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Public relations
Definition
The profession or practice of creating and maintaining goodwill of an organization's various
publics (customers, employees, investors, suppliers, etc.), usually through publicity and other
nonpaid forms of communication. These efforts may also include support of arts, charitable
causes, education, sporting events, and other civic engagements.
“Public relations is the attempt by information persuasion and adjustment to engineer
public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution.”- Edward L. Bernays
“Everything involved in achieving a favourable opinion."- George F. Meredith
Former President of the American Pubic Relation Association
According to PhillipsLeslyleadingprofessional “Publicrelationinvolvescomplete analysisand
understandingof all the factors that influence people ‘attitude towardsand organization”
The aim of publicrelationsbyacompany oftenistopersuade the public,investors,partners, employees,
and otherstakeholderstomaintainacertainpointof view aboutit,itsleadership,products,orof
political decisions.Commonactivitiesinclude speakingatconferences,winningindustryawards,
workingwiththe press,andemployee communication,byRubel,GinaF.(2007)
In 2011 and 2012, the PRSA (Public Relations Society of America)developed a crowd-sourced
definition:
“Public Relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial
relationships between organizations and their publics.”Public relations can also be defined as
the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics
According to Edward Bernays, one of the pioneers of PR, "The three main elements of public
relations are practically as old as society: informing people, persuading people, or integrating
people with people."
In 1995 Scott Cutlip PR educationist said historic events have been defined as PR
retrospectively, "a decision with which many may quarrel." Cutlip issued the call to study:
Public relations strategies and tactics are increasingly used as weapons of power in our
no-holds-barred political, economic, and cause competition in the public opinion
marketplace, and thus deserve more scholarly scrutiny than they have had.
Cutlip expressed the opinion that a public relations is a "vital cog in the nation’s information
system" in the prologue to his book The Unseen Power. He describes the public system as
consisting of "government – federal, state, and local, political parties, pressure groups, non-profit
organizations, public relations personnel, and the channels of communication, manned by
reporters, editors, and gatekeepers". He notes that since citizens depend on this system,
practitioners have a social responsibility while they skillfully advocate on behalf of clients.
As practitioners of the expertise, Cutlip lists "propagandist, press agent, public information
officer, public relations or public affairs official, political campaign specialist, and lobbyist."
Short History
In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote “The Crisis,” a pamphlet which convinced the soldiers of
Washington’s army to stay and fight at a time when so many were prepared to desert so they
could escape the cold and the hardships of a winter campaign. Paine was a master of
political propaganda whose writing could get people to do things and believe things.
Thomas Jefferson (1807) used the phrase "Public relations" in the place of "State of
thought" while writing his seventh address to the US Congress.
Benjamin Franklin made it a rule to forbear all contradiction to others, and all positive assertions
of his own. He would say, "I conceive” or "'I apprehend" or "I imagine” a thing to be so, or it
appears to be so. Franklin pioneered the rules for "personal relations" in an era before mass
media had made possible a profession called "public relations."
Public relations became a profession in 1903 as Ivy Lee undertook to advise John D. Rockefeller
on how to conduct his public relations. Rockefeller owned coal mines and the Pennsylvania
Railroad. Miners were on strike and the railroad hushed up the facts when its trains were
involved with accidents. Lee advised Rockefeller to visit the coal mines and talk to the miners.
Rockefeller spent time listening to the complaints of the miners, improved their conditions,
danced with their wives, and became a hero to the miners.
After a railroad accident, Lee invited reporters to inspect the wreck and get the facts. The
Pennsylvania Railroad then obtained its first favorable press coverage.
Lee professionalized public relations by following these principles:
1. Tell the truth
2. Provide accurate facts
3. The public relations director must have access to top management and must be able to
influence decisions
Lee defined public relations, saying: Public relations means the actual relationship of the
company to the people and that relationship involve more than talk. The company must act by
performing good deeds.
Edward Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, is also sometimes referred to as the father of PR
and the profession's first theorist for his work in the 1920s; He authored several books, including
Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), Propaganda (1928), and The Engineering of Consent
(1947)
Public relations took the next step toward professionalism in 1918 as Edward Bernays advised
the President of the new country of Czechoslovakia to announce independence on a Monday,
rather than on a Sunday to get maximum press coverage.
