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Orchestras and New Media


               “Smart companies
               will get out of the
               way and help the
               inevitable to
               happen sooner.”




                              By Marc van Bree. Version 1.0
Road Map



The Changing Print Environment and the New Media Revolution
New Media: Tools of the Trade

SWOT Analysis: Orchestras and New Media
Measuring Results
The Changing Print Environment
and the New Media Revolution




From slow and stationary to fast and mobile
Art in print. In proportion.

    “At the Chicago Tribune,
    the daily Tempo section,
    which contains arts,
    culture, media and
    technology, represented
    only 5 percent of the
    papers pagination.”




National Arts Journalism Program
at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
Culture up. Resources down.

       “While more Americans
       are participating in cultural
       activities than at any time
       in our history, and
       although the arts have
       evolved to unprecedented
       size and complexity, the
       resources that
       metropolitan newsrooms
       allocate to the arts are
       generally flat or in retreat.”


National Arts Journalism Program
at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
Column inches declining
                                                       Column inches about arts
                                                 in 20 newspapers around the country
               5,600
               5,500
               5,400
               5,300
               5,200
                                                                                  Column Inches
               5,100
               5,000
               4,900
               4,800
               4,700
                                                 1998                    2003

National Arts Journalism Program
at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
Music critics: a disappearing breed

Full-time classical music critic positions eliminated
over the past couple of years:

• Los Angeles Times
• Chicago Sun-Times
• Miami Herald
• Minneapolis Star Tribune
• Kansas City Star
• Seattle Times
• And more…
The lunatic suicide of the press


    “[…] it would be an error to attribute
    this dispiriting attrition to a philistine
    attack on the arts, or to focus too much
    on its meaning for cultural pursuits.
    The de-criticization of American
    journalism is a symptom of a much
    deeper tragedy in civic life: the lunatic
    suicide of the press.”



Justin Davidson, critic for New York Magazine and former critic of Newsday, in an article for Musical America
It’s not just anecdotes

   Statistics from the                     65,000

   Newspaper Association                   63,000

   of America show a                       61,000


   decline in circulation                  59,000


   numbers since the mid                   57,000

                                           55,000
   1980s; from a daily                     53,000

   circulation of over 63                  51,000

   million in 1984 to a                    49,000


   daily circulation of 52                 47,000

                                           45,000
   million in 2006.
                                                    1981




                                                    1987




                                                    1993
                                                    1980

                                                    1982
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                                                    1998
                                                    1999
                                                    2000
                                                    2001
                                                    2002
                                                    2003
                                                    2004
                                                    2005
                                                    2006
                                                     Total Paid Circulation in Thousands




Newspaper Association of America
The good news: the Internet


      Monthly unique visitor numbers
      for newspaper Web sites rose
      from 41 million in January 2004
      to 69 million in May 2008.

      In active reach percentages,
      numbers rose from
      27.5% to 41.7%.



Newspaper Association of America
A shift in strategy
What is today’s Internet?


    “A powerful global conversation has
    begun. Through the Internet, people
    are discovering and inventing new
    ways to share relevant knowledge
    with blinding speed.”




The Cluetrain Manifesto
What does this mean?
     Terms such as new media, social media and
     Web 2.0 are used to describe the Internet’s
     move to more:

     • Participation (encourage contributions)
     • Openness (no barriers to content and feedback)
     • Conversation (listening, not just broadcasting)
     • Community (gather around a common interest)
     • Connectedness (content sharing)




Icrossing’s What is Social Media?
What can new media mean for the arts?

       “[…]an invigorated conversation about the arts, a
       built-in audience of readers who have been betrayed
       by the local paper and the beginnings of a strategy for
       surviving the implosion of traditional news.”




Justin Davidson, critic for New York Magazine and former critic of Newsday, in an article for Musical America
Brand and media proliferation

      Brand proliferation
      In the 1990s, the number of brands on grocery store
      shelves tripled from 15,000 to 45,000

      Media proliferation
      13,500 radio stations (4,400 in 1960)
      17,300 magazine titles (8,400 in 1960)
      82.4 TV channels per home (5.4 in 1960)
      …and billions of Web pages



Weng Wah Wong. Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution. On Slideshare
Messages getting lost in the noise
                                34%


                                                               24%



                                                                                     13%
                                                                                            9%




                               1965                           1974                   1981   2000

                                     Percent of adult evening viewers who can name a
                                          brand advertised in show just watched


Weng Wah Wong. Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution. On Slideshare.
Be their steward
     “More than just realizing that they have lost some of
     the control over their audience they once enjoyed,
     organizations must embrace the relationships they
     have with their customers and work twice as hard to
     make sure the information customers are using to
     form their opinions comes from the organization.
     Customers want help, they want to
     be led—and organizations can, and
     should, fill that need. You must be
     their steward.”



