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TelevisionTelevision
 Television marked the beginning of aTelevision marked the beginning of a
phenomenon that was to have a majorphenomenon that was to have a major
impact on news, advertising, film, radio,impact on news, advertising, film, radio,
and the world  --  not to mention howand the world  --  not to mention how
millions of people would spend theirmillions of people would spend their
leisure hours.leisure hours.
TelevisionTelevision
IIn the beginning, a snowy picture with a horizontal bar rolling through it (like then the beginning, a snowy picture with a horizontal bar rolling through it (like the
one shown above) was the best many TV viewers could hope for.one shown above) was the best many TV viewers could hope for.
What is the differnece between TVWhat is the differnece between TV
and Filmand Film
The basic differences between cinema andThe basic differences between cinema and
television aretelevision are
•the content,the content,
•viewing conditions,viewing conditions,
•ability to attract and hold the limited span ofability to attract and hold the limited span of
attention of the viewer,attention of the viewer,
•the ability to shape the message to the medium,the ability to shape the message to the medium,
•the longer duration that people spend in front ofthe longer duration that people spend in front of
a television set vis-à-vis that spent in a cinemaa television set vis-à-vis that spent in a cinema
hall,hall,
•technical differencestechnical differences
What is the differneceWhat is the differnece
between TV and Filmbetween TV and Film
 difference between a short story and a novel. difference between a short story and a novel. 
 TV is consumer electronicsTV is consumer electronics
 TV content is vast in its range and diverse in itsTV content is vast in its range and diverse in its
format.format.
 liveness" of television—a characteristicliveness" of television—a characteristic
often used to distinguish television andoften used to distinguish television and
filmfilm
Frame rateFrame rate
 Frame rateFrame rate, or , or frame frequencyframe frequency, is, is
the frequency (rate) at which an imagingthe frequency (rate) at which an imaging
device produces unique consecutivedevice produces unique consecutive
images called frames. The term appliesimages called frames. The term applies
equally well to computer graphics, videoequally well to computer graphics, video
cameras, film cameras, and motioncameras, film cameras, and motion
capture systems.capture systems.
Frame rates in film and televisionFrame rates in film and television
 50i50i (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames) is the (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames) is the
standard video field rate per secondstandard video field rate per second
for PAL and SECAM television.for PAL and SECAM television.
 60i60i (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more
precise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames) is theprecise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames) is the
standard video field rate per second for NTSCstandard video field rate per second for NTSC
television (e.g. in the US), whether from atelevision (e.g. in the US), whether from a
broadcast signal, DVD, or home camcorder.broadcast signal, DVD, or home camcorder.
This interlaced field rate was developed separatelyThis interlaced field rate was developed separately
by Farnsworth and Zworykin in 1934,and was partby Farnsworth and Zworykin in 1934,and was part
of the NTSC television standards effective in 1941.of the NTSC television standards effective in 1941.
Frame rates in film andFrame rates in film and
televisiontelevision
 30p30p, or 30-frame progressive, is, or 30-frame progressive, is
a noninterlaced format and produces video at 30a noninterlaced format and produces video at 30
frames per second. Progressive (noninterlaced)frames per second. Progressive (noninterlaced)
scanning mimics a film camera's frame-by-framescanning mimics a film camera's frame-by-frame
image capture and gives clarity for high speedimage capture and gives clarity for high speed
subjects and a cinematic-like appearance.subjects and a cinematic-like appearance.
Shooting in 30p mode offers video with noShooting in 30p mode offers video with no
interlace artifacts.interlace artifacts.
NTSCNTSC
 NTSCNTSC, named for the , named for the National TelevisionNational Television
System CommitteeSystem Committee , is the analog, is the analog
television system used in most of North America,television system used in most of North America,
most countries in South America, Burma, Southmost countries in South America, Burma, South
Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and someKorea, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and some
Pacific island nations and territories (seePacific island nations and territories (see
map). NTSC is also the name of the U.S.map). NTSC is also the name of the U.S.
standardization body that developed thestandardization body that developed the
broadcast standard. The first NTSC standardbroadcast standard. The first NTSC standard
was developed in 1941 and had no provision forwas developed in 1941 and had no provision for
color TV.color TV.
SECAMSECAM
 SECAMSECAM, also written , also written SÉCAMSÉCAM ( (SéquentielSéquentiel
couleur couleur àà mémoire mémoire[[
, French for "Sequential Color, French for "Sequential Color
with Memory"), is an analog color televisionwith Memory"), is an analog color television
system first used in France. A team led by Henrisystem first used in France. A team led by Henri
de France working at Compagnie Française dede France working at Compagnie Française de
Télévision (later bought by Thomson) inventedTélévision (later bought by Thomson) invented
SECAM. It is, historically, theSECAM. It is, historically, the
first European color television standard.first European color television standard.
