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SOURCE
• In journalism,asource isa person,publication,recordora documentthat providesinformation.
WHAT IS SOURCE
• Source is alsocalleda pointfromwhere some thingisderivedorobtained.
• Pointof originof informationisalsocalledasource.
• A personor documentthatsupplies informationisalsoasource.
• Causes,creates,orinitiates.
NEWS SOURCES
• A reportercollectsinformationfromvarioussources.Informationcanbe
collectedthroughobservationorbyinterviewingaperson.Informationcanbe
derivedfrom,publicdocuments,statistics,private diaries,letters,books,
libraries,newspapers,magazines,internet,wastebasketsormicrofilms.
SOURCE
• We can divide the sourcesintwocategories.
• Conventional sources
• Modern Sources
• Conventional Sources
• PressConferences.
• President+Prime Minister’sAddresstothe Nation.
• Briefingbyvariousministers
• Pressreleases
• Budget
• Export policyannouncements
• Government /oppositionreactions
• Parliament
• Radiomonitoring
• TV monitoring
• Foreignoffice
• Court decisions
• Accidents
• Religiousactivities
• Terroristactivities/Terrorism
• Celebrities
• Jobs/ Employment
• Industry
• Associations
• Sports
• Books
• Airports
• Real estate
• Immigrations
• Sea
• Roads
• Travel
• Universities
• Antiquities
• Friends
• Familyissue s
• Animalsand pets
• Shopping
• Fashion
• Farming
• Overheard
• Diary and Club+ entertainment
WHAT IS NEWS AGENCIES OR WIRE S ERVI CE
• A newsagencyisan organizationof journalistsestablishedtosupplynewsitems
to newspapers,magazines,radioandtelevisionbroadcasters.
• Newsagenciesare alsoknownaswire servicesornewsservices.
• Newsagenciesgenerally prepare hard newsstoriesandfeature articles.
NEWSAGENCIES
• Four majornews agenciesof the world are AssociatedPress(AP),Reuters,AFP
and UnitedPressInternational(UPI).
• These Newsagencies(transmitnewsof local,regional,national and international
significance).
• AP andReutersnewsagenciesalsoprovidevideoservicetothe clients.
• Developmentsof the newsagencieshave agreatimpact on the processof foreign
newsselectionandreporting.Colonial newsagenciesare still strong.
• Developingcountriesare influencedbythe world’sleadingwire services.
• Theyreport the eventformtheir ownnational andglobal interests.
• The mainChinese newsagencyisN e w ChinaNewsAgency.ItsHeadquartersis
inBeijing.
• Russian’smajornewsagencyisTASS.Thisnews agencyisalsoname d as ITAR
– TASS.
• The official Newsagencyof IraniscalledPARAS.
• Organizationof Islami c CountriesnewsagencyisIINA (Islami c International
Newsagency) itwasestablishedbythe OIC.
• TurkishnewsagencyisANADOLU AJANSI
• IndonesiannewsagencyiscalledANTARANEWS.
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• Before isemergence of Pakistanin UnitedIndiathe firstnews agencywas
establishedin1905.
• It was name d as AssociatedPressof India.
• Duringfirstworldwar anothernewsagencywasformedwiththe name of Orient
Pressof India.
• Firstnewsagencyof Pakistanwasestablishedwiththe name of AssociatedPress
of Pakistan(APP)
SOURCES IN NEWSROOM
• Newsroomitself isalsoanimportant source of news.There are numberof
reference booksthatare available inthe newsroomwhichcanbe the important
sourcesof news.
• One of the hi-techsource of newsisCQ Researcher(Congressional Quarterly
researcher).Itcontains all quarterlyinformationaboutthe functionandworking
of Americancongress.These typesof sourcesare alsoavailable aboutPakistan’s
Parliament.?
• World Almanacandworldyearbook are alsoveryvaluable sourcesof news.
• Law dictionariesandlegal encyclopediacanalsobe termedassourcesof
information.
• Digestsof cases,Freedomof informationactand State informationactcanalso be
goodsource of information.
SOURCE
• Newswritingisgenerallyayoungperson’sprofession.
• If youhave the ambition,drive,energyandwillingnesstopursue astory
aggressivelyyoucangetit.
• Electronicdatabase s are the newesttools.Writerscan use the database intheir
searchfor information.
• A newbreedof reportergettingoutvaluable informationfromelectronicsources.
• Full textdata bases.The actual textof records,articlesor statementsare displayed
on the researcher’sscreen.
• Citationdata
• CD-ROMis a type of computerstorage mediumwhichreads opticallybylaser
beam.The data is accessedusing reading machinesconnecteddirectlytonews
writers’computers.
• To use CD-ROM,youneeda CD-ROMplayer(areader) compatible withyour
owncomputer.
• Maps can be manipulatedtoenrichnewsstoriesandfeatures.
• CAR : Com puter-assistedreporting(CAR) Itcaninvolve online researchand
database journalism.
• One can getemployedtoworkfromhome .(web.addren)
USING RE CORDS
• Recordsare an importantsource of information.One cangetthe informationby
searchingthe followingrecords.
• Birth records
• Marriage
• Divorce
• Real estate
• Voterregistration
• Autorecord s
• Trafficaccidentreports
• Income tax records
• Telephone records.
ACCESST O PUBLIC RECORDS
• Make a written request.
• The requestshouldidentifythe documents.
• Do not state the reasonwhy youwantto inspectthe documents.
• Librariesnotonlycontainresourcesforstoryresearch,theycan alsobe the source
of newideas,backgroundinformation,andfactverification.
• Glance through ma gazine articles.
• Reference booksandmaterials.
• Glance through ma gazine articles.
• Reference booksandmaterials.
HOW TO GENERATE SOURCES
• Read.Read widely.
• Patronize the Library
• Listen
• Identifyrecords.
• Be friendly
• Subscribe
• Entertainopposites
• Developexpertise.
• To get goodideas,investyourtime wisely,continuepursuingknowledge,and
probe,search, andinvestigate withanopenmind.
• Personal Sources
• Start your ownphone directory
• Meet the headsof everyagencyin the community-andtheirsecretaries.
• Invite one ke y official onlunchordinereachweek/monthly.
• Visitthe scene.
• Visitreligiousgroups.
• Sendlettersandcards
• Socialize withpeople.
EVALUAT I NG SOURCES
• Motives. Do theywantsome thingin return? try to findout whatthe sou r ce
“wants”
• Bias
• Lack of responsibility
• Misunderstanding
• Tim e difference
• Class.Status
• Knowledgeability
• Credibility
• Fearlessness
THE CONVENTIONALORGENERAL SOURCES OFNEWS
• PressConferences.
• President+PM’s Addresstothe Nation.
• Briefingbyvariousministers
• Pressreleases
• Budget+ Export
• Export policyannouncements
• Government /oppositionreactions
• Parliament
• Radiomonitoring
• TV monitoring
• Foreignoffice
• Courts decisions
• Accidents
• Religiousactivities
• Terrorism
• Celebrities
• Industry
• Associations
• Sports
• Books
• Airports
• Real estate
• Immigrations
• Jobsand unemployment
• Sea
• Roads
• Travel
• Universities
• Antiquities
• Friends
• Familyissue s
• Animalsand pets
• Shopping
• Fashion
• Farming
• Overheard
• Diary
• Club+ entertainment
Definitionof Reporter
REPORTER
• Difference betweenJournalist&Reporter
• Journalistisa widerterm. A sub-editor,acolumnist,an article writer,ananchor
or any personwhoisworkingas newsma n or workingonnewsdeskcanbe called
a Journalist.The term reporterappliesto a journalistwhocoversfieldstories
reportfrom the site.Reporterisa specialistform of ajournalist.We can say a
journalistwhoisresponsibleforgatheringinformationandpresentitonm a ss
mediaiscalleda Reporter.Reporterissupposedtobe the explainerof
complicated issues insimple andcommunicative manner.
