!

                 Qualipso IPR tracking Methodology at INRIA

 INRIA proposed an generic IPRT methodology within Qualipso EC funded research project and
     implemented it for its own organisation (Luc Grateau, Magali Fitzgibbon, Guillaume
     Rousseau).

 !! The aim is to set up an appropriate legal governance and process to determine and follow
    the legal situation of a CBCD software during its development process in order to make sure
    that this legal status is compliant with the development and exploitation intends of the CBCD
    software editor.


 !! This IPRT policy is actually in a test phase at INRIA and based on :
         •!    A training program for developers and support staff to foster their awareness of IPR
               tracking issues for CBCD software

         •!    a multi-skilled team composed of technical staff, legal persons and technology transfer
               officers in charge of the legal governance of the software development
         •!    An IPR tracking methodology using software tools (i.e. FOSSology license checker)

  !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

Confidentiel INRIA   26/11/08
22!

                Qualipso Methodology implemented at INRIA

                       1.! High level
                 Description of the software                      4. Problem Identification
                      (Description of the software
                                                                     and Risk Evaluation
         Architecture, functionalities, modules or components)




                     2. Definition of the scope
                            of the Audit                          5. Solve Blocking/Critical
                                                                          Problem
                                 (Main objectives)




               3. Determination of the Legal                     6. Insurance, Dissemination
                        Situation                                      and IPR tracking




  !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

Confidentiel INRIA    26/11/08
Qualipso Methodology (QM)
                                                              23!



    Phase 1 : High level description Example




    Example 1 : XtreemOS

    Global position of XtreemOS layer in the software stack



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
24!

      QM Phase 1 : High level description Example




    Example 1 : XtreemOS

    Refined high level description of the « XtreemOS » layer showing main functional
    domains of two sub-layers (middleware closed sub-layer and system closed sub-layer)



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
25!

      QM PHASE 2 : Defining strategy
      Phase 2 is aiming at defining the IPR strategy in relation to the
        « high level description » of the software.
      The licensing scheme of a CBCD software could be function of
        which part of the software you consider, and the related questions
        you might have to define and monitor the IPR tracking process
        would depend on the development phase and the licensing or
        exploitation schemes associated to each relevant software layer
        or functional domain. i.e. :
      •! if you planned not to distribute the software, but to give access to
         it as a “software as a service”, the legal issues are quite different
         as if you planed to distribute it under as permissive BSD like
         license.
      •! If you planned to collaboratively develop the software, issues are
         different of in-house development



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
26!
    QM
    PHASE 2 : Defining strategy XtreemOS use-case



                                                BSD layer




                                       GNU GPL V2 layer




    View of the « XtreemOS » licensing strategies

    XtreemOS Grid support layer, XtreemOS-G : BSD licensing scheme

    XtreemOS Foundation layer, XtreemOS-F : GNU GPL V2 licensing scheme

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
QM    PHASE 3 :                                                                            27!



         3. Determination of the Legal Situation (s)


                      Questionnaire                        Automated
                         (how the software             Legal Status Mining
                           Legal situation
                            is perceived               “Fossology” (liked)
                       by the development              (realization of a Legal Situation
                    Project Management team)             from a source code archive
                                                             by automated tool(S))




                        Perceived                            Determined
                       Legal status                          Legal status
                            (LS1)                                  (LS2)




        Next Step: 4. Problem Identification                 Legal status analysis
        and Risk Evaluation                                  (LS1,LS2) ; # (LS1,LS2)



!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
28!




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
29!




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
30!




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
QM    PHASE 4 :                                                                                                                          31!

       4. Problem Identification                                      Legal status analysis
       and Risk Evaluation                                           (LS1,LS2) ; # (LS1,LS2)

              LS1 :                                # (LS1,LS2) :                                     LS2 :
        features analysis of                                                               features analysis of
                                                Analysis of differences
       perceived legal status                                                            automatically determined
                                                  between perceived
                                                                                               legal status
                                             and automatically determined
                                                      legal status



          Problem identification / Risk Evaluation                                        Technico - legal
                                                                  Component                   Issues
              Authorship issues          Ownership issues                                 (i.e. static/dynamic
                                                                  License text
                                                                                           links study, etc…)
                                          Public Domain       Integrity/modification
                 Other Issues                 issues                  issues
           (i.e. component redundancy)
                                                                Component                Component License
                                                          with no License/headers          “compatibility”
                                                                   issues              issues (upper & lower)


                                                                                                  Other
                                                                                        Components Obligation
                                                                                        issues (i.e. : citation, etc…)

                                                                                          Towards Step 6.                Insurance   ,
       Next Step: 5. Solve Blocking/Critical Problem(s)
                                                                                               Dissemination
                                                                                              and IPR tracking
!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
2) QM     PHASE 5 :                                                                                      32!