Brian Reich and Dan Solomon. Media Rules!
New media:
Tools of the trade
New vs. old

Old Internet                   New Internet
You look for content           Content is delivered to you
Syndication and RSS
Web or RSS feeds are the standard
method of distributing dynamic
content to subscribers.

Dynamic content can include: blog
posts, newspaper or magazine
articles, news releases, audio files
and videos.

Whenever you see the image to
your right, you know you can
subscribe to the content.
Syndication and RSS

Create your own
newspaper
Use a service such as Bloglines
or Google Reader to pull
together a collection of Web
feeds, which is known as
aggregation, and customize
your own news experience.
Tagging and folksonomy
Tagging is the core social element
of many Web 2.0 services. Tags, or
key words, can make content
searchable and findable. Tags
can make content social.

The buzzword for this
phenomenon is “folksonomy,”
which translates to “user
generated classification.” Users
tag and categorize data and create
new ways to find information.
Tagging and folksonomy



Tagging in action
The editors of Chicagoist.com
use a special “chicagoist” tag in
Flickr, an image hosting service,
so that their readers can share
and mark photos that might be
interesting for Chicagoist’s
readers and blog posts.
Blogging
A blog, short for weblog,
is a Web site with
regular entries on any
topic imaginable, an
online journal.

Important questions for
organizations are “how
does our organization
connect with bloggers?”
and “why should our
organization blog?”
Blogging: key elements

Openness
no barriers to content, news
and information


Participation and
Conversation
blogs are a two-way street
with feedback and discussions


Community and
Connectedness
linking, tagging and sharing
with a community of similar
interests
Connecting with blogs

     Consider this: how did your organization connect with
     your hometown newspaper and local journalists?

     Read (know who is writing and what they are
     writing)

     Participate (comment first, pitch later)
     Build relationships (provide the same level
     of service you would provide a journalist)

     Adapt materials (if you think journalists are
     weary of press releases… personalize your pitch and
     remember you are working with a multi-media outlet)


Drew McManus. How to Connect With New Media. On Adaptistration.
Why Blog?
Keeping up with the Joneses is not the right answer;
there should be a strategic objective for starting a
blog. If you’re not sure why, perhaps you shouldn’t be
starting a blog.

Culture (does your organization have particular cultural traits worth revealing?)
Transparency (transparency is crucial to establishing credibility and trust)
Time (it takes a lot of time to set up, research, write and engage)
Dialogue (ability and willingness to engage with the community)
Writing Style and Personalization (bring a human side to a blog)
Institutional blogs
  Institutional Info Blog
  (blogs that distribute news about the organization)

  Community Content Blog
  (blogs that take the content and
  offerings of the organization and
  try to open it up to community input)

  Specialized Content Blog
  (blogs that are typically linked to a
  special event or festival)

  Personal Voice Blog
  (blogs in which individuals or a
  small panel of staff offer personal
  commentary about their organization).


http://museumtwo.blogspot.com/
Digital storytelling

Perhaps the most
intriguing aspect of
blogs, content
communities and other
social media services is
the opportunity to tell
a digital story and give
others the opportunity
to tell your
organization’s story.
Content to be shared and syndicated


    When you tell your
    story or want others to
    tell it for you:
    “Create content that is designed to be
    syndicated, to be absorbed by other
    venues and promoted widely. Don’t
    just deliver prepackaged stuff. Offer
    information to people that can be
    reproduced and redelivered, raw
    materials that can be molded to
    match almost any situation.”




Brian Reich and Dan Solomon. Media Rules!
New media tools: youtube
   Social content
   communities

   Videos on YouTube, images
   on Flickr, they can all tell a
   story. “Tag and title your
   videos with relevant
   keywords—that’s how users
   will find your content as they
   navigate YouTube.”

   Make content social: sharing,
   user ratings and information
   filtering presents media that
   are of likely interest to other
   users; feedback and
   discussions opens up
   conversation.

http://www.youtube.com/t/ngo_tips
New media tools: del.icio.us

Social
bookmarking

Follow stories online and
keep track of conversations
on the Web. And share
alike.

Users store, organize,
search and manage
bookmarks of Web pages.
Each bookmark is
accompanied by a tag or
several tags, making your
content searchable and
findable.
New media tools: twitter

Micro-blogging
Sound bite stories: Twitter allows
the user to post short (up to 140
characters) messages for the
public to see in a process called
micro-blogging.