• The ma inrole of reporteristo presentnewsindigestible formatforviewers.
• Reportersgatherinformationinvarietyof ways.Tips,pressreleases,witness
events,Interviews,Publicrecordsand othersources.Reportercoversthe event
whichisassignedtohim by hisorganization/NewspaperorTV Channel.
• Reporterssplittheirtime betweenworking inthe newsroom andgoinginthe f i eld
to witnesse ventsorinterviewpeople.
QUALITIE S OF REPO RTER
• To be a good reporterone shouldhave special qualities.One of the basicqualities
of a reporteristo have an IPTB.IPTB means“it paysto be inquisitive”.He
shouldhave the qualitytobe curioushiseyesandearsshouldalwaysbe insearch
of News.He shouldhave the qualitytosniff the news.
• In life everyone hasastory to tell:A reportershouldhave aqualitytocom pel
othersto tell the newsworthystory.
• A reportershouldalways take care o f accuracy o f news.
• He shouldbe quickto report.He alsohas to take care of viewe r’sinterestinthe
newsitem.
• Reportershouldbe cool headed.A cool headmeanshe shouldbe calm, cool and
collected.He must have the abilitytoworkin an atmosphere of hurryand
excitement.Reportermustbe physicallyfittomove around.
• Reportershouldhave the qualityof awareness(alertness).He shouldbe quite
vigilantenough.Reportermustpossesstechnical knowledgeof the applicationof
equipment.Itwill helphimtoestablishcommandovertechnical staff.
• Reportershouldbe a dedicatedworkerandhave the qualityof Resourcefulness.
Resourcefulnessisaqualityof being able tocope witha difficultsituation.He has
an abilitytodeal withunusual problems.
• Reportermusttake care of time management.He shouldutilize maxi mu m time to
achieve hisgoals.
• The qualityof decisionmakingonthe spotis a great quality.One decisionon
time can save manyupcomingproblems.
• In-factdecisionmakingisa processof recognizingaproblemandprovide an
opportunitytofindasolution.
CHIEF RE PORTER
• Chief Reporterisa journalistwhoissupposedtobe a seniorandexperienced
Reporter.
• The Chief Reporterisan incharge of a team of reporters.He has to assignthem
dutiesandregulate them as per the policyof newspaperof the televisionchannel.
• He alsoplansthe special coverage of the expectednewsandassignittoreporters.
• Chief Reporterhasto se e that all the activitiesarecoveredproperlyandnothing
importantismissedbythe reporters.
• Most of the invitationsforpressconferences,publicmeetings,demonstrations,
agitationsandstrikesare addressedtohim.He deputeshi sreporterstocover these
events.
• The Chief Reporteralsoreceivesalot of informat ionfrom Governmenthandouts,
pressreleasesandotherpublicitymaterialforpublication.He selectsand assesses
theirnewsworthiness.
• He alsolook afterthe administrative mattersconcerningwithreportersand
reporting.
• He alsoplansnewinvestigativeandinterpretativereportsbydeputingreporters.
THE CORRESPONDANTS
• There are differentkindsof correspondentswhoworkfornewspaperandTV
Channel.
• THE LINER: The linerisnot a full time journalist.
• From time to time he maysendnewsstoriestothe newspaper.
• Linersare paidon the basisof lines of the newsstoriespublishedinthe
newspaperorbroadcaston a TV Network.
• THE STRINGER: The stringerisno t a full time journalist.Hiswhole time
professionisquite different.He isattachedtoa newspaperthroughastring.He is
generallypaidsome fixedamounttoretainhimfor the newspaper.
• SPECIALCORRE SPONDENTS:T heyar e generallyveryexperienced
professionalshavingvastandvariedcontactswith official sources,with
opposition sourcesandGovernment sources,withdiplomaticsources,with
embassysources,withfellow reporters, withprivate secretariesof various
ministriesandcompanies.
NEWSCASTER/NEW S PRESENTER
• Newspresenterisapersonwhopresentsanewsshow ontelevision,radiooron
webiscalledNewsPresenter.
• He can be a workingjournalistorsimplyareaderwhoreadsnewsbulletin
preparedbyothers.
• In differentcountriesthe newspresenter iscalled bydifferentnomalclature.Some
calledthem “Newscaster”,“Newsreader”, Newspresenter”,“NewsBroadcaster”.
• To be a NewscasterorPresenteryoudonothave to looklike amovie star,but
youshouldhave the abilitytoperformandyourappearance shouldbe acceptable.
• Televisionisaclose-upmedium,concentrate mainlyonyourface.Forthis
reason,majorityof viewersrecognize youbyface andkeyto appearance isto
have a unique andmemorable look.
• NEWS ANCHOR:A personwhopresentsanewsshow onRadioor on
TelevisionisknownasanAnchor.Anc horsare the one who getsthe publicity.
Readilyrewardedorblamedinstantly.
• NewsAnchorshouldhave the goodknowledgeof:
• Politics,Sociology,Government functioning,Skilledinbroadcastingtechnology,
Com puteroperationandpublicspeakingdiscipline.NewsAnchormusthave the
abilitytowr ite h i s own script s or re ad whatthe reportersanddeskstaff had
written.NewsAnchormustbe detail oriented,organized,flexible and
multitaskingperson,ata time he has to speak,listenandtoreadfrom
teleprompter/Autoque.NewsAnchor’sbehaviorshouldbe friendly,articulative
and easyto watchor listen.
• A goodprofessional NewsAnchormusthave the followingcharacteristics:
• Educatedin Journalism
• Skillsincommunication
• Knowsreporting
• Copyeditingskills
• Wr itingability
• Comm andon language.
REPORTING
WHAT IS REPORTING?
• Reportingmeans,toreport,to tell,toinform.
• Informationis the oxygentothinkor to forman opinionorto react.
• Two formsof reportingare:
• General assignmentreporting
• Beats reportingorspecial reporting.
• Each of these areashave distinctcharacteristics,buttheirbordersare trickyand
overlapping.
• Newsstoriesdonotfall intoa single category.Theyspill overintoboth.
GENERAL ASSIGNMENTREPO RTING:
• It rangesfrom crime to crops ,from weatherto workers.
• The mostsuccessful General Reportersare excellentworkers.
• Theyalwaysask themselveshowvaluable itisforaudience.Theygoasclose to
the gross rootsas possible inanatte mpt to generate or iginal ma terial.
• Reporterisan explainerof complicated issuesan dthe Genera l reporte rs are
supposedtoreportthe facts insi mple andcommunicative manner.
• While doinggeneral reportingyoumustknow thattrue,new and interesting
factors m a ke news.Alwayslookfornew pitch.E veryreporterhasa differentI.Q
and style.
• Media wise classificationof Reporting:
• Printmediareporting
• Radioreporting
• TV reporting
• Web reporting
Otherformsof reportingare:
• Softnewsreporting
• Analytical reporting
• Sensational reporting
REPORTING
• A GOOD Reportershouldtake care of Some BasicRulesof Reporting.
• Neverleave yourcamera or laptopunattended,becauseif youlose it,how can
youwork?
• Keepyourlaptop,cell phone andcamerabatteriescharged.