          5. Solve Blocking/Critical Problem(s)



             Problem Solving by development team
                                                Component
                                                                                Problem solved by time
                      Component                 substitution      Component
                                                                                  (change of license)
                       rewriting                 by similar       elimination
                                                                                Java/Sun components
                                           functional component




             Problem Solving by legal team
                                                                             Notification
                 Negotiation of another
                                             IPR acquisition                 of unsolved
                   compatible licence
                                               Licensing in                   situations
                for a critical Component
                                                                      to the development team




          Next Step: 6. Insurance, Dissemination and IPR tracking

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
33!




      IPR Tracking CONCLUSION

        Intellectual Property Rights Tracking Methodology for components
           based and collaboratively developed software is proposed within
           Qualipso EC Project and under testing at INRIA.


        A governance or coordination level in charge of IPR tracking issues


        A process using FOSSology as license checker


        A better defined and enhanced quality software




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
34!

CONCLUSION:           IPR Legal issues          of open source CBCD Software
  !! Importance of Academic Actors for the Open Source Ecosystem
  !! Shared awareness for legal quality control improvement of components based
     and collaboratively developed software (CBCDS) from academic world
  •! Toward a Robust Legal Framework for OSS
  !! LEVERAGE STATE-OF-ART TO FULFILL OPEN SOURCE ECOSYSTEM NEEDS
     New legal tools : Initiative like CeCILL family - compliant to European legal framework
         (Define applicable law and comply with liability regulation)"
     New Audit technologies or tools (FOSSology, OSLC, etc…),

       New Business opportunity (Palamida, Black Duck, NextB, Neolex,….)
       New insurance tools for residual risk (Lyods of London and OSRM …)

  !!   BUILD APPROPRIATE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND PROCESS
       Methodologies (IPR Tracking, Audit, Risk analysis)
       Dedicated IPR Management Tools
       Skills and team building

  !! Aim : Increasing trust in CBCD software
  Improve legal safety for Contributors, Editors, Customers, Service and product providers

!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
35!




!! References:
      1 Open (Research) issue toward a legal framework for OSS, FOSDEM 2008 ROUSSEAU
http://libresoft.es/Activities/Research_activities/downloads/fosdem2008/papers/INRIA-GR_20080218-final.pdf
     2 Guide de diagnostic du logiciel (INRIA Internal document, DTI/SPIV 2006) GRATEAU and FONTAINE
     3 Toward an open-source technology transfer model DALLE and ROUSSEAU
       Proceeding of the 4th Workshop on Open Source Software Engineering
     4 IPR Tracking: A methodology for Component Based and Collaboratively Developed software
L. GRATEAU, M. FITZGIBBON, G. ROUSSEAU Qualipso EC funded Project, Activity 1 “Legal issues”
     Deliverable D1.4.1
Diffusion Status : Public January 26th, 2009


Final version: 20th November 2009

!!    Contacts:

Patrick.Moreau@inria.fr




!!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau

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OSS Legal issues method

  • 1. 1! fOSSa Conference Grenoble 17/11/2009 OSS & LAW Luc Grateau Direction du Transfert et de l’Innovation !!"#"$%&#'$( !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 2. 2! (Open Source ?) software and Law(s) Back to the basics Introduction (Open Source Assets Management at INRIA) Open Source Project Lifecycle Reminder IPR related to software & License The Freedom Matrix : (co) ownership & code reuse The developers needs vs obligations Exploitation intentions Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Tracking Models IPR Tracking Methodology !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 3. 3! Introduction: KNOWLEDGE and TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AT INRIA !! Knowledge provider: Scientific Papers and Technical Reports (Open Archive HAL-INRIA launched in April 2005) !! Prototype Technology Provider "! Software components / libraries and prototype applications (component based) Proprietary or Open Source development licensing and spin-off creation Software development and transfer policies - G-forge based infrastructure Dedicated support services (SED) A focus on software “quality” (including IPR management issues in development best practices) A recent position Paper on Open Source (OSWF 2009) !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 4. 4! Introduction Open Source Assets Management at INRIA •! more than 400 Open Source Projects with open repositories involving INRIA and 2009 www.antelink.com its partners (Universities, CNRS, etc…) •! more than 1500 projects hosted on INRIAGforge service © INRIA Université Paris Diderot - ROW : •! ! 300 000 Projects with available source code (not always open source components) OW2 forge Massive code reuse => by INRIA INRIAGforge !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau from INRIA Size: number of committers
  • 5. 5! Open Source Project Lifecycle example Scilab: The open source platform for numerical computation ! 1980 kernel for numerical computation 1994 Open code project 2003 Consortium (transition phase) © INRIA Université Paris Diderot - 2009 www.antelink.com 2008 New editor Digitéo Foundation Open Source Project ! 2 M lines of code ! 17 000 files After: Anthony Senyard and Martin Michlmayr !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 6. Legal Maturity 6! 0 100 % % Residual risk (patent, etc…) First release Legal maturity Legal risk Unacceptable legal risk 100 % 0 “Cathedral” Transition Bazaar Phase time % Functional Proof Architectural Technical maturity of concept prototype Technical maturity !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 7. 7! Software: definition(s) Preparatory works (specifications) Code Documentation Scilab Scicos 2 levels The level of the component (component license) The level of the components based system (software license) Scilab kernel could be a part of an embedded software Software = components based (and collaboratively developed) software typically an OSS project !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 8. 8! IPR related to software & License International law framework (Berne convention) National / regional differences Moral rights Owner = author(s) Patrimonial rights = Exploitation Right with 3 main features (reproduction, modification, distribution of original or modified works) Owner = employer of the author License = contract on exploitation rights + owner’s provisions (i.e. Citation provision) => “licence jungle” !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 9. 9! Freedom Matrix: Exploitation & enforcement CASE 2: Medium risk CASE 4: High risk (licenses compatibility) (licenses compatibility yes contracts – (open source or not) Freedom to exploit ? choice of exploitation license) Code reuse Freedom to enforce ? Freedom to exploit ? Freedom to enforce ? CASE 3: Medium risk CASE 1: Low risk (contracts – choice of exploitation license) no Freedom to exploit Freedom to enforce Freedom to exploit ? Freedom to enforce ? No yes (sol ownership) Collaborative development !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 10. 10! OPEN SOURCE LICENSES (FSF/OSI) “ROUGH” TYPOLOGY PERMISSIVE LICENCES: no restriction on exploitation Example : BSD NON PERMISSIVE LICENCES: Restriction provisions on exploitation –! Limited at the component level as such Example : GNU LGPL Non permissive in derivation Permissive in composition (when composed with other CB software proprietary or OSS with appropriate “composition rule”/link) –! Non limited (copyleft) Example : GNU GPL Non permissive in derivation Non Permissive in composition Obligation to redistribute the CB software under the “component” licence Not effective to control Software as a Service component based Software –! GNU Affero GPL (to cover SaaS exploitation model) obligation to make available the source code of the CB software integrating a component under GNU Affero GPL !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 11. 11! Developers needs Use pre-existing components (do not reinvent the wheel) Modify them Compose components : integrate parts, combine, link pre-existing components or ex-nihilo components Distribute the resulting Software Open source licensed components fulfilled developer needs, with some restrictions Software development is a domain with no standardised terminology Combined files, composed, integrated, derived works, « copyleft » licenses, « contaminantes », « viral », « hereditary », permissive, non permissive, … components, files, modules, etc…) Vocabulary could be technology related. Sometimes defined within the license itself (Glossary). The license denomination varies (GPL, GNU GPL, GNU GPL V2) and the licenses change with time. The license attached to a component may change with time !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 12. 12! Exploitation intentions (except on service activities) Capture part of the value Permissive Licensing Freeware no (Free SaaS) (Open SaaS ?) Mixt Modes Proprietary Licensing Double/Dual yes (Commercial SaaS) Licensing no yes Give access to the source Code !