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Jorge Madias, Mariano de Cordova 
Consultants 
Metallon 
jorge.madias@metallon.com.ar 
Non-recovery/Heat recovery Cokemaking: A Review of Recent Developments
Content 
Introduction 
Equipment 
Blend design & Coke quality 
South American experience 
Conclusions
Introduction 
Australia: two plants 
Brazil: two plants 
Colombia: two plants 
China: thirteen plants 
India : eight plants 
USA: four plants
Introduction 
Main features of conventional and heat- recovery cokemaking
Equipment 
Suppliers 
SunCoke (USA) 
Beijing SinoSteel Industry & Trade - SSIT (China) 
Sesa Goa (India) 
Uhde (Germany) 
CISDI / MMC (China) 
in-house knowledge 
Shanxi Sanjia in China 
Bla, India 
Ilawarra, Australia 
Carbocoque, Colombia
Equipment 
Comparison 
Process 
Charge preparation 
Charge 
Refractories 
Discharge 
Dimensions 
(m) 
SinoSteel 
stamped charging 
top 
fall to wagon 
28-40 x 32- 44 x 0.56 (vertical) 
SESA Goa 
standard 
top 
aluminous 
fall to wagon 
2.7 x 10.8 
vibrocompaction 
horizontal 
Uhde 
stamped charging 
(charging machine does not enter into the oven) 
horizontal 
silica 
push to wagon 
3.8 x 15.0 
SunCoke 
standard 
horizontal (PCM) 
silica 
fall to wagon 
3.7 x 14.0 
SJ-96 
With cold oven 
manual 
aluminous 
inside cooling, manual 
3 x 22.6
Equipment 
SunCoke 
First to include a power station to recover heat in the off-gas 
23 refractory brick shapes 
Coal blend charged through one side, by means of a Pusher Charger Machine (PCM) moving over rails close to the ovens 
Temperature, pressure and inner combustion are controlled in the ovens
Equipment 
SunCoke 
Coke withdrawal with same PCM 
All water used for coke quenching is recovered, except evaporation loss 
Process hot gas, after going through the bottom of the oven, goes up to the duct 
Gas to boilers, for steam production 
Gas to the stacks 
Desulphurization by aspersion of lime slurry on the gas 
More than 80% SO2 generated during coking is eliminated, with calcium sulfate/sulfide as a waste
Equipment 
SunCoke
Equipment 
SinoSteel: Horizontal & vertical ovens 
Horizontal 
Oven roof is a 120o arch structure 
Adjustable primary air inlets are evenly installed in the arch 
Four linked arches are used at the oven bottom 
On the base of the arches, adjustable secondary air inlets are installed 
Flues inside wall and bottom can be coordinated 
A ventilation layer between the foundation of the oven and the sole prevents the base plate from overheating 
Main wall is equipped with suction-adjusting facilities
Equipment 
SinoSteel (horizontal ovens)
Equipment 
SinoSteel (vertical ovens) 
First one built in 2002 in China 
Less land and 20-30% less construction work 
Separation between coking chamber and combustion chamber avoids the burning of the coke that may occur in horizontal oven 
Heat comes only through refractories, as in conventional batteries 
Two layers of air cooling channels at the bottom of the batteries 
Foundation temperature between 100-150 oC
Equipment 
SinoSteel (vertical)
Equipment 
SinoSteel (vertical) 
Typical technical parameters, 0.2 – 0.6 Mtpa plant 
Value 
Value 
Carbonization chamber height (mm) 
3200 – 4400 
Partition wall thickness (mm) 
100 
Carbonization chamber length (mm) 
12570 
Thickness of the oven sole (mm) 
1182 
Average width (mm) 
560 
Useful height (mm) 
2800 - 4000 
Center distance (mm) 
1180 
Center temperature (oC) 
1000 +/- 50 
Charge weight (t) 
≈24 
Pushing coke (t) 
≈18 
Cake bulk density (t/m3) 
1,0 – 1,1 
Off-gas (Nm3/h) 
350000 
Coking time (h) 
38 
Off-gas temperature (oC) 
950 +/- 50 
Number of ovens 
4 x 35 
Power plant 
2 x12 MW
Equipment 
SinoSteel 
After desulphurization and dust extraction treatment in the power plant, SO2 < 100 mg/Nm3 and PM10 < 50 mg/Nm3 
Environmental equipment includes gas desulfurization and dust extraction for coal charging and coke crushing
Equipment 
Sesa Goa 
Ovens are narrower than 
SunCoke. This makes 
possible to use roman 
arch for the roof 
 Aluminous refractories 
(better behavior under 
oxidizing atmosphere, 
better resistance to 
thermal shock and less 
volume changes upon 
cooling, when there is 
some delay in recharging 
the oven)
Equipment 
Sesa Goa 
 Simultaneous vibration and compaction, within a box, in 
three successive layers, for higher charge density 
 24 plates covering the full surface of the “cake” are 
actuated during two minutes for each layer 