Twitter’s uses are multiple:
networking, sharing information
but also conversation monitoring
(even if you’re not ready to jump
in the conversation yourself, you
can monitor what is being said
about your organization)
New media tools: yelp


Social city guide
People’s stories: online city
guides now combine yellow
pages, city guides and social
networks with user-generated
content.

Users can find, review and talk
about places, restaurants,
doctors and anything local.
New media tools: wikipedia


Social encyclopedia
Allows users (not employees!)
to freely contribute to or edit
content, operating on the
philosophy that the more users
participate, the better the
content.

The collective intelligence
empowers the community.

A credible story.
New media tools: last.fm

Social music

Ultimately, for orchestras,
music is the story. Through
recommendations, users are
presented information items
(movies, music, books, news,
images, Web pages) that are
likely of interest to them.

A recommender system
compares the user’s profile to
some reference characteristics.
These characteristics may come
from user input or the user’s
social environment.
New media tools: social networks




Image: http://www.esv.org/assets/blog/2007.01.nt.social.network.big.png
Social networks
Social network services are the embodiment of Web
2.0; more than any other service they encourage
participation, openness, conversation, community,
and connectedness on the Internet.

Just as telephone, fax and
e-mail changed the way
we communicate; social
networking has
revolutionized our
conversations and social
interactions.
Social networks: key elements


Openness and
Community
A public profile serves as a
base from which the users
build a network of friends
and contacts.
Social networks: key elements

Connectedness
and community
Relationships and
connections are no longer
hidden; you know who your
friends’ friends are.

Opening up professional
(LinkedIn) and personal
(Facebook) opportunities.
Social networks: key elements

    Participation and
    conversation
    An MTV/Nickelodeon study found that
    “despite the remarkable advances in
    communication technology, kid and
    youth culture looks surprisingly
    familiar, with almost all young people
    using technology to enhance rather
    than replace face-to-face interaction.”




http://sev.prnewswire.com/multimedia-online-
internet/20070724/NYTU10924072007-1.html
Social networks: key elements


Openness and
connectedness
Openness without barriers to
content (photos, streaming
audio etc.) and conversation
(comments and discussion).

And connectedness through
sharing content and links with
your community.
Social networks: key approach

                                                                Online
                                                             relationships
                                     Add value to a          complement
                                      user’s time               offline
                                        and life             relationships



Why social networks?                                     Provide
                                                      content to be
                                                       shared and
Social networks enhance a user’s                       syndicated
life by being accommodating
through constant connectivity, on-
demand content and expanding
social capital.
SWOT analysis:
       Orchestras and New Media

A good start in sizing up
an organization’s
situation and crafting a
strategy is the SWOT
analysis, which appraises
a company’s resource
strengths and
weaknesses and its
external opportunities
and threats.
SWOT analysis: strengths

Materials and media
• Vast amount of interesting (archival) content to share with its constituents; many materials
are easily accessible or adaptable to the new media environment;
• Expertise in producing media and content (audio, program notes, knowledgeable
employees and intellectual capital in regards to content);
• Facilities and human assets to create content (recording studios, high profile guest artists);
• Strong global distribution capabilities.


Engaged and involved audience
• Orchestra audiences are involved and engaged with the product; pride, participation and
community are important factors in audience experiences;
• Strong, involved market; classical music has an enormously strong and engaged community.


Established infrastructure, sites and places
• A powerful brand name within the community, country or world;
• Extensive and established Web sites;
• Established as an authoritative and credible organization;
• Classical music is established on the Internet with several communities;
SWOT analysis: weaknesses

Financial resources
• Budgets are stretched beyond facility; a weak balance sheet;
• Short on financial resources to grow the business and pursue promising initiatives.


Human resources
• New media is unchartered territory for many organizations; no intellectual capital or
knowledgeable employees to make effective use of new media;
• Non-profit job descriptions are stretched and wide-ranging; very few to no orchestras have
employed a new media person. Questions as to who is responsible for new media and how
much time is devoted to new media.


Contracts and Copyright
• Musician contracts and copyright laws prevent full and open use of materials and media
SWOT analysis: opportunities
Openings to exploit emerging new technologies
• New media can significantly extend the life a performance, reaching more patrons and
increasing customer service;
• Online relationships work best when there is an established offline relationship. Online
relationships will complement and add value to an offline relationship.


Expanding into new geographic markets and serving
additional market segments
• The Internet is not bound by geography; patrons and fans from all over the world can enjoy a
geographically confined orchestra outside of limited tours and recordings;
• Changes in social patterns online; 64% of teens are online content creators, therein lies a great
opportunity to connect with a new market segment.


Openings to win market share from rivals
• Through a wide geographic coverage and strong global distribution capabilities, orchestras can
capture market share from rivals that are not represented in new media.