PALPAL
 PALPAL, short for , short for Phase Alternate LinePhase Alternate Line , is an, is an
analogue television encoding system usedanalogue television encoding system used
in broadcast television systems in large parts ofin broadcast television systems in large parts of
the world.the world.
ATSC (standards)ATSC (standards)
 ATSCATSC is a set of standards developed by is a set of standards developed by
the Advanced Television Systemsthe Advanced Television Systems
Committee for digital television transmissionCommittee for digital television transmission
over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.
 The ATSC standard was developed in the earlyThe ATSC standard was developed in the early
1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of
electronics and telecommunications companieselectronics and telecommunications companies
that assembled to develop a specification forthat assembled to develop a specification for
what is now known as HDTV. ATSC formatswhat is now known as HDTV. ATSC formats
also include standard-definition formats,also include standard-definition formats,
although initially only HDTV services werealthough initially only HDTV services were
launched in the digital format.launched in the digital format.
Aspect ratio (image)Aspect ratio (image)
 The The aspect ratioaspect ratio of an image is the ratio of an image is the ratio
of the width of the image to its height,of the width of the image to its height,
expressed as two numbers separated by aexpressed as two numbers separated by a
colon. That is, for an colon. That is, for an xx::yyaspect ratio, noaspect ratio, no
matter how big or small the image is, if thematter how big or small the image is, if the
width is divided into width is divided into xx units of equal length units of equal length
and the height is measured using thisand the height is measured using this
same length unit, the height will besame length unit, the height will be
measured to be measured to be yy units. units.
Aspect ratioAspect ratio
 Two common videographic aspect ratiosTwo common videographic aspect ratios
are are 4:34:3 (1.33:1), universal for standard-definition video (1.33:1), universal for standard-definition video
formats, and formats, and 16:916:9 (1.78:1), universal to high-definition (1.78:1), universal to high-definition
television and European digital television. Othertelevision and European digital television. Other
cinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are usedcinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are used
infrequently. As of 2010, nominally 21:9 (2.33) aspectinfrequently. As of 2010, nominally 21:9 (2.33) aspect
TVs have been introduced by Philips and Vizio (theTVs have been introduced by Philips and Vizio (the
latter using an LCD from AU Optronics) as "cinema"latter using an LCD from AU Optronics) as "cinema"
displays, though the resolution is more preciselydisplays, though the resolution is more precisely
2560×1080 = 2.37, and the aspect ratio is not2560×1080 = 2.37, and the aspect ratio is not
standardized in HDTV.standardized in HDTV.
4:3 standard4:3 standard
 The 4:3 ratio (generally named asThe 4:3 ratio (generally named as "Four-Three""Four-Three",, "Four-"Four-
by-Three"by-Three",, "Four-to-Three""Four-to-Three", or, or "Academy Ratio""Academy Ratio") for) for
standard television has been in use since television'sstandard television has been in use since television's
origins and many computer monitors use the sameorigins and many computer monitors use the same
aspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio defined by theaspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio defined by the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as aAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as a
standard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. Bystandard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. By
having TV match this aspect ratio, films previouslyhaving TV match this aspect ratio, films previously
photographed on film could be satisfactorily viewed onphotographed on film could be satisfactorily viewed on
TV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s andTV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s and
the 1950s). When cinema attendance dropped,the 1950s). When cinema attendance dropped,
Hollywood created widescreen aspect ratios (such as theHollywood created widescreen aspect ratios (such as the
1.85:1 ratio mentioned earlier) in order to differentiate1.85:1 ratio mentioned earlier) in order to differentiate
the film industry from TV.the film industry from TV.
16:9 standard16:9 standard
 16:916:9 (generally pronounced as(generally pronounced as "Sixteen-by-Nine""Sixteen-by-Nine"; alternates; alternates
includeinclude "Sixteen-Nine""Sixteen-Nine" andand "Sixteen-to-Nine""Sixteen-to-Nine") is the) is the
international standard format of HDTV, non-HD digitalinternational standard format of HDTV, non-HD digital
television and analog widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus.television and analog widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus.
Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio butJapan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio but
converted when the international standards group introducedconverted when the international standards group introduced
a wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (=16:9). Many digital video camerasa wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (=16:9). Many digital video cameras
have the capability to record in 16:9, and 16:9 is the onlyhave the capability to record in 16:9, and 16:9 is the only
widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD. DVDwidescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD. DVD
producers can also choose to show even wider ratios such asproducers can also choose to show even wider ratios such as
1.85:1 and 2.39:1 within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting1.85:1 and 2.39:1 within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting
or adding black bars within the image itself. Some films whichor adding black bars within the image itself. Some films which
were made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italianwere made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italian
co-productionco-production Man of La ManchaMan of La Mancha, fit quite comfortably onto a, fit quite comfortably onto a
1.78:1 HDTV screen and have been issued anamorphically1.78:1 HDTV screen and have been issued anamorphically
enhanced on DVD without the black bars.enhanced on DVD without the black bars.