• Try to get sickonlyon yourdays off.It meansthatthe professionof Reportingis
not a jobfor fix hours.Itis a way of life.If a personishabitual of takingleave on
one or otherpretext,he can neverbe a professional reporter.
• If youdo not understandsome thing,askfora clarification.“Assumptions”kill
more journalisteveryyearthananyothernatural cause.
• Be honestaboutdeadlinesandtime . If youfail to reporton time or speedythan
youwill notbe treatedas a good Reporter.
• Be skeptical,checkfacts to make sure theyare facts.A single source of
informationisaninvitationtodisaster.
• Read newspapersandinternetandstay tuned,youneverknow whatkindof story
youwill have to do.Ignorance isnot an excuse inNewsprofession.
DO’SAND DONT’S
• Where give pace everpossible abbreviationsshouldbe avoide d,avoidroman
numbers.
• Mr. & Mrs. Dr are permissible butMS,Prof,AsstandDir are not.
• Six thousandand23 (ok)
6,023 (notgood)
• Three Millioneighthundred(ok)
3,008,00 (Notgood)
• Eight Billion,600thousand(ok)
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8,600,000,000 (Notgood)
• Use figure for10 to 999, butafterthat write thousands,millionsandbillions.
• Principlesof goodwriting
• Write in wordsnot infiguresordigits
• Keepsentencesshort,onthe average.
• Write the wayyoutalk
• Write to express,nottoimpress.
• Prefersimple onthe complex
• Preferthe familiarwords.
• Avoidunnecessarywords
• Put actionintoyour words.
• Use termswhichyourreadercan understand
• Tie in withyourreader’sexperience
• Make full use of variety.
CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITIES OF GOOD REPORTING
• Good Reporterssee the worldastheirjournalismlaboratory,astorehouse of story
ideas.
• Good Reportersprefertodiscover anddeveloptheirownstoryideas.
• Good Reportersare alwaysactive tocollectthe information.
• Good Reporterstalkaboutnewsthey live it,breathe itanddreamit.
• Organizingthe newsmat e rial is importantpart of your job
• Good Reportersare life longreporterstheylovewords,name s andlists.
• Good reportersalwaysunderstandthatnewswritingisatransactionbetweena
reporteranda reader.
REPORTING WITH STYLE
• A style isa particular way of puttingwords andm a rks of punctuationtogether.A
newsstyle,acreative style,oraneasystyle.
• A personwhowriteswithstyle isone whothinkspowerfully.Forstyle,asense of
ordermust existinva ri ous levels.Writingwithstylealsoinvolves
“Organization”.Appropriateandinterestingwordsmake the sentence andwriting
stylish.
• The use of certainterms,certainrule s and conventionsisalsoastyle.
RIGHT STYLE:
• Broadcast language needsastyle whichshouldbe clear,simple anddirect.
• Make everywordcount.
• Use short words and sentences.
• Avoidjargon,clichés.
• Drop meaninglesswords.
• Explaininitials.
• Use spokenstyle.
• Roundof figures.
• Freelance Reporting
• Definition:A professional journalistwithoutlong term commit me nt to any
employeriscalledfreelance journalist.
• A freelance reporterisa self employedperson.
• Freelance professionalsmovefromone countrytoanother.
• Benefits:Freelancersgenerallyenjoyagr eatervarietyof assignm e ntsthan in
regularemployme nt.
• Drawback: Uncertaintyof workand income .
BEATREPORTING
• A beatis,in wide sense,anareaof in formationaboutwhichthe journalistsare
expectedtolookforstorieswhichwill interestviewers.
• Beat reporterscoverall happeningsintheirrespective filedsuchasbreaking
news,newsupdates,flash.
• Beat reportersshouldhave constantcontractwiththe sources.
• Beat reporterscoverall happeningintheirrespective filed.Theymustbe expert
on the subjectas well asskilledin newswriting,editingandpresenting
techniques.
• Viewersbegintoknowandtrustbeatre porterwhoregularlyreportsona subject
area.
• Beat reporterisexpected toreport th e stories of breakingnewsnature,
imme diately.
VVIPBEAT
• VVIPbeatmeanscoveringthe activitiesof a personwhois veryveryimportant.
Normallytheyare Presidentorthe Pr ime Mi nisteror the foreignHeadof State or
Governme nt whovisitsothercountries.Some time s reportersaccom panythe
VVIPtoreporttheirforeignengageme nt.VVIPreportersrequire al ertnessof
mi nd. Theyhave to take care of securitymeasuresaswell.VVIPreporteris
supposedtobe on call dutyround the clockas he is requiredtobe onassignments
on shortnotice.
OPPOSITION PARTIESBEAT
• A reporterwhoisresponsibleforcoveringthe oppositionpartiesactivities must
knowthe viewpointsof opposition partiesonthe issues.
ECONOMICMINISTRY BEAT
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• EconomicMinistrym eansthe mi nistries whichdealsthe financeandeconomi c
ma ttersof the country.T hese mi nistriesare responsible forregulatingthe fiscal
policyandpreparationof national budget.Theyare alsoresponsible for
monitoringthe rate of inflation.A reporterwhoisassignedtocoverthe Economic
MinistriessuchasFinance Ministry,EconomicAffairsMinistry,Commerce
Ministry,IndustryandPr oductionMinistries must be aware of the functioning,
hierarchyandthe importance of there mi nistries.
SENSITIV E MINISTRIES
• Sensitive Ministriesare responsible forthe internal andex ternal defenseof the
country.The Defense Ministry,InteriorMinistry,ForeignAffairsMinistryand
informationMinistryare calledsensitive mi nistries.ForeignMinistryis
responsible toformulate the foreignpolicy, the InteriorMinistryisresponsiblefor
ma intainingthe lawandorderand the informationmi nistry isresponsibleforthe
image buildingof the government.The re porterwho issupposedtocoverthe
sensitivemi nistriesshouldbe aware of doesanddo notof hisassignment.If he
getssom e sensitive information,thenbefore usingthisinformationhe hasto take
care of the na tional intere st.
SOCIALMI NISTRIES
• Social mi nistriesare thos e whichare linked withthe social andculture lifeof the
people.Education,Health,Local Bodies, Law & Justice,Parliame ntAffairs,
ReligiousA ffairs,Sports,Youthculture andSportsMinistriescome underthe
title of Social Ministries.The reporters whoare assignedtoco verthese Ministries
mustknowtheirimportance andtheirroll inthe governme nt andfor people.
DIPLOMATICBEAT
• The reporterswhoare responsibleforcoveringthe diplomaticbeatmustbe aware
of the functioning of foreignoffice.Theymustbe aware of the confrontingissues
betweenthe countries.Theyknowthe objectivesof foreignpolicyandalsohave
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the knowledge of functioningof variousfore ignmi ssionsandtheirinterestinthe
regional andbilateral relations/agreeme ntsbetweentwocountries.
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LECTURE-15
BeatsReportingII
ECONOMICMINISTRY BEAT
• EconomicMinistriesare veryimportant organfor the functioningof the
Governme nt . Econom i c Ministrydealswith the financial andeconomicm a tersof
the country.These m i nistriesare responsible forregulatingthe fiscal policy.In
EconomicMinistrythe m a jorministriesare Finance,Economic Affairs,
Commerce,Productionandindustry.The re porter,responsibleforcoveringthe
EconomicMinistry,mustknowthe ec onomi c para meterof his country,
terminologyusedinbudgetandfinancial economi c m a tters.He m ustknow the
economicexperts,who canbe con t acted on shortnotice.Thiswill helphimin
seekingguidelinesontechnical points.The reportersshouldknow the importance
of NFCAwards,monitoryregulationandfunctioni ngof the banksandthe
export/importneedsof the country.