Entering into alliances or joint ventures to expand the
organization’s market coverage
• Collaboration with other arts organizations, community organizations or orchestras.
SWOT analysis: threats

Cluttered environment
• Breaking through the noise; with so many different niche markets and different media, it is
hard to break through the clutter and determine the most effective channels;


Ever changing landscape
• Key rivals introduce innovative new products;
• Changes in technology and markets.


Demographic structure
• Difference in demographic makeup between orchestra audience and new media users
limits demand.
SWOT analysis: what’s next?
       Use company strengths and capabilities as
       cornerstones for strategy
       Use available materials and media, engaged audience and established sites


       Pursue those market opportunities best suited to
       company strengths and capabilities
       Maintain strong relationships with patrons, extend the life of a performance and open the
       door to other geographic markets


       Correct weaknesses and deficiencies that impair
       pursuit of important market opportunities or
       heighten vulnerability to external threats
       Set a budget for new media, hire or train staff, review contracts and copyrights and keep
       track of changes in technology and markets (and don’t put your eggs in one basket)



Thompson, Arthur, John Gamble and A.J. Strickland. Strategy: Core Concepts, Analytical Tools, Readings
Measuring results:
Return on Investment
Measuring results
     “In social media and the
     blogosphere, being able to measure,
     track and compare the results is a
     requirement for determining next
     steps and strategy.”
     First, an organization needs to find out what it is trying to
     accomplish. Are you spreading a message, building a
     community, raising awareness, forging relationships?
     From there, find out what to measure.

     Earlier, we established some key elements of social
     media: community, conversation, participation and
     connectedness. And of course content; content drives
     the community. Now, how can we translate these
     concepts into measurable attributes?


Dow Jones. Tracking the Influence of Conversations.
Measuring results: triad of measurement

    Interest
    What and how much is the interest in
    your organization

    Attitude
    What attitudes do people hold about
    your organization

    Action
    What actions, that matter from a
    business perspective, do people take
    as a result of your campaign




Kami Huyse. The Triad of Measurement.
Measuring results: interest

Activity
(how many people did you reach)

Page views
Unique site visitors
And many more metrics


Community
(who is your community)

Demographics
(age, location, income etc.);
Psychographics
(lifestyle, behavior, values etc.)
Measuring results: interest
        Activity
        Unique page views over
        2-month period (May 1-July 1)
Measuring results: interest
                     Community
                     Facebook fan demographics




CSO Fans on Facebook
• Over 50% of our fans are younger than 24
• Over 85% of the fans are younger than 34
Measuring results: attitudes
Conversation
(what is the community talking about)

Conversation Index (ratio between blog posts and comments-plus-trackbacks);
Influential Ideas (memes; how long does a message remain in the arena of
public opinion and interaction)

Connectedness
(what is your relationship with the community)

Relationships and Connections (influence within a specific community)

Content
(what is the focus of the community or conversation)

Relevance (how relevant to my company
is a particular blog post);
Tone (what is the sentiment associated
with the response, positive, negative or neutral)
Measuring results: attitudes
Conversation
blog postings on “Chicago Symphony” from April 11-July 9
Measuring results: attitudes

Conversation and
Content
Keeping track of the
conversation on del.icio.us.,
where you can learn about
tone and relevance of specific
conversations, blog posts and
Web pages.

Here you see conversations
about San Francisco
Symphony’s “Blogger Night”
Measuring results: action

Participation
(what is the community doing; what are its actions)

Engagement (the recipient responds to a message; a
comment or feedback; initiating a conversation)

Sales (ticket or product sales as a direct response)

Community Activation (sharing and recommending
products or events; word of mouth)
Measuring results: action




               Engagement
               Posts on discussion boards,
               your Facebook “wall”
Measuring results: action

Sales and community
activation

You can measure user action in
various ways on Facebook. To the
left, action can be both sharing
the event invitation (community
activation) and confirming
attendance (sales)
Orchestras and New Media


Wrapping up
Back to The Cluetrain Manifesto: thesis number 57 pleads the case
that “smart companies will get out of the way and help the inevitable
to happen sooner.” Seeing the decline in traditional arts coverage, the
inevitable, it seems, is an increase in participation and conversations
with your community.

But I leave it to each individual organization to create its own set of
lists, draw its own conclusions and determine its own course of action.
This brief and incomplete analysis merely serves as a guide and as a
provoker of thought on orchestras and new media.
Orchestras and New Media


By Marc van Bree
This presentation was produced from the series “Orchestras
and New Media” on my blog Dutch Perspective. Many sources
have contributed to this series and presentation. If I have
inadvertently left any attribution out, please do let me know.