In 1923, Bernays published “Crystallizing Public Opinion,” in which he established several
public relations principles. He said that public relations had these functions:
• To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the client
• To interpret the public to the client, which means operating the company in such a way as to
gain the approval of the public
Bernays and Lee were stressing the idea that the corporation should accept social responsibility.
Bernays’ ideas about social responsibility led to his refusal to accept unethical clients. He created
the concept that there are many publics and each public needs to be appealed to. He advised
public relations professionals to seek out group leaders and other key communicators (opinion
leaders), who would be able to pass along ideas to other members of the public. Other Bernays
concepts include:
a. Public relations is a public service
b. Public relations should promote new ideas and progress
c. Public relations should build a public conscience
Bernays put his ideas into practice when he took on as clients Proctor and Gamble and the
Columbian Rope Company. Proctor and Gamble had produced a radio commercial, which was
offensive to African-Americans. Bernays took these steps:
a. He changed the commercial
b. He got the company to offer African-Americans significant jobs
c. He invited them to tour the plant
d. He featured African-Americans in the company newsletter
The Columbian Rope Company had an anti-union image. Bernays took these steps:
a. He produced a radio program featuring union and management panelists
b. He induced the company to bargain with the union
c. He offered tours of the plant
d. He convinced the company to sponsor a vocational program
Edward Bernays may truly be called the father of public relations and Ivy Lee the first public
relations counselor.
In 1929, Edward Bernays helped the Lucky Strike cigarette brand increase its sales among the
female demographic. Research showed that women were reluctant to carry a pack of Lucky
Strike cigarettes, because the brand's green color scheme clashed with popular fashion choices.
Bernays persuaded fashion designers, charity events, interior designers and others to popularize
the color green. He also positioned cigarettes as Torches of Freedom that represent rebellion
against the norms of a male-dominated society.
Wartime propaganda
During the Second World War, Coca Cola promised that "every man in uniform gets a bottle of
Coca-Cola for five cents, wherever he is and whatever it costs the company." The company
persuaded politicians that it was crucial to the war-effort and was exempted from sugar rationing.
During the European Recovery Program PR became more established in Europe as US-based
companies with PR departments created European subsidiaries
PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT used several public relations vehicles. In 1933 he
began his series of "fireside chats" to inform and persuade American citizens. He also expanded
the role of the Office of War Information during the Second World War.
PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT was the first president to make extensive use of the
public relations techniques of news conferences and interviews. He saw the White House as a
"bully pulpit" with much potential for publicity and advocacy.
Bernays also solidified his reputation as “the father of spin” by writing books, including
Crystallizing Public Opinion in 1923 and Propaganda in 1928. In fact, Bernays often described
what he did as propaganda, and didn’t apologize for using the term until after it was adopted in
the 1933 by Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Nazi
Germany.
In 1939, Germany’s frighteningly effective use of propaganda prompted President Franklin
Delano Roosevelt to create a group of “top men” to start working on an American version of
propaganda – just in case it was needed. One of these “top men” was Harold Lasswell.
Lasswell In 1927, wrote Propaganda Technique in the World War.
Then, in 1939, He quickly developed a “Model of Communication” that was just as quickly
classified “Top Secret.” Like a scene out of the movie, “Raiders of the Lost Ark,” Lasswell
explained to the other “top men” working on the project that propaganda – or what the
American’s called the communication process – entailed five key elements. Lasswell assembled
these elements into a model and then turned the model into a simple question: “Who says what in
which channel to whom with what effect?”
If you found the right answers to each of the five elements of the question, then you could create
effective propaganda – unless, of course, too much “noise” – unplanned static or distortion
during the communication process – resulted in the receiver receiving a different message than
the sender sent.
NEED FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS
Investing on Public relations will help the organization to achieve its objective effectively and
smoothly. Public Relations is not creating good image for a bad team.
Since false image cannot be sustained for a long time. Though the organization product or
services are good it need an effective Public Relations campaign for attracting, motivating the
public to the product or service or towards the purpose of the programme. It is not only
encouraging the involvement from the public and also resulting in better image.