 Up to 70% semi soft coal
Equipment 
Uhde 
Redesign and building of two ovens at Illawarra Coke Co., Australia 
Tunnel for off-gas runs laterally below the oven floor level, instead of over the ovens 
Charge and discharge are carried out with two different machines
Equipment 
Uhde 
 The charge being previously stamped, there is no need for 
the machine to enter into the oven, avoiding water cooling 
and water to humidify coal 
 For discharge there is no fall of the coke, keeping the cake 
without breaking, thus favoring lower emissions
Equipment 
Uhde 
Thermal modeling exercise 
ovens must be kept at as high a temperature as possible if the optimum gross coking times are to be achieved 
so, VM% is limited, to achieve an adequate heat balance with a 1 m bed height, density >1050 kg/m3 and gross coking time<60 h 
therefore, heat recovery coke oven must be airtight
Equipment 
Uhde 
Thermal modelling conclusions 
Adjustment of the primary and 
secondary air flow at the right 
point in time is key to 
temperature regime in the oven 
Supplying primary air through 
the oven top promotes surface 
heating of the charge in ovens 
longer than 10 m and is an 
advantage over air supplied 
through the oven doors at the 
sides
Blend design & Coke quality 
Non-recovery /heat recovery batteries produce a quality coke for blast furnaces, cupolas, ferroalloy smelters, etc. 
high quality coke for blast furnace operation with high PCI, where better properties are needed 
standard coke based on blends with some proportion of non coking coal
Blend design & Coke quality 
 Shanxi Sanjia (China) reported a coke quality with ASTM stability and hardness, as well as CSR, equal or larger than 70 
22.5% volatile matter, reflectance of 1.31 % and a high fluidity (7782 ddpm), due to influence of a local high range coal with excellent plastic properties 
Oven size must be of help: low heating rate (better wetting, bonding, and lesser differential stresses, more formation of pirolitic carbon)
Blend design & Coke quality 
JSW Steel, India 
To increase percent of non-coking coals, obtaining a coke with reasonable quality for their blast furnaces 
Optimizing coal humectation and using vibrocompaction, a charge density of 1.1 kg/dm3 was achieved 
Up to 35% of non-coking and weakly-coking coals 
Coke: CSR >64%, reactivity <25% , M10 <6%
Blend design & Coke quality 
Volatile matter in the blend 
is an important parameter 
in non-recovery 
cokemaking, as the energy 
required by the process is 
contributed by their 
combustion 
 A certain minimum content 
is required. But if VM is too 
high, coke may have high 
porosity, being too reactive 
to CO2 and with low post-reaction 
strength
Blend design & Coke quality 
SunCoke’s IHCC 1998 – 2000 
Start-up with 30% volatile matter (dry basis), 3097 ddpm maximum fluidity and 1.11% maximum vitrinite reflectance 
Then the blend evolved to less fluidity (200 ddpm), less volatile matter (22%) and higher reflectance (1.42%), with an important content of low volatile coal, which would resulted in wall damaged in a conventional battery, due to expansion at the end of coking typical of these coals. Coke quality continued to be high, despite of the changes
South American experience 
Coqueria Sol, Serra, Brazil (SunCoke)
South American experience 
Some features of ThyssenKrupp CSA non- recovery coking plant (CISDI/MCC) 
Ítem 
Description 
Coke capacity, dry basis (Mtpa) 
2.05 
Coal handling capacity, dry basis (Mtpa) 
2.70 
Number of ovens 
432 (3 batteries of 144 ovens each) 
Power generation capacidad (MW) 
175 
Own personnel (operation and maintenance) 
230 
Área ocuppied by batteries and ancillary equipment 
370.000 m2
Latin American experience 
Carbocoque, Lenguazaque, Colombia (own design and construction)
Conclusions 
Non-recovery/heat recovery oven batteries are expanding in Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India and the USA 
They demand smaller investment and they are less polluting, because of the operation with negative pressure 
With the same coal blend, better coke quality is obtained 
More coals may be used, including low volatile expansible coals, low caking coals and other carbon-based raw materials 
More flexibility in the use of these coals is obtained through compacted charging 
Oven design by different suppliers starts to have some common features
Jorge Madias and Mariano de Cordova Consultants metallon jorge.madias@metallon.com.ar 