COMMERCE MINISTRY BEAT
• Comm erce Ministrydealswiththe trade, exportandimport policyof the country.
He mustbe aware of the global trade scenarioan d its ef fecto n the loc a l trade.
SENSITIV E MINISTRY BEAT
• Sensitive mi nistri es include Def e nse,Interi or,ForeignAf fa irs and Inf ormation
mi nistries.All these mi nistriesare responsible tosafeguardthe internal and
external def e nse of the country.Reportermustbe aware of theirfunctions,
sensitivitiesandimportance.He shouldalsoknow thatfromwhere he can get
newsandfrom where he hasto countercheck the facts.Th ese sensitive mi nistries
are the custo dianof the s ecret. If rep orterge ts so me classifiedsecrets,before
filingthe storybasedonthose facts,he shouldtake care of the national interests.
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DEFENSE MINISTRY
• The Ar me d Forcesof the country(A rmy,Navy& Air Force) com e s under
defense mi nistry.Civil Aviationandthe national carrier PIA isalsoa p a rt of
Defense Ministry.Reportermayuse these sour ce s to ge t the newswell intime.
INTERIORMINISTRY
• Interi or M i ni stry isre sponsible toma inta inthe law andorder inthe countr y. All
intelligence agenciesandpolice services functionunderitscommand.Most of the
sensitivenewsstory/breakingnews/newsupdate come s fromInteriorMinistry.
RELIGIOUS AFFAIR S MINISTRY
• ReligiousA ffairsMinistryisresponsible to facilitateHajj Pilgrims and the other
religiousrituals.The reportershouldtake care of sensitivitieswhilereportingthe
activitiesof various religiousgroups.
INFORMATION MINISTRY
• InformationMinistryiscalledthe eyesandearsand the spokesmanof the
governme nt. ThisMinistryisresponsible forthe image buildingof the
Governme nt andto projectthe achieveme nt s of Governme nt.PakistanTelevision,
RadioPakistan,PressInformationDepartme ntandPakistanElectronicMedia
RegulatoryAuthorities(PEMRA) alsowork underthe admi nistrative commandof
InformationMinistry.The reporterhasto establishthe contactsinthese
mi nistries.
BEATREPORTING
• There are numberof ministrieswhich come underthe title social ministriesthey
are: Healthministries,Law& Justice and ParliamentaryAffairsministries,
Human rights,Agriculture ministry,Educationministry,Environmentministry,
Youth & WomanAffairsministry,Tourism &Culture ministry.
• Social ministriesare one of the major beatof reporting.Theirpolicydecisions
have directimpacton commonma n’ s life.
• A Reportercoveringthe social ministriesmust know the importance of the
ministries.He shouldknowthe hyrar
ical structure of these ministries.He must
establishpersonalcontac t withall officialsfromthe toptobottomworkingin
variouscapacities.He musthave a special relationshipwiththe focal personfor
mediaineveryministry.He shouldtrytoestablishpersonal relationwiththe
ministersothathe can getfirsthand informationtofile anexclusivestoryor
breakingnews.
DIPLOMATIC REPORTING
• DiplomaticReportingconcernswiththe foreignpolicyandthe relationshipof a
countrywithothercountriesandthe activitiesof variousforeignmissionsandthe
contoursof the foreignpolicy.
• In diplomaticrelations,neitherthe enemy iseternal northe friendshipiseternal.
The onlythingwhichiseternal isthe interestof the nation.
• A diplomaticreportershouldbe aware of the worldpowergamesandthe interest
of variouscountriesinvariousregions.
• Informationhighway haschangedthe traditional role of diplomaticreporting,
mediatechnology,internet,live feedsand instantreportinghasadirectinfluence
on the relationshipof countries.Media buildordistortthe perceptions.
• In today’sworldalongwith the diplomats, the political scientistsandjournalists
are the m a in playersof diplomacy. NGOsalsoprovide usefulinformationto
DiplomaticReporters.The diplomaticreportermustestablishcontactswiththem.
• ForeignMissionsare alsoa great source of diplomaticreporting.
• Reportersshouldbe aware of international agreements amongvariouscountries.
• He shouldalsoknowthe internationalorganizations(UNO, OIC,NAM,SAARC,
ASEAN,EU, AFU, NATTO)
BEAT REPORTING
• BusinessandFinancial Reportingisaveryimportantbeat.Onlya personwhois
well versedwiththe financial andbusinessclimate of the countrycando this
assignment.
• He shouldbe aware of current economicclimate.The causesandthe potential
solutions f or the problemsconfrontingthe businesscommunity.
• He mustknowthe bankingsystem.
• He mustbe aware of situationof worldeconomyandthe future trends.
• He mustknowthe role of World Bankand IMF.
• Stock MarketsImpact on National Economyandthe Brokersystem etc.
• Businessandfinancial beatreportermustbe aware of Political andSocial Fall out
on the economyof the country andthe effectsof strikesandralliesonthe
economy.
• Financial Reportermuststudybusinesspagesof dailynewspapers/yellow pages
and weeklybusinessmagazinestoenhance the knowledge.He shouldfrequently
visitthe businesspagesof webandinternet.
BEAT REPORTING
SPORTS REPORTING
• Sports reportingis claimedbe one of the mostinterestingandthrillingbeat.
• Most talentedandrespectedjournalistshave beensportswriters.
• If anyone intendstobe a sportsreporter he must readbookson a range of sports
topic,includingbiographies,historiesof Cricket,Hockey,Football,Golf,
Athletics,WorldOlympics,Local sports – Kabaddi andWrestlingetc.
• Investigative reportingin sportsstartedin1990.
• In Cricket,itwas the investigativere portingwhichbroughtmanyamendments in
the lawsand rulesof Cricket.Issue of “Ball Scratch” and “Dope Test” was cam e
out due to investigative.
• From 1950s to 1960s people sawa rapidgrowthin sportscoverage,bothinprint
and broadcastm e dia.Duringthisperiod, independent sportsagenciesandphoto
agencieswere establishedtocoverthe sportsevents.
• International SportsPressAssociation(AIPS) wasalsoestablished.
• Sports shopsforvariousdedicatedgameswere opened.
• Nownum be r of the sportschannelsandsportsmagazinesare inthe market.
Sportsalsobrought a goodamountof advertisements.
REPORTING BEATS
• Court Beat:Courts are one of the veryimportantsourcesof news.The decisions
of court are oftenbreakingnewsortheyhave a largerimplicationonpolicymattersof the state.The
majorcourts are:
I. Supreme Court
II. HighCourts
III. DistrictCourts
• The Reportercoveringthe courtmustknow the basicsof the law of the land.The
functioningof court,its procedure proceedings.The importance of BarCouncil.
The problemsfacedbylawyercommunityandthe clients.He shouldalsoread
and understandthe constitution.
• Electioncommissionbeat:Electioncommissionisalsoone of the important
sourcesof news.Electioncommissionis aconstitutional bodyandisresponsible
for holdingthe general electionsinthe country.Re porter mustknow aboutthe
structure and functioningof electioncommission.
• Chief ElectionCommissioneristhe headof ElectionCommission.Histenure is
fixedinthe constitution.A personhavingaSupreme CourtJudge stature canhold
thisposition.
WAR REPO RTING
• War reportingisone of the dangerousformof beat reporting.A commonreporter
can neverbe a good war reporterif he does not have the experience of workingin
pressure andinstressenvironment.In modernmediascene,the warreportinghas
got importance due todevelopment of technologyandlive reporting.