For any question, comments or feedback, please feel free to
contact me at any time:

dutchperspective (at) mcmvanbree.com
mcmvanbree.com/dutchperspective
Orchestras and New Media

Special thanks to
National Arts Journalism Program at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
Newspaper Association of America
The Cluetrain Manifesto
Icrossing’s What is Social Media?
Justin Davidson’s Whither Withering Criticism on Musical America
Drew McManus’s How to Connect With New Media on Adaptistration
Weng Wah Wong’s Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution on Slideshare
Brian Reich and Dan Solomon’s Media Rules!
Nina Simon on Museum 2.0
Beth Kanter on Beth's Blog: How Nonprofits Can Use Social Media
Kami Huyse on Communication Overtones
Dow Jones’s Tracking the Influence of Conversations.
Thompson, Arthur, John Gamble and A.J. Strickland Strategy: Core Concepts, Analytical
Tools, Readings

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Orchestras and New Media

  • 1. Orchestras and New Media “Smart companies will get out of the way and help the inevitable to happen sooner.” By Marc van Bree. Version 1.0
  • 2. Road Map The Changing Print Environment and the New Media Revolution New Media: Tools of the Trade SWOT Analysis: Orchestras and New Media Measuring Results
  • 3. The Changing Print Environment and the New Media Revolution From slow and stationary to fast and mobile
  • 4. Art in print. In proportion. “At the Chicago Tribune, the daily Tempo section, which contains arts, culture, media and technology, represented only 5 percent of the papers pagination.” National Arts Journalism Program at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
  • 5. Culture up. Resources down. “While more Americans are participating in cultural activities than at any time in our history, and although the arts have evolved to unprecedented size and complexity, the resources that metropolitan newsrooms allocate to the arts are generally flat or in retreat.” National Arts Journalism Program at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
  • 6. Column inches declining Column inches about arts in 20 newspapers around the country 5,600 5,500 5,400 5,300 5,200 Column Inches 5,100 5,000 4,900 4,800 4,700 1998 2003 National Arts Journalism Program at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II”
  • 7. Music critics: a disappearing breed Full-time classical music critic positions eliminated over the past couple of years: • Los Angeles Times • Chicago Sun-Times • Miami Herald • Minneapolis Star Tribune • Kansas City Star • Seattle Times • And more…
  • 8. The lunatic suicide of the press “[…] it would be an error to attribute this dispiriting attrition to a philistine attack on the arts, or to focus too much on its meaning for cultural pursuits. The de-criticization of American journalism is a symptom of a much deeper tragedy in civic life: the lunatic suicide of the press.” Justin Davidson, critic for New York Magazine and former critic of Newsday, in an article for Musical America
  • 9. It’s not just anecdotes Statistics from the 65,000 Newspaper Association 63,000 of America show a 61,000 decline in circulation 59,000 numbers since the mid 57,000 55,000 1980s; from a daily 53,000 circulation of over 63 51,000 million in 1984 to a 49,000 daily circulation of 52 47,000 45,000 million in 2006. 1981 1987 1993 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total Paid Circulation in Thousands Newspaper Association of America
  • 10. The good news: the Internet Monthly unique visitor numbers for newspaper Web sites rose from 41 million in January 2004 to 69 million in May 2008. In active reach percentages, numbers rose from 27.5% to 41.7%. Newspaper Association of America
  • 11. A shift in strategy
  • 12. What is today’s Internet? “A powerful global conversation has begun. Through the Internet, people are discovering and inventing new ways to share relevant knowledge with blinding speed.” The Cluetrain Manifesto
  • 13. What does this mean? Terms such as new media, social media and Web 2.0 are used to describe the Internet’s move to more: • Participation (encourage contributions) • Openness (no barriers to content and feedback) • Conversation (listening, not just broadcasting) • Community (gather around a common interest) • Connectedness (content sharing) Icrossing’s What is Social Media?
  • 14. What can new media mean for the arts? “[…]an invigorated conversation about the arts, a built-in audience of readers who have been betrayed by the local paper and the beginnings of a strategy for surviving the implosion of traditional news.” Justin Davidson, critic for New York Magazine and former critic of Newsday, in an article for Musical America
  • 15. Brand and media proliferation Brand proliferation In the 1990s, the number of brands on grocery store shelves tripled from 15,000 to 45,000 Media proliferation 13,500 radio stations (4,400 in 1960) 17,300 magazine titles (8,400 in 1960) 82.4 TV channels per home (5.4 in 1960) …and billions of Web pages Weng Wah Wong. Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution. On Slideshare
  • 16. Messages getting lost in the noise 34% 24% 13% 9% 1965 1974 1981 2000 Percent of adult evening viewers who can name a brand advertised in show just watched Weng Wah Wong. Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution. On Slideshare.
  • 17. Be their steward “More than just realizing that they have lost some of the control over their audience they once enjoyed, organizations must embrace the relationships they have with their customers and work twice as hard to make sure the information customers are using to form their opinions comes from the organization. Customers want help, they want to be led—and organizations can, and should, fill that need. You must be their steward.” Brian Reich and Dan Solomon. Media Rules!