An effective Public Relations can create and build up the image of an individual or an
organization or a nation. At the time of adverse publicity or when the organization is under crisis
an effective Public Relations can remove the "misunderstanding" and can create mutual
understanding between the organization and the public.
PR is extremely important for all types of organizations.
Public relations revolved around the fact that all people will act on what they perceive to be true.
A publicist or public relations officer will influence the public’s perception of things to work in
the favour or the business or organization. Public relations ensure that people see the business or
organization in a particular way that is in line with the organization’s objectives.
The PR professional that you choose to work with will ensure that the public sees your company
in a certain way. For example, if you wish to be seen as the most reliable insurance firm in the
city then a PR professional will advise you regarding how this can be achieved. Press releases,
advertising and speech writing are just some of the tools used by public relations professional.
Many small businesses or non- profit organizations do not have the budget start up a public
relations department. This does not means that they should continue to neglect their PR needs.
There are many other options available that do not require as much money. Hiring full-time
public relations employees is not the only option.
One option would be to find a PR firm and hire their services as and when you need them. These
firms would usually bill per hour and this can work out to be a lot more cost effective than hiring
a full time PR professional. This is also an ideal choice for smaller businesses because their
public relations needs are usually not that demanding.
 It provides a vital role in promoting businesses to their customers.
 When done correctly, it can often provide a greater result than advertising, whilst costing less.
 It allows you to quickly respond to opportunities within publicity.
 If you ever experience bad press, having a solid PR strategy in place will reduce the damage
caused.
 It can improve the overall image of a company within the community.
PR is not just media relations
 "doing outreach" itself is PR
 Other PR examples include:

o Special Events
o Special Promotions
o Public Affairs
o Internal Relations
o Community Relations
o High Tech PR: blogging, social networking
FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
= Public Relations is establishing the relationship among the two groups (organisation and
public).
= Art or Science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill.
= It analyses the public perception & attitude, identifies the organisation policy with public
interest and then executes the programmes for communication with the public.
ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
= A planned effort or management function.
= The relationship between an organisation and its publics
= Evaluation of public attitudes and opinions.
= An organisation's policies, procedures and actions as they relate to said
organisation's publics.
= Steps taken to ensure that said policies, procedures and actions are in the public
interest and socially responsible.
= Execution of an action and or communication programme.
= Development of rapport, goodwill, understanding and acceptance as the chief end
result sought by public relations activities.

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Public relations

  • 1. Public relations Definition The profession or practice of creating and maintaining goodwill of an organization's various publics (customers, employees, investors, suppliers, etc.), usually through publicity and other nonpaid forms of communication. These efforts may also include support of arts, charitable causes, education, sporting events, and other civic engagements. “Public relations is the attempt by information persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution.”- Edward L. Bernays “Everything involved in achieving a favourable opinion."- George F. Meredith Former President of the American Pubic Relation Association According to PhillipsLeslyleadingprofessional “Publicrelationinvolvescomplete analysisand understandingof all the factors that influence people ‘attitude towardsand organization” The aim of publicrelationsbyacompany oftenistopersuade the public,investors,partners, employees, and otherstakeholderstomaintainacertainpointof view aboutit,itsleadership,products,orof political decisions.Commonactivitiesinclude speakingatconferences,winningindustryawards, workingwiththe press,andemployee communication,byRubel,GinaF.(2007) In 2011 and 2012, the PRSA (Public Relations Society of America)developed a crowd-sourced definition: “Public Relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.”Public relations can also be defined as the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics According to Edward Bernays, one of the pioneers of PR, "The three main elements of public relations are practically as old as society: informing people, persuading people, or integrating people with people." In 1995 Scott Cutlip PR educationist said historic events have been defined as PR retrospectively, "a decision with which many may quarrel." Cutlip issued the call to study:
  • 2. Public relations strategies and tactics are increasingly used as weapons of power in our no-holds-barred political, economic, and cause competition in the public opinion marketplace, and thus deserve more scholarly scrutiny than they have had. Cutlip expressed the opinion that a public relations is a "vital cog in the nation’s information system" in the prologue to his book The Unseen Power. He describes the public system as consisting of "government – federal, state, and local, political parties, pressure groups, non-profit organizations, public relations personnel, and the channels of communication, manned by reporters, editors, and gatekeepers". He notes that since citizens depend on this system, practitioners have a social responsibility while they skillfully advocate on behalf of clients. As practitioners of the expertise, Cutlip lists "propagandist, press agent, public information officer, public relations or public affairs official, political campaign specialist, and lobbyist." Short History In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote “The Crisis,” a pamphlet which convinced the soldiers of Washington’s army to stay and fight at a time when so many were prepared to desert so they could escape the cold and the hardships of a winter campaign. Paine was a master of political propaganda whose writing could get people to do things and believe things. Thomas Jefferson (1807) used the phrase "Public relations" in the place of "State of thought" while writing his seventh address to the US Congress. Benjamin Franklin made it a rule to forbear all contradiction to others, and all positive assertions of his own. He would say, "I conceive” or "'I apprehend" or "I imagine” a thing to be so, or it appears to be so. Franklin pioneered the rules for "personal relations" in an era before mass media had made possible a profession called "public relations." Public relations became a profession in 1903 as Ivy Lee undertook to advise John D. Rockefeller on how to conduct his public relations. Rockefeller owned coal mines and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Miners were on strike and the railroad hushed up the facts when its trains were involved with accidents. Lee advised Rockefeller to visit the coal mines and talk to the miners. Rockefeller spent time listening to the complaints of the miners, improved their conditions, danced with their wives, and became a hero to the miners. After a railroad accident, Lee invited reporters to inspect the wreck and get the facts. The Pennsylvania Railroad then obtained its first favorable press coverage. Lee professionalized public relations by following these principles: 1. Tell the truth 2. Provide accurate facts 3. The public relations director must have access to top management and must be able to influence decisions
  • 3. Lee defined public relations, saying: Public relations means the actual relationship of the company to the people and that relationship involve more than talk. The company must act by performing good deeds. Edward Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, is also sometimes referred to as the father of PR and the profession's first theorist for his work in the 1920s; He authored several books, including Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), Propaganda (1928), and The Engineering of Consent (1947) Public relations took the next step toward professionalism in 1918 as Edward Bernays advised the President of the new country of Czechoslovakia to announce independence on a Monday, rather than on a Sunday to get maximum press coverage. In 1923, Bernays published “Crystallizing Public Opinion,” in which he established several public relations principles. He said that public relations had these functions: • To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the client • To interpret the public to the client, which means operating the company in such a way as to gain the approval of the public Bernays and Lee were stressing the idea that the corporation should accept social responsibility. Bernays’ ideas about social responsibility led to his refusal to accept unethical clients. He created the concept that there are many publics and each public needs to be appealed to. He advised public relations professionals to seek out group leaders and other key communicators (opinion leaders), who would be able to pass along ideas to other members of the public. Other Bernays concepts include: a. Public relations is a public service b. Public relations should promote new ideas and progress c. Public relations should build a public conscience Bernays put his ideas into practice when he took on as clients Proctor and Gamble and the Columbian Rope Company. Proctor and Gamble had produced a radio commercial, which was offensive to African-Americans. Bernays took these steps: a. He changed the commercial b. He got the company to offer African-Americans significant jobs c. He invited them to tour the plant d. He featured African-Americans in the company newsletter The Columbian Rope Company had an anti-union image. Bernays took these steps: a. He produced a radio program featuring union and management panelists b. He induced the company to bargain with the union c. He offered tours of the plant
  • 4. d. He convinced the company to sponsor a vocational program Edward Bernays may truly be called the father of public relations and Ivy Lee the first public relations counselor. In 1929, Edward Bernays helped the Lucky Strike cigarette brand increase its sales among the female demographic. Research showed that women were reluctant to carry a pack of Lucky Strike cigarettes, because the brand's green color scheme clashed with popular fashion choices. Bernays persuaded fashion designers, charity events, interior designers and others to popularize the color green. He also positioned cigarettes as Torches of Freedom that represent rebellion against the norms of a male-dominated society. Wartime propaganda During the Second World War, Coca Cola promised that "every man in uniform gets a bottle of Coca-Cola for five cents, wherever he is and whatever it costs the company." The company persuaded politicians that it was crucial to the war-effort and was exempted from sugar rationing. During the European Recovery Program PR became more established in Europe as US-based companies with PR departments created European subsidiaries PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT used several public relations vehicles. In 1933 he began his series of "fireside chats" to inform