• ShowBiz Beat:Showbizis alsoone of the popularforms of beatreporting.A
showbizreporterhas to coverthe activitiesof FilmIndustry,TV,Stage,Theatre,
Models,CatWalks andFashionShows.
• A Reporterwhoissupposedtobe the show biz reportermustknow all the aspects
of these fields.Show bizisthe majorsource of derivingthe entertainmentnews.

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Notes on news agencies

  • 1. SOURCE • In journalism,asource isa person,publication,recordora documentthat providesinformation. WHAT IS SOURCE • Source is alsocalleda pointfromwhere some thingisderivedorobtained. • Pointof originof informationisalsocalledasource. • A personor documentthatsupplies informationisalsoasource. • Causes,creates,orinitiates. NEWS SOURCES • A reportercollectsinformationfromvarioussources.Informationcanbe collectedthroughobservationorbyinterviewingaperson.Informationcanbe derivedfrom,publicdocuments,statistics,private diaries,letters,books, libraries,newspapers,magazines,internet,wastebasketsormicrofilms. SOURCE • We can divide the sourcesintwocategories. • Conventional sources • Modern Sources • Conventional Sources • PressConferences. • President+Prime Minister’sAddresstothe Nation. • Briefingbyvariousministers • Pressreleases • Budget
  • 2. • Export policyannouncements • Government /oppositionreactions • Parliament • Radiomonitoring • TV monitoring • Foreignoffice • Court decisions • Accidents • Religiousactivities • Terroristactivities/Terrorism • Celebrities • Jobs/ Employment • Industry • Associations • Sports • Books • Airports • Real estate • Immigrations • Sea • Roads • Travel • Universities • Antiquities • Friends
  • 3. • Familyissue s • Animalsand pets • Shopping • Fashion • Farming • Overheard • Diary and Club+ entertainment WHAT IS NEWS AGENCIES OR WIRE S ERVI CE • A newsagencyisan organizationof journalistsestablishedtosupplynewsitems to newspapers,magazines,radioandtelevisionbroadcasters. • Newsagenciesare alsoknownaswire servicesornewsservices. • Newsagenciesgenerally prepare hard newsstoriesandfeature articles. NEWSAGENCIES • Four majornews agenciesof the world are AssociatedPress(AP),Reuters,AFP and UnitedPressInternational(UPI). • These Newsagencies(transmitnewsof local,regional,national and international significance). • AP andReutersnewsagenciesalsoprovidevideoservicetothe clients. • Developmentsof the newsagencieshave agreatimpact on the processof foreign newsselectionandreporting.Colonial newsagenciesare still strong. • Developingcountriesare influencedbythe world’sleadingwire services.
  • 4. • Theyreport the eventformtheir ownnational andglobal interests. • The mainChinese newsagencyisN e w ChinaNewsAgency.ItsHeadquartersis inBeijing. • Russian’smajornewsagencyisTASS.Thisnews agencyisalsoname d as ITAR – TASS. • The official Newsagencyof IraniscalledPARAS. • Organizationof Islami c CountriesnewsagencyisIINA (Islami c International Newsagency) itwasestablishedbythe OIC. • TurkishnewsagencyisANADOLU AJANSI • IndonesiannewsagencyiscalledANTARANEWS. 17 • Before isemergence of Pakistanin UnitedIndiathe firstnews agencywas establishedin1905. • It was name d as AssociatedPressof India. • Duringfirstworldwar anothernewsagencywasformedwiththe name of Orient Pressof India. • Firstnewsagencyof Pakistanwasestablishedwiththe name of AssociatedPress of Pakistan(APP) SOURCES IN NEWSROOM • Newsroomitself isalsoanimportant source of news.There are numberof reference booksthatare available inthe newsroomwhichcanbe the important sourcesof news. • One of the hi-techsource of newsisCQ Researcher(Congressional Quarterly researcher).Itcontains all quarterlyinformationaboutthe functionandworking
  • 5. of Americancongress.These typesof sourcesare alsoavailable aboutPakistan’s Parliament.? • World Almanacandworldyearbook are alsoveryvaluable sourcesof news. • Law dictionariesandlegal encyclopediacanalsobe termedassourcesof information. • Digestsof cases,Freedomof informationactand State informationactcanalso be goodsource of information. SOURCE • Newswritingisgenerallyayoungperson’sprofession. • If youhave the ambition,drive,energyandwillingnesstopursue astory aggressivelyyoucangetit. • Electronicdatabase s are the newesttools.Writerscan use the database intheir searchfor information. • A newbreedof reportergettingoutvaluable informationfromelectronicsources. • Full textdata bases.The actual textof records,articlesor statementsare displayed on the researcher’sscreen. • Citationdata • CD-ROMis a type of computerstorage mediumwhichreads opticallybylaser beam.The data is accessedusing reading machinesconnecteddirectlytonews writers’computers. • To use CD-ROM,youneeda CD-ROMplayer(areader) compatible withyour owncomputer. • Maps can be manipulatedtoenrichnewsstoriesandfeatures. • CAR : Com puter-assistedreporting(CAR) Itcaninvolve online researchand
  • 6. database journalism. • One can getemployedtoworkfromhome .(web.addren) USING RE CORDS • Recordsare an importantsource of information.One cangetthe informationby searchingthe followingrecords. • Birth records • Marriage • Divorce • Real estate • Voterregistration • Autorecord s • Trafficaccidentreports • Income tax records • Telephone records. ACCESST O PUBLIC RECORDS • Make a written request. • The requestshouldidentifythe documents. • Do not state the reasonwhy youwantto inspectthe documents. • Librariesnotonlycontainresourcesforstoryresearch,theycan alsobe the source of newideas,backgroundinformation,andfactverification. • Glance through ma gazine articles. • Reference booksandmaterials.