  • 18. New media: Tools of the trade
  • 19. New vs. old Old Internet New Internet You look for content Content is delivered to you
  • 20. Syndication and RSS Web or RSS feeds are the standard method of distributing dynamic content to subscribers. Dynamic content can include: blog posts, newspaper or magazine articles, news releases, audio files and videos. Whenever you see the image to your right, you know you can subscribe to the content.
  • 21. Syndication and RSS Create your own newspaper Use a service such as Bloglines or Google Reader to pull together a collection of Web feeds, which is known as aggregation, and customize your own news experience.
  • 22. Tagging and folksonomy Tagging is the core social element of many Web 2.0 services. Tags, or key words, can make content searchable and findable. Tags can make content social. The buzzword for this phenomenon is “folksonomy,” which translates to “user generated classification.” Users tag and categorize data and create new ways to find information.
  • 23. Tagging and folksonomy Tagging in action The editors of Chicagoist.com use a special “chicagoist” tag in Flickr, an image hosting service, so that their readers can share and mark photos that might be interesting for Chicagoist’s readers and blog posts.
  • 24. Blogging A blog, short for weblog, is a Web site with regular entries on any topic imaginable, an online journal. Important questions for organizations are “how does our organization connect with bloggers?” and “why should our organization blog?”
  • 25. Blogging: key elements Openness no barriers to content, news and information Participation and Conversation blogs are a two-way street with feedback and discussions Community and Connectedness linking, tagging and sharing with a community of similar interests
  • 26. Connecting with blogs Consider this: how did your organization connect with your hometown newspaper and local journalists? Read (know who is writing and what they are writing) Participate (comment first, pitch later) Build relationships (provide the same level of service you would provide a journalist) Adapt materials (if you think journalists are weary of press releases… personalize your pitch and remember you are working with a multi-media outlet) Drew McManus. How to Connect With New Media. On Adaptistration.
  • 27. Why Blog? Keeping up with the Joneses is not the right answer; there should be a strategic objective for starting a blog. If you’re not sure why, perhaps you shouldn’t be starting a blog. Culture (does your organization have particular cultural traits worth revealing?) Transparency (transparency is crucial to establishing credibility and trust) Time (it takes a lot of time to set up, research, write and engage) Dialogue (ability and willingness to engage with the community) Writing Style and Personalization (bring a human side to a blog)
  • 28. Institutional blogs Institutional Info Blog (blogs that distribute news about the organization) Community Content Blog (blogs that take the content and offerings of the organization and try to open it up to community input) Specialized Content Blog (blogs that are typically linked to a special event or festival) Personal Voice Blog (blogs in which individuals or a small panel of staff offer personal commentary about their organization). http://museumtwo.blogspot.com/
  • 29. Digital storytelling Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of blogs, content communities and other social media services is the opportunity to tell a digital story and give others the opportunity to tell your organization’s story.
  • 30. Content to be shared and syndicated When you tell your story or want others to tell it for you: “Create content that is designed to be syndicated, to be absorbed by other venues and promoted widely. Don’t just deliver prepackaged stuff. Offer information to people that can be reproduced and redelivered, raw materials that can be molded to match almost any situation.” Brian Reich and Dan Solomon. Media Rules!
  • 31. New media tools: youtube Social content communities Videos on YouTube, images on Flickr, they can all tell a story. “Tag and title your videos with relevant keywords—that’s how users will find your content as they navigate YouTube.” Make content social: sharing, user ratings and information filtering presents media that are of likely interest to other users; feedback and discussions opens up conversation. http://www.youtube.com/t/ngo_tips
  • 32. New media tools: del.icio.us Social bookmarking Follow stories online and keep track of conversations on the Web. And share alike. Users store, organize, search and manage bookmarks of Web pages. Each bookmark is accompanied by a tag or several tags, making your content searchable and findable.
  • 33. New media tools: twitter Micro-blogging Sound bite stories: Twitter allows the user to post short (up to 140 characters) messages for the public to see in a process called micro-blogging. Twitter’s uses are multiple: networking, sharing information but also conversation monitoring (even if you’re not ready to jump in the conversation yourself, you can monitor what is being said about your organization)
  • 34. New media tools: yelp Social city guide People’s stories: online city guides now combine yellow pages, city guides and social networks with user-generated content. Users can find, review and talk about places, restaurants, doctors and anything local.
  • 35. New media tools: wikipedia Social encyclopedia Allows users (not employees!) to freely contribute to or edit content, operating on the philosophy that the more users participate, the better the content. The collective intelligence empowers the community. A credible story.