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 13. 13! Developers / Editor / Contributor obligations 3 Principles/key legal issues of responsible open source projects contribution or edition 1.! respect the provisions of the licenses attached to the used pre-existing components (and their text integrity) Be aware of open code but not open source licensed components 2.! verify the license compatibility of each pre-existing component with the distribution license of the CBCD Software you intend to use 3.! be owner of the parts you produce (do not create uncontrolled “de facto” joint- ownership with physical contributors/committers) (ex : assignment of IPR –patrimonial- of summer interns working for you and under your authority) !! Respect other contracts/grants or IPR assets attached to components i.e. : confidentiality provisions, special access right to sponsoring states, patents, trademarks, moral rights of authors, etc… If a license attached to a file is a clearly defined legal object, it is not the case for a set of licences and other legal obligations attached to a (sometimes large) set of files and components. !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 14. 14! Graphic Configuration Interface Install Kernel parameterization LGPL GPL Libraries Documentation BSD !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 15. 15! GNU GPL Text integrity issue (ex : mixt between GNU GPL & LGPL) No Licence Summer intern developed Component with no IPR Assignment LGPL Proprietary BSD This lead us to propose the notion of legal situation of a CBCD software !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 16. 16! IPR Legal issues !! Assumption of « legal - development good practices » We assume “development in good faith” when it comes to use pre-existing components (nevertheless, developers should be aware and informed that advanced code reuse detection technologies (nextB, palamida, blackduck, etc … ) can prove unfair practices or counterfeiting of that kind; “development good practices” must be the rule and other practices should be strictly prohibited). This means, for example, that developers do not: "! delete existing headers "! do not modify licence attached to external components, without formal authorisation of the IPR owners of the external components. "! try to hide the origin of external code, by reengineering it, changing the names of variables or doing other non authorised practices. !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 17. 17! Legal situation (1/3)" !! IDENTIFY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS #! Identify all authors (?=contributors) #! Identify copyright owners (? employee)" #! Identify all components, kind of dependencies (! wording “combined”, “link”, “derived”)" #! Contractual issues (Consortium agreement)" #! Applicable law (moral and patrimonial rights)" #! Related content repository #! ... $!NEED FOR A “HIGH LEVEL” FORMALISATION !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau Confidentiel INRIA 26/11/08
  • 18. 18! Legal situation 1st implementation (2/3) !! 1 Position in chain of rights #! Initial software #! Derived software #! Heterogeneous software !! 2 IPR Owners #! Morals rights #! Patrimonial rights !! 3 Legal condition of exploitation #! Exploitation is restricted by an agreement #! Exploitation is restricted by law #! Exploitation is restricted by license (s) or license components compatibility #! Exploitation Is restricted by another binding rule or legal provision !! 2 Other enforceable IPR against software #! Patent #! Trademark #! copyright !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau Confidentiel INRIA 26/11/08
  • 19. 19! a need for a software component implementation (3/3) !! Definition of normalised OSS licence denominations !! Data extraction with licence checker tools to feed Legal Situation Meta-data !! Applied to a large set of source code from various development communities !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau Confidentiel INRIA 26/11/08
  • 20. 20! IPR Tracking models Selection of pre-existing Content controlled Content & legal Certified database yes process checking components controlled process from Post-development audit Legal checking no oriented process controlled process no yes Integration of IPR Tracking methodology to the development process (continuous or sequential) !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 21. 21! Qualipso IPR tracking Methodology at INRIA INRIA proposed an generic IPRT methodology within Qualipso EC funded research project and implemented it for its own organisation (Luc Grateau, Magali Fitzgibbon, Guillaume Rousseau). !! The aim is to set up an appropriate legal governance and process to determine and follow the legal situation of a CBCD software during its development process in order to make sure that this legal status is compliant with the development and exploitation intends of the CBCD software editor. !! This IPRT policy is actually in a test phase at INRIA and based on : •! A training program for developers and support staff to foster their awareness of IPR tracking issues for CBCD software •! a multi-skilled team composed of technical staff, legal persons and technology transfer officers in charge of the legal governance of the software development •! An IPR tracking methodology using software tools (i.e. FOSSology license checker) !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau Confidentiel INRIA 26/11/08
  • 22. 22! Qualipso Methodology implemented at INRIA 1.! High level Description of the software 4. Problem Identification (Description of the software and Risk Evaluation Architecture, functionalities, modules or components) 2. Definition of the scope of the Audit 5. Solve Blocking/Critical Problem (Main objectives) 3. Determination of the Legal 6. Insurance, Dissemination Situation and IPR tracking !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau Confidentiel INRIA 26/11/08