  • 7. • Glance through ma gazine articles. • Reference booksandmaterials. HOW TO GENERATE SOURCES • Read.Read widely. • Patronize the Library • Listen • Identifyrecords. • Be friendly • Subscribe • Entertainopposites • Developexpertise. • To get goodideas,investyourtime wisely,continuepursuingknowledge,and probe,search, andinvestigate withanopenmind. • Personal Sources • Start your ownphone directory • Meet the headsof everyagencyin the community-andtheirsecretaries. • Invite one ke y official onlunchordinereachweek/monthly. • Visitthe scene. • Visitreligiousgroups. • Sendlettersandcards • Socialize withpeople. EVALUAT I NG SOURCES
  • 8. • Motives. Do theywantsome thingin return? try to findout whatthe sou r ce “wants” • Bias • Lack of responsibility • Misunderstanding • Tim e difference • Class.Status • Knowledgeability • Credibility • Fearlessness THE CONVENTIONALORGENERAL SOURCES OFNEWS • PressConferences. • President+PM’s Addresstothe Nation. • Briefingbyvariousministers • Pressreleases • Budget+ Export • Export policyannouncements • Government /oppositionreactions • Parliament • Radiomonitoring • TV monitoring • Foreignoffice • Courts decisions • Accidents
  • 9. • Religiousactivities • Terrorism • Celebrities • Industry • Associations • Sports • Books • Airports • Real estate • Immigrations • Jobsand unemployment • Sea • Roads • Travel • Universities • Antiquities • Friends • Familyissue s • Animalsand pets • Shopping • Fashion • Farming • Overheard • Diary • Club+ entertainment
  • 10. Definitionof Reporter REPORTER • Difference betweenJournalist&Reporter • Journalistisa widerterm. A sub-editor,acolumnist,an article writer,ananchor or any personwhoisworkingas newsma n or workingonnewsdeskcanbe called a Journalist.The term reporterappliesto a journalistwhocoversfieldstories reportfrom the site.Reporterisa specialistform of ajournalist.We can say a journalistwhoisresponsibleforgatheringinformationandpresentitonm a ss mediaiscalleda Reporter.Reporterissupposedtobe the explainerof complicated issues insimple andcommunicative manner. • The ma inrole of reporteristo presentnewsindigestible formatforviewers. • Reportersgatherinformationinvarietyof ways.Tips,pressreleases,witness events,Interviews,Publicrecordsand othersources.Reportercoversthe event whichisassignedtohim by hisorganization/NewspaperorTV Channel. • Reporterssplittheirtime betweenworking inthe newsroom andgoinginthe f i eld to witnesse ventsorinterviewpeople. QUALITIE S OF REPO RTER • To be a good reporterone shouldhave special qualities.One of the basicqualities of a reporteristo have an IPTB.IPTB means“it paysto be inquisitive”.He
  • 11. shouldhave the qualitytobe curioushiseyesandearsshouldalwaysbe insearch of News.He shouldhave the qualitytosniff the news. • In life everyone hasastory to tell:A reportershouldhave aqualitytocom pel othersto tell the newsworthystory. • A reportershouldalways take care o f accuracy o f news. • He shouldbe quickto report.He alsohas to take care of viewe r’sinterestinthe newsitem. • Reportershouldbe cool headed.A cool headmeanshe shouldbe calm, cool and collected.He must have the abilitytoworkin an atmosphere of hurryand excitement.Reportermustbe physicallyfittomove around. • Reportershouldhave the qualityof awareness(alertness).He shouldbe quite vigilantenough.Reportermustpossesstechnical knowledgeof the applicationof equipment.Itwill helphimtoestablishcommandovertechnical staff. • Reportershouldbe a dedicatedworkerandhave the qualityof Resourcefulness. Resourcefulnessisaqualityof being able tocope witha difficultsituation.He has an abilitytodeal withunusual problems. • Reportermusttake care of time management.He shouldutilize maxi mu m time to achieve hisgoals.
  • 12. • The qualityof decisionmakingonthe spotis a great quality.One decisionon time can save manyupcomingproblems. • In-factdecisionmakingisa processof recognizingaproblemandprovide an opportunitytofindasolution. CHIEF RE PORTER • Chief Reporterisa journalistwhoissupposedtobe a seniorandexperienced Reporter. • The Chief Reporterisan incharge of a team of reporters.He has to assignthem dutiesandregulate them as per the policyof newspaperof the televisionchannel. • He alsoplansthe special coverage of the expectednewsandassignittoreporters. • Chief Reporterhasto se e that all the activitiesarecoveredproperlyandnothing importantismissedbythe reporters. • Most of the invitationsforpressconferences,publicmeetings,demonstrations, agitationsandstrikesare addressedtohim.He deputeshi sreporterstocover these events. • The Chief Reporteralsoreceivesalot of informat ionfrom Governmenthandouts, pressreleasesandotherpublicitymaterialforpublication.He selectsand assesses theirnewsworthiness.
  • 13. • He alsolook afterthe administrative mattersconcerningwithreportersand reporting. • He alsoplansnewinvestigativeandinterpretativereportsbydeputingreporters. THE CORRESPONDANTS • There are differentkindsof correspondentswhoworkfornewspaperandTV Channel. • THE LINER: The linerisnot a full time journalist. • From time to time he maysendnewsstoriestothe newspaper. • Linersare paidon the basisof lines of the newsstoriespublishedinthe newspaperorbroadcaston a TV Network. • THE STRINGER: The stringerisno t a full time journalist.Hiswhole time professionisquite different.He isattachedtoa newspaperthroughastring.He is generallypaidsome fixedamounttoretainhimfor the newspaper. • SPECIALCORRE SPONDENTS:T heyar e generallyveryexperienced professionalshavingvastandvariedcontactswith official sources,with opposition sourcesandGovernment sources,withdiplomaticsources,with embassysources,withfellow reporters, withprivate secretariesof various ministriesandcompanies. NEWSCASTER/NEW S PRESENTER
  • 14. • Newspresenterisapersonwhopresentsanewsshow ontelevision,radiooron webiscalledNewsPresenter. • He can be a workingjournalistorsimplyareaderwhoreadsnewsbulletin preparedbyothers. • In differentcountriesthe newspresenter iscalled bydifferentnomalclature.Some calledthem “Newscaster”,“Newsreader”, Newspresenter”,“NewsBroadcaster”. • To be a NewscasterorPresenteryoudonothave to looklike amovie star,but youshouldhave the abilitytoperformandyourappearance shouldbe acceptable. • Televisionisaclose-upmedium,concentrate mainlyonyourface.Forthis reason,majorityof viewersrecognize youbyface andkeyto appearance isto have a unique andmemorable look. • NEWS ANCHOR:A personwhopresentsanewsshow onRadioor on TelevisionisknownasanAnchor.Anc horsare the one who getsthe publicity. Readilyrewardedorblamedinstantly. • NewsAnchorshouldhave the goodknowledgeof: • Politics,Sociology,Government functioning,Skilledinbroadcastingtechnology, Com puteroperationandpublicspeakingdiscipline.NewsAnchormusthave the abilitytowr ite h i s own script s or re ad whatthe reportersanddeskstaff had written.NewsAnchormustbe detail oriented,organized,flexible and multitaskingperson,ata time he has to speak,listenandtoreadfrom teleprompter/Autoque.NewsAnchor’sbehaviorshouldbe friendly,articulative and easyto watchor listen. • A goodprofessional NewsAnchormusthave the followingcharacteristics: • Educatedin Journalism
  • 15. • Skillsincommunication • Knowsreporting • Copyeditingskills • Wr itingability • Comm andon language. REPORTING WHAT IS REPORTING? • Reportingmeans,toreport,to tell,toinform. • Informationis the oxygentothinkor to forman opinionorto react. • Two formsof reportingare: • General assignmentreporting • Beats reportingorspecial reporting. • Each of these areashave distinctcharacteristics,buttheirbordersare trickyand overlapping. • Newsstoriesdonotfall intoa single category.Theyspill overintoboth. GENERAL ASSIGNMENTREPO RTING: • It rangesfrom crime to crops ,from weatherto workers. • The mostsuccessful General Reportersare excellentworkers. • Theyalwaysask themselveshowvaluable itisforaudience.Theygoasclose to the gross rootsas possible inanatte mpt to generate or iginal ma terial.
  • 16. • Reporterisan explainerof complicated issuesan dthe Genera l reporte rs are supposedtoreportthe facts insi mple andcommunicative manner. • While doinggeneral reportingyoumustknow thattrue,new and interesting factors m a ke news.Alwayslookfornew pitch.E veryreporterhasa differentI.Q and style. • Media wise classificationof Reporting: • Printmediareporting • Radioreporting • TV reporting • Web reporting Otherformsof reportingare: • Softnewsreporting • Analytical reporting • Sensational reporting REPORTING • A GOOD Reportershouldtake care of Some BasicRulesof Reporting. • Neverleave yourcamera or laptopunattended,becauseif youlose it,how can youwork? • Keepyourlaptop,cell phone andcamerabatteriescharged. • Try to get sickonlyon yourdays off.It meansthatthe professionof Reportingis not a jobfor fix hours.Itis a way of life.If a personishabitual of takingleave on one or otherpretext,he can neverbe a professional reporter.