  • 36. New media tools: last.fm Social music Ultimately, for orchestras, music is the story. Through recommendations, users are presented information items (movies, music, books, news, images, Web pages) that are likely of interest to them. A recommender system compares the user’s profile to some reference characteristics. These characteristics may come from user input or the user’s social environment.
  • 37. New media tools: social networks Image: http://www.esv.org/assets/blog/2007.01.nt.social.network.big.png
  • 38. Social networks Social network services are the embodiment of Web 2.0; more than any other service they encourage participation, openness, conversation, community, and connectedness on the Internet. Just as telephone, fax and e-mail changed the way we communicate; social networking has revolutionized our conversations and social interactions.
  • 39. Social networks: key elements Openness and Community A public profile serves as a base from which the users build a network of friends and contacts.
  • 40. Social networks: key elements Connectedness and community Relationships and connections are no longer hidden; you know who your friends’ friends are. Opening up professional (LinkedIn) and personal (Facebook) opportunities.
  • 41. Social networks: key elements Participation and conversation An MTV/Nickelodeon study found that “despite the remarkable advances in communication technology, kid and youth culture looks surprisingly familiar, with almost all young people using technology to enhance rather than replace face-to-face interaction.” http://sev.prnewswire.com/multimedia-online- internet/20070724/NYTU10924072007-1.html
  • 42. Social networks: key elements Openness and connectedness Openness without barriers to content (photos, streaming audio etc.) and conversation (comments and discussion). And connectedness through sharing content and links with your community.
  • 43. Social networks: key approach Online relationships Add value to a complement user’s time offline and life relationships Why social networks? Provide content to be shared and Social networks enhance a user’s syndicated life by being accommodating through constant connectivity, on- demand content and expanding social capital.
  • 44. SWOT analysis: Orchestras and New Media A good start in sizing up an organization’s situation and crafting a strategy is the SWOT analysis, which appraises a company’s resource strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats.
  • 45. SWOT analysis: strengths Materials and media • Vast amount of interesting (archival) content to share with its constituents; many materials are easily accessible or adaptable to the new media environment; • Expertise in producing media and content (audio, program notes, knowledgeable employees and intellectual capital in regards to content); • Facilities and human assets to create content (recording studios, high profile guest artists); • Strong global distribution capabilities. Engaged and involved audience • Orchestra audiences are involved and engaged with the product; pride, participation and community are important factors in audience experiences; • Strong, involved market; classical music has an enormously strong and engaged community. Established infrastructure, sites and places • A powerful brand name within the community, country or world; • Extensive and established Web sites; • Established as an authoritative and credible organization; • Classical music is established on the Internet with several communities;
  • 46. SWOT analysis: weaknesses Financial resources • Budgets are stretched beyond facility; a weak balance sheet; • Short on financial resources to grow the business and pursue promising initiatives. Human resources • New media is unchartered territory for many organizations; no intellectual capital or knowledgeable employees to make effective use of new media; • Non-profit job descriptions are stretched and wide-ranging; very few to no orchestras have employed a new media person. Questions as to who is responsible for new media and how much time is devoted to new media. Contracts and Copyright • Musician contracts and copyright laws prevent full and open use of materials and media
  • 47. SWOT analysis: opportunities Openings to exploit emerging new technologies • New media can significantly extend the life a performance, reaching more patrons and increasing customer service; • Online relationships work best when there is an established offline relationship. Online relationships will complement and add value to an offline relationship. Expanding into new geographic markets and serving additional market segments • The Internet is not bound by geography; patrons and fans from all over the world can enjoy a geographically confined orchestra outside of limited tours and recordings; • Changes in social patterns online; 64% of teens are online content creators, therein lies a great opportunity to connect with a new market segment. Openings to win market share from rivals • Through a wide geographic coverage and strong global distribution capabilities, orchestras can capture market share from rivals that are not represented in new media. Entering into alliances or joint ventures to expand the organization’s market coverage • Collaboration with other arts organizations, community organizations or orchestras.
  • 48. SWOT analysis: threats Cluttered environment • Breaking through the noise; with so many different niche markets and different media, it is hard to break through the clutter and determine the most effective channels; Ever changing landscape • Key rivals introduce innovative new products; • Changes in technology and markets. Demographic structure • Difference in demographic makeup between orchestra audience and new media users limits demand.