  • 23. Qualipso Methodology (QM) 23! Phase 1 : High level description Example Example 1 : XtreemOS Global position of XtreemOS layer in the software stack !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 24. 24! QM Phase 1 : High level description Example Example 1 : XtreemOS Refined high level description of the « XtreemOS » layer showing main functional domains of two sub-layers (middleware closed sub-layer and system closed sub-layer) !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 25. 25! QM PHASE 2 : Defining strategy Phase 2 is aiming at defining the IPR strategy in relation to the « high level description » of the software. The licensing scheme of a CBCD software could be function of which part of the software you consider, and the related questions you might have to define and monitor the IPR tracking process would depend on the development phase and the licensing or exploitation schemes associated to each relevant software layer or functional domain. i.e. : •! if you planned not to distribute the software, but to give access to it as a “software as a service”, the legal issues are quite different as if you planed to distribute it under as permissive BSD like license. •! If you planned to collaboratively develop the software, issues are different of in-house development !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 26. 26! QM PHASE 2 : Defining strategy XtreemOS use-case BSD layer GNU GPL V2 layer View of the « XtreemOS » licensing strategies XtreemOS Grid support layer, XtreemOS-G : BSD licensing scheme XtreemOS Foundation layer, XtreemOS-F : GNU GPL V2 licensing scheme !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 27. QM PHASE 3 : 27! 3. Determination of the Legal Situation (s) Questionnaire Automated (how the software Legal Status Mining Legal situation is perceived “Fossology” (liked) by the development (realization of a Legal Situation Project Management team) from a source code archive by automated tool(S)) Perceived Determined Legal status Legal status (LS1) (LS2) Next Step: 4. Problem Identification Legal status analysis and Risk Evaluation (LS1,LS2) ; # (LS1,LS2) !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 28. 28! !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 29. 29! !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 30. 30! !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 31. QM PHASE 4 : 31! 4. Problem Identification Legal status analysis and Risk Evaluation (LS1,LS2) ; # (LS1,LS2) LS1 : # (LS1,LS2) : LS2 : features analysis of features analysis of Analysis of differences perceived legal status automatically determined between perceived legal status and automatically determined legal status Problem identification / Risk Evaluation Technico - legal Component Issues Authorship issues Ownership issues (i.e. static/dynamic License text links study, etc…) Public Domain Integrity/modification Other Issues issues issues (i.e. component redundancy) Component Component License with no License/headers “compatibility” issues issues (upper & lower) Other Components Obligation issues (i.e. : citation, etc…) Towards Step 6. Insurance , Next Step: 5. Solve Blocking/Critical Problem(s) Dissemination and IPR tracking !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 32. 2) QM PHASE 5 : 32! 5. Solve Blocking/Critical Problem(s) Problem Solving by development team Component Problem solved by time Component substitution Component (change of license) rewriting by similar elimination Java/Sun components functional component Problem Solving by legal team Notification Negotiation of another IPR acquisition of unsolved compatible licence Licensing in situations for a critical Component to the development team Next Step: 6. Insurance, Dissemination and IPR tracking !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 33. 33! IPR Tracking CONCLUSION Intellectual Property Rights Tracking Methodology for components based and collaboratively developed software is proposed within Qualipso EC Project and under testing at INRIA. A governance or coordination level in charge of IPR tracking issues A process using FOSSology as license checker A better defined and enhanced quality software !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 34. 34! CONCLUSION: IPR Legal issues of open source CBCD Software !! Importance of Academic Actors for the Open Source Ecosystem !! Shared awareness for legal quality control improvement of components based and collaboratively developed software (CBCDS) from academic world •! Toward a Robust Legal Framework for OSS !! LEVERAGE STATE-OF-ART TO FULFILL OPEN SOURCE ECOSYSTEM NEEDS New legal tools : Initiative like CeCILL family - compliant to European legal framework (Define applicable law and comply with liability regulation)" New Audit technologies or tools (FOSSology, OSLC, etc…), New Business opportunity (Palamida, Black Duck, NextB, Neolex,….) New insurance tools for residual risk (Lyods of London and OSRM …) !! BUILD APPROPRIATE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND PROCESS Methodologies (IPR Tracking, Audit, Risk analysis) Dedicated IPR Management Tools Skills and team building !! Aim : Increasing trust in CBCD software Improve legal safety for Contributors, Editors, Customers, Service and product providers !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau
  • 35. 35! !! References: 1 Open (Research) issue toward a legal framework for OSS, FOSDEM 2008 ROUSSEAU http://libresoft.es/Activities/Research_activities/downloads/fosdem2008/papers/INRIA-GR_20080218-final.pdf 2 Guide de diagnostic du logiciel (INRIA Internal document, DTI/SPIV 2006) GRATEAU and FONTAINE 3 Toward an open-source technology transfer model DALLE and ROUSSEAU Proceeding of the 4th Workshop on Open Source Software Engineering 4 IPR Tracking: A methodology for Component Based and Collaboratively Developed software L. GRATEAU, M. FITZGIBBON, G. ROUSSEAU Qualipso EC funded Project, Activity 1 “Legal issues” Deliverable D1.4.1 Diffusion Status : Public January 26th, 2009 Final version: 20th November 2009 !! Contacts: Patrick.Moreau@inria.fr !!INRIA fOSSa Grenoble 17/11/2009 Luc Grateau