Visual comparisonsVisual comparisons

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Tv intro

  • 1. TelevisionTelevision  Television marked the beginning of aTelevision marked the beginning of a phenomenon that was to have a majorphenomenon that was to have a major impact on news, advertising, film, radio,impact on news, advertising, film, radio, and the world  --  not to mention howand the world  --  not to mention how millions of people would spend theirmillions of people would spend their leisure hours.leisure hours.
  • 2. TelevisionTelevision IIn the beginning, a snowy picture with a horizontal bar rolling through it (like then the beginning, a snowy picture with a horizontal bar rolling through it (like the one shown above) was the best many TV viewers could hope for.one shown above) was the best many TV viewers could hope for.
  • 3. What is the differnece between TVWhat is the differnece between TV and Filmand Film The basic differences between cinema andThe basic differences between cinema and television aretelevision are •the content,the content, •viewing conditions,viewing conditions, •ability to attract and hold the limited span ofability to attract and hold the limited span of attention of the viewer,attention of the viewer, •the ability to shape the message to the medium,the ability to shape the message to the medium, •the longer duration that people spend in front ofthe longer duration that people spend in front of a television set vis-à-vis that spent in a cinemaa television set vis-à-vis that spent in a cinema hall,hall, •technical differencestechnical differences
  • 4. What is the differneceWhat is the differnece between TV and Filmbetween TV and Film  difference between a short story and a novel. difference between a short story and a novel.   TV is consumer electronicsTV is consumer electronics  TV content is vast in its range and diverse in itsTV content is vast in its range and diverse in its format.format.  liveness" of television—a characteristicliveness" of television—a characteristic often used to distinguish television andoften used to distinguish television and filmfilm
  • 5. Frame rateFrame rate  Frame rateFrame rate, or , or frame frequencyframe frequency, is, is the frequency (rate) at which an imagingthe frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutivedevice produces unique consecutive images called frames. The term appliesimages called frames. The term applies equally well to computer graphics, videoequally well to computer graphics, video cameras, film cameras, and motioncameras, film cameras, and motion capture systems.capture systems.
  • 6. Frame rates in film and televisionFrame rates in film and television  50i50i (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames) is the (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames) is the standard video field rate per secondstandard video field rate per second for PAL and SECAM television.for PAL and SECAM television.  60i60i (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more precise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames) is theprecise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames) is the standard video field rate per second for NTSCstandard video field rate per second for NTSC television (e.g. in the US), whether from atelevision (e.g. in the US), whether from a broadcast signal, DVD, or home camcorder.broadcast signal, DVD, or home camcorder. This interlaced field rate was developed separatelyThis interlaced field rate was developed separately by Farnsworth and Zworykin in 1934,and was partby Farnsworth and Zworykin in 1934,and was part of the NTSC television standards effective in 1941.of the NTSC television standards effective in 1941.
  • 7. Frame rates in film andFrame rates in film and televisiontelevision  30p30p, or 30-frame progressive, is, or 30-frame progressive, is a noninterlaced format and produces video at 30a noninterlaced format and produces video at 30 frames per second. Progressive (noninterlaced)frames per second. Progressive (noninterlaced) scanning mimics a film camera's frame-by-framescanning mimics a film camera's frame-by-frame image capture and gives clarity for high speedimage capture and gives clarity for high speed subjects and a cinematic-like appearance.subjects and a cinematic-like appearance. Shooting in 30p mode offers video with noShooting in 30p mode offers video with no interlace artifacts.interlace artifacts.
  • 8. NTSCNTSC  NTSCNTSC, named for the , named for the National TelevisionNational Television System CommitteeSystem Committee , is the analog, is the analog television system used in most of North America,television system used in most of North America, most countries in South America, Burma, Southmost countries in South America, Burma, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and someKorea, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and some Pacific island nations and territories (seePacific island nations and territories (see map). NTSC is also the name of the U.S.map). NTSC is also the name of the U.S. standardization body that developed thestandardization body that developed the broadcast standard. The first NTSC standardbroadcast standard. The first NTSC standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision forwas developed in 1941 and had no provision for color TV.color TV.
  • 9. SECAMSECAM  SECAMSECAM, also written , also written SÉCAMSÉCAM ( (SéquentielSéquentiel couleur couleur àà mémoire mémoire[[ , French for "Sequential Color, French for "Sequential Color with Memory"), is an analog color televisionwith Memory"), is an analog color television system first used in France. A team led by Henrisystem first used in France. A team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française dede France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson) inventedTélévision (later bought by Thomson) invented SECAM. It is, historically, theSECAM. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.first European color television standard.