Thank You

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Non recovery-heat recovery cokemaking - a review of recent developments

  • 1. Jorge Madias, Mariano de Cordova Consultants Metallon jorge.madias@metallon.com.ar Non-recovery/Heat recovery Cokemaking: A Review of Recent Developments
  • 2. Content Introduction Equipment Blend design & Coke quality South American experience Conclusions
  • 3. Introduction Australia: two plants Brazil: two plants Colombia: two plants China: thirteen plants India : eight plants USA: four plants
  • 4. Introduction Main features of conventional and heat- recovery cokemaking
  • 5. Equipment Suppliers SunCoke (USA) Beijing SinoSteel Industry & Trade - SSIT (China) Sesa Goa (India) Uhde (Germany) CISDI / MMC (China) in-house knowledge Shanxi Sanjia in China Bla, India Ilawarra, Australia Carbocoque, Colombia
  • 6. Equipment Comparison Process Charge preparation Charge Refractories Discharge Dimensions (m) SinoSteel stamped charging top fall to wagon 28-40 x 32- 44 x 0.56 (vertical) SESA Goa standard top aluminous fall to wagon 2.7 x 10.8 vibrocompaction horizontal Uhde stamped charging (charging machine does not enter into the oven) horizontal silica push to wagon 3.8 x 15.0 SunCoke standard horizontal (PCM) silica fall to wagon 3.7 x 14.0 SJ-96 With cold oven manual aluminous inside cooling, manual 3 x 22.6
  • 7. Equipment SunCoke First to include a power station to recover heat in the off-gas 23 refractory brick shapes Coal blend charged through one side, by means of a Pusher Charger Machine (PCM) moving over rails close to the ovens Temperature, pressure and inner combustion are controlled in the ovens
  • 8. Equipment SunCoke Coke withdrawal with same PCM All water used for coke quenching is recovered, except evaporation loss Process hot gas, after going through the bottom of the oven, goes up to the duct Gas to boilers, for steam production Gas to the stacks Desulphurization by aspersion of lime slurry on the gas More than 80% SO2 generated during coking is eliminated, with calcium sulfate/sulfide as a waste
  • 10. Equipment SinoSteel: Horizontal & vertical ovens Horizontal Oven roof is a 120o arch structure Adjustable primary air inlets are evenly installed in the arch Four linked arches are used at the oven bottom On the base of the arches, adjustable secondary air inlets are installed Flues inside wall and bottom can be coordinated A ventilation layer between the foundation of the oven and the sole prevents the base plate from overheating Main wall is equipped with suction-adjusting facilities
  • 12. Equipment SinoSteel (vertical ovens) First one built in 2002 in China Less land and 20-30% less construction work Separation between coking chamber and combustion chamber avoids the burning of the coke that may occur in horizontal oven Heat comes only through refractories, as in conventional batteries Two layers of air cooling channels at the bottom of the batteries Foundation temperature between 100-150 oC
  • 14. Equipment SinoSteel (vertical) Typical technical parameters, 0.2 – 0.6 Mtpa plant Value Value Carbonization chamber height (mm) 3200 – 4400 Partition wall thickness (mm) 100 Carbonization chamber length (mm) 12570 Thickness of the oven sole (mm) 1182 Average width (mm) 560 Useful height (mm) 2800 - 4000 Center distance (mm) 1180 Center temperature (oC) 1000 +/- 50 Charge weight (t) ≈24 Pushing coke (t) ≈18 Cake bulk density (t/m3) 1,0 – 1,1 Off-gas (Nm3/h) 350000 Coking time (h) 38 Off-gas temperature (oC) 950 +/- 50 Number of ovens 4 x 35 Power plant 2 x12 MW
  • 15. Equipment SinoSteel After desulphurization and dust extraction treatment in the power plant, SO2 < 100 mg/Nm3 and PM10 < 50 mg/Nm3 Environmental equipment includes gas desulfurization and dust extraction for coal charging and coke crushing
  • 16. Equipment Sesa Goa Ovens are narrower than SunCoke. This makes possible to use roman arch for the roof  Aluminous refractories (better behavior under oxidizing atmosphere, better resistance to thermal shock and less volume changes upon cooling, when there is some delay in recharging the oven)
  • 17. Equipment Sesa Goa  Simultaneous vibration and compaction, within a box, in three successive layers, for higher charge density  24 plates covering the full surface of the “cake” are actuated during two minutes for each layer  Up to 70% semi soft coal