  • 17. • If youdo not understandsome thing,askfora clarification.“Assumptions”kill more journalisteveryyearthananyothernatural cause. • Be honestaboutdeadlinesandtime . If youfail to reporton time or speedythan youwill notbe treatedas a good Reporter. • Be skeptical,checkfacts to make sure theyare facts.A single source of informationisaninvitationtodisaster. • Read newspapersandinternetandstay tuned,youneverknow whatkindof story youwill have to do.Ignorance isnot an excuse inNewsprofession. DO’SAND DONT’S • Where give pace everpossible abbreviationsshouldbe avoide d,avoidroman numbers. • Mr. & Mrs. Dr are permissible butMS,Prof,AsstandDir are not. • Six thousandand23 (ok) 6,023 (notgood) • Three Millioneighthundred(ok) 3,008,00 (Notgood) • Eight Billion,600thousand(ok) 30 8,600,000,000 (Notgood) • Use figure for10 to 999, butafterthat write thousands,millionsandbillions. • Principlesof goodwriting • Write in wordsnot infiguresordigits • Keepsentencesshort,onthe average.
  • 18. • Write the wayyoutalk • Write to express,nottoimpress. • Prefersimple onthe complex • Preferthe familiarwords. • Avoidunnecessarywords • Put actionintoyour words. • Use termswhichyourreadercan understand • Tie in withyourreader’sexperience • Make full use of variety. CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITIES OF GOOD REPORTING • Good Reporterssee the worldastheirjournalismlaboratory,astorehouse of story ideas. • Good Reportersprefertodiscover anddeveloptheirownstoryideas. • Good Reportersare alwaysactive tocollectthe information. • Good Reporterstalkaboutnewsthey live it,breathe itanddreamit. • Organizingthe newsmat e rial is importantpart of your job • Good Reportersare life longreporterstheylovewords,name s andlists. • Good reportersalwaysunderstandthatnewswritingisatransactionbetweena reporteranda reader.
  • 19. REPORTING WITH STYLE • A style isa particular way of puttingwords andm a rks of punctuationtogether.A newsstyle,acreative style,oraneasystyle. • A personwhowriteswithstyle isone whothinkspowerfully.Forstyle,asense of ordermust existinva ri ous levels.Writingwithstylealsoinvolves “Organization”.Appropriateandinterestingwordsmake the sentence andwriting stylish. • The use of certainterms,certainrule s and conventionsisalsoastyle. RIGHT STYLE: • Broadcast language needsastyle whichshouldbe clear,simple anddirect. • Make everywordcount. • Use short words and sentences. • Avoidjargon,clichés. • Drop meaninglesswords. • Explaininitials. • Use spokenstyle. • Roundof figures. • Freelance Reporting • Definition:A professional journalistwithoutlong term commit me nt to any employeriscalledfreelance journalist.
  • 20. • A freelance reporterisa self employedperson. • Freelance professionalsmovefromone countrytoanother. • Benefits:Freelancersgenerallyenjoyagr eatervarietyof assignm e ntsthan in regularemployme nt. • Drawback: Uncertaintyof workand income . BEATREPORTING • A beatis,in wide sense,anareaof in formationaboutwhichthe journalistsare expectedtolookforstorieswhichwill interestviewers. • Beat reporterscoverall happeningsintheirrespective filedsuchasbreaking news,newsupdates,flash. • Beat reportersshouldhave constantcontractwiththe sources. • Beat reporterscoverall happeningintheirrespective filed.Theymustbe expert on the subjectas well asskilledin newswriting,editingandpresenting techniques. • Viewersbegintoknowandtrustbeatre porterwhoregularlyreportsona subject area. • Beat reporterisexpected toreport th e stories of breakingnewsnature, imme diately. VVIPBEAT • VVIPbeatmeanscoveringthe activitiesof a personwhois veryveryimportant. Normallytheyare Presidentorthe Pr ime Mi nisteror the foreignHeadof State or Governme nt whovisitsothercountries.Some time s reportersaccom panythe VVIPtoreporttheirforeignengageme nt.VVIPreportersrequire al ertnessof
  • 21. mi nd. Theyhave to take care of securitymeasuresaswell.VVIPreporteris supposedtobe on call dutyround the clockas he is requiredtobe onassignments on shortnotice. OPPOSITION PARTIESBEAT • A reporterwhoisresponsibleforcoveringthe oppositionpartiesactivities must knowthe viewpointsof opposition partiesonthe issues. ECONOMICMINISTRY BEAT 33 • EconomicMinistrym eansthe mi nistries whichdealsthe financeandeconomi c ma ttersof the country.T hese mi nistriesare responsible forregulatingthe fiscal policyandpreparationof national budget.Theyare alsoresponsible for monitoringthe rate of inflation.A reporterwhoisassignedtocoverthe Economic MinistriessuchasFinance Ministry,EconomicAffairsMinistry,Commerce Ministry,IndustryandPr oductionMinistries must be aware of the functioning, hierarchyandthe importance of there mi nistries. SENSITIV E MINISTRIES • Sensitive Ministriesare responsible forthe internal andex ternal defenseof the country.The Defense Ministry,InteriorMinistry,ForeignAffairsMinistryand informationMinistryare calledsensitive mi nistries.ForeignMinistryis responsible toformulate the foreignpolicy, the InteriorMinistryisresponsiblefor ma intainingthe lawandorderand the informationmi nistry isresponsibleforthe image buildingof the government.The re porterwho issupposedtocoverthe sensitivemi nistriesshouldbe aware of doesanddo notof hisassignment.If he
  • 22. getssom e sensitive information,thenbefore usingthisinformationhe hasto take care of the na tional intere st. SOCIALMI NISTRIES • Social mi nistriesare thos e whichare linked withthe social andculture lifeof the people.Education,Health,Local Bodies, Law & Justice,Parliame ntAffairs, ReligiousA ffairs,Sports,Youthculture andSportsMinistriescome underthe title of Social Ministries.The reporters whoare assignedtoco verthese Ministries mustknowtheirimportance andtheirroll inthe governme nt andfor people. DIPLOMATICBEAT • The reporterswhoare responsibleforcoveringthe diplomaticbeatmustbe aware of the functioning of foreignoffice.Theymustbe aware of the confrontingissues betweenthe countries.Theyknowthe objectivesof foreignpolicyandalsohave 34 the knowledge of functioningof variousfore ignmi ssionsandtheirinterestinthe regional andbilateral relations/agreeme ntsbetweentwocountries. 35 LECTURE-15 BeatsReportingII ECONOMICMINISTRY BEAT • EconomicMinistriesare veryimportant organfor the functioningof the Governme nt . Econom i c Ministrydealswith the financial andeconomicm a tersof the country.These m i nistriesare responsible forregulatingthe fiscal policy.In
  • 23. EconomicMinistrythe m a jorministriesare Finance,Economic Affairs, Commerce,Productionandindustry.The re porter,responsibleforcoveringthe EconomicMinistry,mustknowthe ec onomi c para meterof his country, terminologyusedinbudgetandfinancial economi c m a tters.He m ustknow the economicexperts,who canbe con t acted on shortnotice.Thiswill helphimin seekingguidelinesontechnical points.The reportersshouldknow the importance of NFCAwards,monitoryregulationandfunctioni ngof the banksandthe export/importneedsof the country. COMMERCE MINISTRY BEAT • Comm erce Ministrydealswiththe trade, exportandimport policyof the country. He mustbe aware of the global trade scenarioan d its ef fecto n the loc a l trade. SENSITIV E MINISTRY BEAT • Sensitive mi nistri es include Def e nse,Interi or,ForeignAf fa irs and Inf ormation mi nistries.All these mi nistriesare responsible tosafeguardthe internal and external def e nse of the country.Reportermustbe aware of theirfunctions, sensitivitiesandimportance.He shouldalsoknow thatfromwhere he can get newsandfrom where he hasto countercheck the facts.Th ese sensitive mi nistries are the custo dianof the s ecret. If rep orterge ts so me classifiedsecrets,before filingthe storybasedonthose facts,he shouldtake care of the national interests. 36