  • 10. PALPAL  PALPAL, short for , short for Phase Alternate LinePhase Alternate Line , is an, is an analogue television encoding system usedanalogue television encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts ofin broadcast television systems in large parts of the world.the world.
  • 11. ATSC (standards)ATSC (standards)  ATSCATSC is a set of standards developed by is a set of standards developed by the Advanced Television Systemsthe Advanced Television Systems Committee for digital television transmissionCommittee for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.  The ATSC standard was developed in the earlyThe ATSC standard was developed in the early 1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of electronics and telecommunications companieselectronics and telecommunications companies that assembled to develop a specification forthat assembled to develop a specification for what is now known as HDTV. ATSC formatswhat is now known as HDTV. ATSC formats also include standard-definition formats,also include standard-definition formats, although initially only HDTV services werealthough initially only HDTV services were launched in the digital format.launched in the digital format.
  • 12. Aspect ratio (image)Aspect ratio (image)  The The aspect ratioaspect ratio of an image is the ratio of an image is the ratio of the width of the image to its height,of the width of the image to its height, expressed as two numbers separated by aexpressed as two numbers separated by a colon. That is, for an colon. That is, for an xx::yyaspect ratio, noaspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if thematter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into width is divided into xx units of equal length units of equal length and the height is measured using thisand the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will besame length unit, the height will be measured to be measured to be yy units. units.
  • 13. Aspect ratioAspect ratio  Two common videographic aspect ratiosTwo common videographic aspect ratios are are 4:34:3 (1.33:1), universal for standard-definition video (1.33:1), universal for standard-definition video formats, and formats, and 16:916:9 (1.78:1), universal to high-definition (1.78:1), universal to high-definition television and European digital television. Othertelevision and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are usedcinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are used infrequently. As of 2010, nominally 21:9 (2.33) aspectinfrequently. As of 2010, nominally 21:9 (2.33) aspect TVs have been introduced by Philips and Vizio (theTVs have been introduced by Philips and Vizio (the latter using an LCD from AU Optronics) as "cinema"latter using an LCD from AU Optronics) as "cinema" displays, though the resolution is more preciselydisplays, though the resolution is more precisely 2560×1080 = 2.37, and the aspect ratio is not2560×1080 = 2.37, and the aspect ratio is not standardized in HDTV.standardized in HDTV.
  • 14. 4:3 standard4:3 standard  The 4:3 ratio (generally named asThe 4:3 ratio (generally named as "Four-Three""Four-Three",, "Four-"Four- by-Three"by-Three",, "Four-to-Three""Four-to-Three", or, or "Academy Ratio""Academy Ratio") for) for standard television has been in use since television'sstandard television has been in use since television's origins and many computer monitors use the sameorigins and many computer monitors use the same aspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio defined by theaspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio defined by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as aAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as a standard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. Bystandard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. By having TV match this aspect ratio, films previouslyhaving TV match this aspect ratio, films previously photographed on film could be satisfactorily viewed onphotographed on film could be satisfactorily viewed on TV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s andTV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s and the 1950s). When cinema attendance dropped,the 1950s). When cinema attendance dropped, Hollywood created widescreen aspect ratios (such as theHollywood created widescreen aspect ratios (such as the 1.85:1 ratio mentioned earlier) in order to differentiate1.85:1 ratio mentioned earlier) in order to differentiate the film industry from TV.the film industry from TV.
  • 15. 16:9 standard16:9 standard  16:916:9 (generally pronounced as(generally pronounced as "Sixteen-by-Nine""Sixteen-by-Nine"; alternates; alternates includeinclude "Sixteen-Nine""Sixteen-Nine" andand "Sixteen-to-Nine""Sixteen-to-Nine") is the) is the international standard format of HDTV, non-HD digitalinternational standard format of HDTV, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus.television and analog widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus. Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio butJapan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 ratio but converted when the international standards group introducedconverted when the international standards group introduced a wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (=16:9). Many digital video camerasa wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (=16:9). Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9, and 16:9 is the onlyhave the capability to record in 16:9, and 16:9 is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD. DVDwidescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD. DVD producers can also choose to show even wider ratios such asproducers can also choose to show even wider ratios such as 1.85:1 and 2.39:1 within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting1.85:1 and 2.39:1 within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting or adding black bars within the image itself. Some films whichor adding black bars within the image itself. Some films which were made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italianwere made in a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, such as the U.S.-Italian co-productionco-production Man of La ManchaMan of La Mancha, fit quite comfortably onto a, fit quite comfortably onto a 1.78:1 HDTV screen and have been issued anamorphically1.78:1 HDTV screen and have been issued anamorphically enhanced on DVD without the black bars.enhanced on DVD without the black bars.