  • 18. Equipment Uhde Redesign and building of two ovens at Illawarra Coke Co., Australia Tunnel for off-gas runs laterally below the oven floor level, instead of over the ovens Charge and discharge are carried out with two different machines
  • 19. Equipment Uhde  The charge being previously stamped, there is no need for the machine to enter into the oven, avoiding water cooling and water to humidify coal  For discharge there is no fall of the coke, keeping the cake without breaking, thus favoring lower emissions
  • 20. Equipment Uhde Thermal modeling exercise ovens must be kept at as high a temperature as possible if the optimum gross coking times are to be achieved so, VM% is limited, to achieve an adequate heat balance with a 1 m bed height, density >1050 kg/m3 and gross coking time<60 h therefore, heat recovery coke oven must be airtight
  • 21. Equipment Uhde Thermal modelling conclusions Adjustment of the primary and secondary air flow at the right point in time is key to temperature regime in the oven Supplying primary air through the oven top promotes surface heating of the charge in ovens longer than 10 m and is an advantage over air supplied through the oven doors at the sides
  • 22. Blend design & Coke quality Non-recovery /heat recovery batteries produce a quality coke for blast furnaces, cupolas, ferroalloy smelters, etc. high quality coke for blast furnace operation with high PCI, where better properties are needed standard coke based on blends with some proportion of non coking coal
  • 23. Blend design & Coke quality  Shanxi Sanjia (China) reported a coke quality with ASTM stability and hardness, as well as CSR, equal or larger than 70 22.5% volatile matter, reflectance of 1.31 % and a high fluidity (7782 ddpm), due to influence of a local high range coal with excellent plastic properties Oven size must be of help: low heating rate (better wetting, bonding, and lesser differential stresses, more formation of pirolitic carbon)
  • 24. Blend design & Coke quality JSW Steel, India To increase percent of non-coking coals, obtaining a coke with reasonable quality for their blast furnaces Optimizing coal humectation and using vibrocompaction, a charge density of 1.1 kg/dm3 was achieved Up to 35% of non-coking and weakly-coking coals Coke: CSR >64%, reactivity <25% , M10 <6%
  • 25. Blend design & Coke quality Volatile matter in the blend is an important parameter in non-recovery cokemaking, as the energy required by the process is contributed by their combustion  A certain minimum content is required. But if VM is too high, coke may have high porosity, being too reactive to CO2 and with low post-reaction strength
  • 26. Blend design & Coke quality SunCoke’s IHCC 1998 – 2000 Start-up with 30% volatile matter (dry basis), 3097 ddpm maximum fluidity and 1.11% maximum vitrinite reflectance Then the blend evolved to less fluidity (200 ddpm), less volatile matter (22%) and higher reflectance (1.42%), with an important content of low volatile coal, which would resulted in wall damaged in a conventional battery, due to expansion at the end of coking typical of these coals. Coke quality continued to be high, despite of the changes
  • 27. South American experience Coqueria Sol, Serra, Brazil (SunCoke)
  • 28. South American experience Some features of ThyssenKrupp CSA non- recovery coking plant (CISDI/MCC) Ítem Description Coke capacity, dry basis (Mtpa) 2.05 Coal handling capacity, dry basis (Mtpa) 2.70 Number of ovens 432 (3 batteries of 144 ovens each) Power generation capacidad (MW) 175 Own personnel (operation and maintenance) 230 Área ocuppied by batteries and ancillary equipment 370.000 m2
  • 29. Latin American experience Carbocoque, Lenguazaque, Colombia (own design and construction)
  • 30. Conclusions Non-recovery/heat recovery oven batteries are expanding in Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India and the USA They demand smaller investment and they are less polluting, because of the operation with negative pressure With the same coal blend, better coke quality is obtained More coals may be used, including low volatile expansible coals, low caking coals and other carbon-based raw materials More flexibility in the use of these coals is obtained through compacted charging Oven design by different suppliers starts to have some common features
  • 31. Jorge Madias and Mariano de Cordova Consultants metallon jorge.madias@metallon.com.ar Thank You