  • 49. SWOT analysis: what’s next? Use company strengths and capabilities as cornerstones for strategy Use available materials and media, engaged audience and established sites Pursue those market opportunities best suited to company strengths and capabilities Maintain strong relationships with patrons, extend the life of a performance and open the door to other geographic markets Correct weaknesses and deficiencies that impair pursuit of important market opportunities or heighten vulnerability to external threats Set a budget for new media, hire or train staff, review contracts and copyrights and keep track of changes in technology and markets (and don’t put your eggs in one basket) Thompson, Arthur, John Gamble and A.J. Strickland. Strategy: Core Concepts, Analytical Tools, Readings
  • 51. Measuring results “In social media and the blogosphere, being able to measure, track and compare the results is a requirement for determining next steps and strategy.” First, an organization needs to find out what it is trying to accomplish. Are you spreading a message, building a community, raising awareness, forging relationships? From there, find out what to measure. Earlier, we established some key elements of social media: community, conversation, participation and connectedness. And of course content; content drives the community. Now, how can we translate these concepts into measurable attributes? Dow Jones. Tracking the Influence of Conversations.
  • 52. Measuring results: triad of measurement Interest What and how much is the interest in your organization Attitude What attitudes do people hold about your organization Action What actions, that matter from a business perspective, do people take as a result of your campaign Kami Huyse. The Triad of Measurement.
  • 53. Measuring results: interest Activity (how many people did you reach) Page views Unique site visitors And many more metrics Community (who is your community) Demographics (age, location, income etc.); Psychographics (lifestyle, behavior, values etc.)
  • 54. Measuring results: interest Activity Unique page views over 2-month period (May 1-July 1)
  • 55. Measuring results: interest Community Facebook fan demographics CSO Fans on Facebook • Over 50% of our fans are younger than 24 • Over 85% of the fans are younger than 34
  • 56. Measuring results: attitudes Conversation (what is the community talking about) Conversation Index (ratio between blog posts and comments-plus-trackbacks); Influential Ideas (memes; how long does a message remain in the arena of public opinion and interaction) Connectedness (what is your relationship with the community) Relationships and Connections (influence within a specific community) Content (what is the focus of the community or conversation) Relevance (how relevant to my company is a particular blog post); Tone (what is the sentiment associated with the response, positive, negative or neutral)
  • 57. Measuring results: attitudes Conversation blog postings on “Chicago Symphony” from April 11-July 9
  • 58. Measuring results: attitudes Conversation and Content Keeping track of the conversation on del.icio.us., where you can learn about tone and relevance of specific conversations, blog posts and Web pages. Here you see conversations about San Francisco Symphony’s “Blogger Night”
  • 59. Measuring results: action Participation (what is the community doing; what are its actions) Engagement (the recipient responds to a message; a comment or feedback; initiating a conversation) Sales (ticket or product sales as a direct response) Community Activation (sharing and recommending products or events; word of mouth)
  • 60. Measuring results: action Engagement Posts on discussion boards, your Facebook “wall”
  • 61. Measuring results: action Sales and community activation You can measure user action in various ways on Facebook. To the left, action can be both sharing the event invitation (community activation) and confirming attendance (sales)
  • 62. Orchestras and New Media Wrapping up Back to The Cluetrain Manifesto: thesis number 57 pleads the case that “smart companies will get out of the way and help the inevitable to happen sooner.” Seeing the decline in traditional arts coverage, the inevitable, it seems, is an increase in participation and conversations with your community. But I leave it to each individual organization to create its own set of lists, draw its own conclusions and determine its own course of action. This brief and incomplete analysis merely serves as a guide and as a provoker of thought on orchestras and new media.
  • 63. Orchestras and New Media By Marc van Bree This presentation was produced from the series “Orchestras and New Media” on my blog Dutch Perspective. Many sources have contributed to this series and presentation. If I have inadvertently left any attribution out, please do let me know. For any question, comments or feedback, please feel free to contact me at any time: dutchperspective (at) mcmvanbree.com mcmvanbree.com/dutchperspective
  • 64. Orchestras and New Media Special thanks to National Arts Journalism Program at Columbia University “Reporting the Arts II” Newspaper Association of America The Cluetrain Manifesto Icrossing’s What is Social Media? Justin Davidson’s Whither Withering Criticism on Musical America Drew McManus’s How to Connect With New Media on Adaptistration Weng Wah Wong’s Social Media and Marketing: Evolution or Revolution on Slideshare Brian Reich and Dan Solomon’s Media Rules! Nina Simon on Museum 2.0 Beth Kanter on Beth's Blog: How Nonprofits Can Use Social Media Kami Huyse on Communication Overtones Dow Jones’s Tracking the Influence of Conversations. Thompson, Arthur, John Gamble and A.J. Strickland Strategy: Core Concepts, Analytical Tools, Readings