and persuade American citizens. He also expanded the role of the Office of War Information during the Second World War. PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT was the first president to make extensive use of the public relations techniques of news conferences and interviews. He saw the White House as a "bully pulpit" with much potential for publicity and advocacy. Bernays also solidified his reputation as “the father of spin” by writing books, including Crystallizing Public Opinion in 1923 and Propaganda in 1928. In fact, Bernays often described what he did as propaganda, and didn’t apologize for using the term until after it was adopted in the 1933 by Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Nazi Germany. In 1939, Germany’s frighteningly effective use of propaganda prompted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to create a group of “top men” to start working on an American version of propaganda – just in case it was needed. One of these “top men” was Harold Lasswell. Lasswell In 1927, wrote Propaganda Technique in the World War. Then, in 1939, He quickly developed a “Model of Communication” that was just as quickly classified “Top Secret.” Like a scene out of the movie, “Raiders of the Lost Ark,” Lasswell explained to the other “top men” working on the project that propaganda – or what the
  • 5. American’s called the communication process – entailed five key elements. Lasswell assembled these elements into a model and then turned the model into a simple question: “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?” If you found the right answers to each of the five elements of the question, then you could create effective propaganda – unless, of course, too much “noise” – unplanned static or distortion during the communication process – resulted in the receiver receiving a different message than the sender sent. NEED FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS Investing on Public relations will help the organization to achieve its objective effectively and smoothly. Public Relations is not creating good image for a bad team. Since false image cannot be sustained for a long time. Though the organization product or services are good it need an effective Public Relations campaign for attracting, motivating the public to the product or service or towards the purpose of the programme. It is not only encouraging the involvement from the public and also resulting in better image. An effective Public Relations can create and build up the image of an individual or an organization or a nation. At the time of adverse publicity or when the organization is under crisis an effective Public Relations can remove the "misunderstanding" and can create mutual understanding between the organization and the public. PR is extremely important for all types of organizations. Public relations revolved around the fact that all people will act on what they perceive to be true. A publicist or public relations officer will influence the public’s perception of things to work in the favour or the business or organization. Public relations ensure that people see the business or organization in a particular way that is in line with the organization’s objectives. The PR professional that you choose to work with will ensure that the public sees your company in a certain way. For example, if you wish to be seen as the most reliable insurance firm in the city then a PR professional will advise you regarding how this can be achieved. Press releases, advertising and speech writing are just some of the tools used by public relations professional. Many small businesses or non- profit organizations do not have the budget start up a public relations department. This does not means that they should continue to neglect their PR needs. There are many other options available that do not require as much money. Hiring full-time public relations employees is not the only option. One option would be to find a PR firm and hire their services as and when you need them. These firms would usually bill per hour and this can work out to be a lot more cost effective than hiring
  • 6. a full time PR professional. This is also an ideal choice for smaller businesses because their public relations needs are usually not that demanding.  It provides a vital role in promoting businesses to their customers.  When done correctly, it can often provide a greater result than advertising, whilst costing less.  It allows you to quickly respond to opportunities within publicity.  If you ever experience bad press, having a solid PR strategy in place will reduce the damage caused.  It can improve the overall image of a company within the community. PR is not just media relations  "doing outreach" itself is PR  Other PR examples include:  o Special Events o Special Promotions o Public Affairs o Internal Relations o Community Relations o High Tech PR: blogging, social networking FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS = Public Relations is establishing the relationship among the two groups (organisation and public). = Art or Science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill. = It analyses the public perception & attitude, identifies the organisation policy with public interest and then executes the programmes for communication with the public. ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS = A planned effort or management function. = The relationship between an organisation and its publics = Evaluation of public attitudes and opinions. = An organisation's policies, procedures and actions as they relate to said organisation's publics. = Steps taken to ensure that said policies, procedures and actions are in the public
  • 7. interest and socially responsible. = Execution of an action and or communication programme. = Development of rapport, goodwill, understanding and acceptance as the chief end result sought by public relations activities.