  • 24. DEFENSE MINISTRY • The Ar me d Forcesof the country(A rmy,Navy& Air Force) com e s under defense mi nistry.Civil Aviationandthe national carrier PIA isalsoa p a rt of Defense Ministry.Reportermayuse these sour ce s to ge t the newswell intime. INTERIORMINISTRY • Interi or M i ni stry isre sponsible toma inta inthe law andorder inthe countr y. All intelligence agenciesandpolice services functionunderitscommand.Most of the sensitivenewsstory/breakingnews/newsupdate come s fromInteriorMinistry. RELIGIOUS AFFAIR S MINISTRY • ReligiousA ffairsMinistryisresponsible to facilitateHajj Pilgrims and the other religiousrituals.The reportershouldtake care of sensitivitieswhilereportingthe activitiesof various religiousgroups. INFORMATION MINISTRY • InformationMinistryiscalledthe eyesandearsand the spokesmanof the governme nt. ThisMinistryisresponsible forthe image buildingof the Governme nt andto projectthe achieveme nt s of Governme nt.PakistanTelevision, RadioPakistan,PressInformationDepartme ntandPakistanElectronicMedia RegulatoryAuthorities(PEMRA) alsowork underthe admi nistrative commandof
  • 25. InformationMinistry.The reporterhasto establishthe contactsinthese mi nistries. BEATREPORTING • There are numberof ministrieswhich come underthe title social ministriesthey are: Healthministries,Law& Justice and ParliamentaryAffairsministries, Human rights,Agriculture ministry,Educationministry,Environmentministry, Youth & WomanAffairsministry,Tourism &Culture ministry. • Social ministriesare one of the major beatof reporting.Theirpolicydecisions have directimpacton commonma n’ s life. • A Reportercoveringthe social ministriesmust know the importance of the ministries.He shouldknowthe hyrar ical structure of these ministries.He must establishpersonalcontac t withall officialsfromthe toptobottomworkingin variouscapacities.He musthave a special relationshipwiththe focal personfor mediaineveryministry.He shouldtrytoestablishpersonal relationwiththe ministersothathe can getfirsthand informationtofile anexclusivestoryor breakingnews. DIPLOMATIC REPORTING
  • 26. • DiplomaticReportingconcernswiththe foreignpolicyandthe relationshipof a countrywithothercountriesandthe activitiesof variousforeignmissionsandthe contoursof the foreignpolicy. • In diplomaticrelations,neitherthe enemy iseternal northe friendshipiseternal. The onlythingwhichiseternal isthe interestof the nation. • A diplomaticreportershouldbe aware of the worldpowergamesandthe interest of variouscountriesinvariousregions. • Informationhighway haschangedthe traditional role of diplomaticreporting, mediatechnology,internet,live feedsand instantreportinghasadirectinfluence on the relationshipof countries.Media buildordistortthe perceptions. • In today’sworldalongwith the diplomats, the political scientistsandjournalists are the m a in playersof diplomacy. NGOsalsoprovide usefulinformationto DiplomaticReporters.The diplomaticreportermustestablishcontactswiththem. • ForeignMissionsare alsoa great source of diplomaticreporting. • Reportersshouldbe aware of international agreements amongvariouscountries. • He shouldalsoknowthe internationalorganizations(UNO, OIC,NAM,SAARC, ASEAN,EU, AFU, NATTO) BEAT REPORTING • BusinessandFinancial Reportingisaveryimportantbeat.Onlya personwhois well versedwiththe financial andbusinessclimate of the countrycando this
  • 27. assignment. • He shouldbe aware of current economicclimate.The causesandthe potential solutions f or the problemsconfrontingthe businesscommunity. • He mustknowthe bankingsystem. • He mustbe aware of situationof worldeconomyandthe future trends. • He mustknowthe role of World Bankand IMF. • Stock MarketsImpact on National Economyandthe Brokersystem etc. • Businessandfinancial beatreportermustbe aware of Political andSocial Fall out on the economyof the country andthe effectsof strikesandralliesonthe economy. • Financial Reportermuststudybusinesspagesof dailynewspapers/yellow pages and weeklybusinessmagazinestoenhance the knowledge.He shouldfrequently visitthe businesspagesof webandinternet. BEAT REPORTING SPORTS REPORTING • Sports reportingis claimedbe one of the mostinterestingandthrillingbeat. • Most talentedandrespectedjournalistshave beensportswriters. • If anyone intendstobe a sportsreporter he must readbookson a range of sports topic,includingbiographies,historiesof Cricket,Hockey,Football,Golf, Athletics,WorldOlympics,Local sports – Kabaddi andWrestlingetc. • Investigative reportingin sportsstartedin1990. • In Cricket,itwas the investigativere portingwhichbroughtmanyamendments in the lawsand rulesof Cricket.Issue of “Ball Scratch” and “Dope Test” was cam e
  • 28. out due to investigative. • From 1950s to 1960s people sawa rapidgrowthin sportscoverage,bothinprint and broadcastm e dia.Duringthisperiod, independent sportsagenciesandphoto agencieswere establishedtocoverthe sportsevents. • International SportsPressAssociation(AIPS) wasalsoestablished. • Sports shopsforvariousdedicatedgameswere opened. • Nownum be r of the sportschannelsandsportsmagazinesare inthe market. Sportsalsobrought a goodamountof advertisements. REPORTING BEATS • Court Beat:Courts are one of the veryimportantsourcesof news.The decisions of court are oftenbreakingnewsortheyhave a largerimplicationonpolicymattersof the state.The majorcourts are: I. Supreme Court II. HighCourts III. DistrictCourts • The Reportercoveringthe courtmustknow the basicsof the law of the land.The functioningof court,its procedure proceedings.The importance of BarCouncil. The problemsfacedbylawyercommunityandthe clients.He shouldalsoread and understandthe constitution. • Electioncommissionbeat:Electioncommissionisalsoone of the important sourcesof news.Electioncommissionis aconstitutional bodyandisresponsible for holdingthe general electionsinthe country.Re porter mustknow aboutthe structure and functioningof electioncommission. • Chief ElectionCommissioneristhe headof ElectionCommission.Histenure is
  • 29. fixedinthe constitution.A personhavingaSupreme CourtJudge stature canhold thisposition. WAR REPO RTING • War reportingisone of the dangerousformof beat reporting.A commonreporter can neverbe a good war reporterif he does not have the experience of workingin pressure andinstressenvironment.In modernmediascene,the warreportinghas got importance due todevelopment of technologyandlive reporting. • ShowBiz Beat:Showbizis alsoone of the popularforms of beatreporting.A showbizreporterhas to coverthe activitiesof FilmIndustry,TV,Stage,Theatre, Models,CatWalks andFashionShows. • A Reporterwhoissupposedtobe the show biz reportermustknow all the aspects of these fields.Show bizisthe majorsource of derivingthe entertainmentnews.