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Thermal Power plant familarisation & its Auxillaries

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PPT in Relation to Power Plant familarisation, Coal to Electricity Basics,Power Plant cycles, Concepts of Supercritical Technology Boiler, Concepts Of BTG Package as well as Balance of Plant

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Thermal Power plant familarisation & its Auxillaries

  1. 1. POWER PLANT FAMILARISATION (COAL BASED)
  2. 2. WHY TO OWN CAPTIVE POWER PLANT Sl No Description TG Set DG Set SEB 1 Interruption of Power Supply - NA - - NA - Possible 2 Power Restriction / Demand Control - NA - - NA - Possible 3 Controlling of Voltage & Frequency Possible Possible Not Possible 4 Initial Cost Very High High Less 5 Production Cost Rs. 2.75 / Unit Rs. 3.80 / Unit Demand : Rs. 150 / KVA Energy : Rs. 7.15 / Unit 6 Pollution Problem Less Less Nil 7 Banking / Selling of Excess Power Possible Possible - NA - 8 Maintenance Cost Moderate Very High Less
  3. 3. FUEL POWER PLANT Non Conventional Fuel / Sources Conventional Fuel Wind Solar Ocean Husk Baggas Diesel Furnace Oil Coal Lignite Gas Non-Conventional Fuel
  4. 4. Coal to Electricity ….. Basics Coal Chemical Energy Super Heated Steam Pollutants Thermal Energy Turbine Torque Heat LossIn Condenser Kinetic Energy Electrical Energy Alternating current in Stator Mech. Energy LossASH Heat Loss Elet. Energy Loss
  5. 5. POWER PLANT CYCLES • SIMPLE RANKINE CYCLE. • REHEAT CYCLE. • REGENERATIVE CYCLE.
  6. 6. RANKINE CYCLE • The Carnot Cycle is theoretically most efficient, but it is having practical difficulties. • For steam power plant, practical thermal cycle was suggested by Rankine, called Ideal cycle or Rankine cycle. 3-3’ – BFP raises pressure from p2 to p1 3’-4 – Heating In feed heaters & eco 4 -1 – Heating In boiler 1-2 – Work done in Turbine from p1 to p2 1 2 3 3’ 4 T S T1 T2 p1 p2
  7. 7. THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLEQ1-Q2 W Useful work • η = ------- = --- = ---------------- Q1 Q Heat supplied Rejected Heat • η = 1 - -------------------- Useful Heat T1 - T2 T2 • η Carnot = -------- = 1 - --- T1 T1 • To achieve more efficiency T2 should be as low as possible and T1 should be as high as possible
  8. 8. METHODS OF INCREASING RANKINE CYCLE EFFICIENCY  Raising supply temperature by super heating. Increasing the inlet temperature will raise the heat supply to the cycle more than the heat rejection.  Raising inlet pressure of steam : Increasing the pressure will mean increase in saturation temperature at which steam evaporates thus increasing the average inlet temperature (T1)
  9. 9.  Dropping the final pressure (or temperature) at which heat is rejected.  Regenerative Heating : Heating the feed water pumped to Boiler by bleeding steam from turbine.  Reheat Cycle : Reheating of steam in boiler after it has already expanded in HP Turbine will avoid moisture formation in LT Turbine. Also, more heat content of steam before IP Turbine, will improve efficiency.
  10. 10. WHY SUPERCRITICAL PRESSURE  A Boiler operating at a pressure above critical point is called ‘SUPERCRITICAL BOILER’  A point where boiling water and dry saturated lines meet so that associated latent heat is zero, this point is called Critical Point and occurs at 225 kg/cm2 (abs) 374.15º C temperature.
  11. 11. CRITICAL CONDITION Definition “CRITICAL” is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance beyond which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase. • The critical pressure & temperature for water are • Pressure = 225.56 Kg / cm2 • Temperature = 374.15° C
  12. 12. 254 Kg/cm 2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 SUPER CRITICAL BOILER CYCLE WITH SH, RH & Regeneration 571°C 569°C Steam flow :2111 T/Hr Steam temp : 571 °C Steam Pres : 254 kg/cm 2 RH pre : 47.3 Kg/cm 2 RH Temp : 569°C Feed water Temp : 282°C ENTROPY TEMP
  13. 13. SUPERCRITICAL BOILER • Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat absorbing surface being, in effect, one continuous tube, hence called ‘once through Supercritical pressure boilers.’ • The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed Pump, sensible heat is added in feed heaters, economizer and furnace tubes, until water attains saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously to dry saturated steam and super heating commences.
  14. 14. SUPERCRITICALTHERMAL CYCLE ADVANTAGES • Improvements in plant efficiency by more than 2 % • Decrease in Coal Consumption • Reduction in Green House gases. • Overall reduction in Auxiliary Power consumption. • Reduction in requirement of Ash dyke Land & Consumptive water.
  15. 15. INCREASE IN PLANT EFFICIENCY by SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS 1.5 0.9 0.6 3.2 167 bar 538/538’c 250 bar 538/538 250 bar 540/560’c 250 bar 580/600’c 250bar 566/566 ‘c 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Efficiency Increase
  16. 16. COMPARISION OF THERMAL CYCLE EFFICIENCIES. • OPEN CYCLE EFFICIENCY - 14.68 % • WITH CONDENSER - 26.2 % • WITH SUPER HEAT – 30.75 TO 34.15 % • WITH REHEAT - 34.2 TO 36.6 % • WITH SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS- 36.0 TO 39.15 %
  17. 17. • Efficiency of the cycle= Net W.D/Heat input η = 1 - T2 T1 Where , T1 = Temp. of heat source T2 = Temp. of heat sink
  18. 18. Steam Power Plant
  19. 19. Steam Theory • Within the steam generator, fuel and air are force into the furnace by the burner. • There, it burns to produce heat • From there, the flue gases travel throughout the boiler. • The water absorbs the heat, and eventually absorb enough to change into a gaseous state - steam. • Boiler makers have developed various designs to squeeze the most energy out of fuel and to maximized its transfer to the water. • To the right is the basic theoretical design of a modern boiler.
  20. 20. Furnace absorption Platen SH Divisional SH Reheater FSH Economizer APH Combustion Losses C & R losses Hot Exhaust Gas losses
  21. 21. MAJOR SECTIONS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT • Coal Handling • Boiler & its Auxiliaries • Turbine & its Auxiliaries • Cooling Tower & Condenser • Water Treatment Plant & Water Handling • Ash Handling System
  22. 22. CHS comprises of following systems:  Unloading System,  Stacking,  Screening & Crushing,  Reclaiming,  Bunker Feeding system.
  23. 23. GENERAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION: 1.Unloading System Coal Shall received at site through wagons and shall be unloaded by a. Wagon Tippler. b. Track Hoppers. 2. Stacking:  When boiler bunkers are full, coal shall be diverted to stockpile through reversible belt feeder.  The long travel Reversible Stacker cum Reclaimer shall be mounted on yard conveyers for stacking & reclaiming.  Normally, 2 nos of stock piles will be formed on each side of SCR. Total 4 nos stockpiles of trapezoidal cross section of height 10m, length 650m & width at base 49m. The storage capacity is for 15 days at 90 % PLF. Coal stored shall be (-) 100mm.
  24. 24. 3. Screening & Crushing: Vibrating grizzly screens to separate (-) 25 mm coal before feeding the coal into crusher. (-) 100 mm coal size shall be fed to Ring Granular Type Crusher for crushing coal to (-) 25mm size. Crushed coal will be fed further into Boiler coal bunkers through belt conveyers. 4. Reclaiming: The coal from stock pile shall be reclaimed by bucket wheel reclaimer to feed onto reversible yard conveyer for conveying into crusher house. 5. Bunker Feeding system: Crushed coal from crushers shall be discharged onto belt conveyers for feeding into junction towers. Coal from JT shall be fed into boiler coal bunkers with the help of travelling trippers.
  25. 25. Raw Coal Belt Conveyor Primary Screen Crusher Less than 25MM Secondary Screen Belt Conveyor Coal Bunker More than 25mm Less than 25mm
  26. 26. BOILER • WHAT IS BOILER • TYPES OF BOILER • CIRCULATION
  27. 27. WHAT IS BOILER • A BOILER OR STEAM GENERATOR IS A CLOSED VESSEL IN WHICH STEAM IS GENERATED BY HEATING THE WATER BY COMBUSTION OF FUEL IN FURNACE. • ANY CLOSED VESSEL EXCEEDING 22.75 LITRES IN CAPACITY WHICH IS USED EXPRESSLY FOR GENERATING STEAM UNDER PRESSURE AND INCLUDES ANY MOUNTING OR OTHER FITING ATTACHED TO SUCH A VESSEL WHICH IS WHOLLY OR PARTLY UNDER PRESSURE WHEN STEAM IS SHUT.
  28. 28. TYPES OF BOILER 1. MODE OF CIRCULATION OF WORKING FLUID 2. TYPE OF FUEL 3. MODE OF FIRING 4. NATURE OF HEAT SOURCE 5. WORKING PRESSURE 6. SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF UTILISATION 7. MANUFACTURERS TRADE NAME
  29. 29. CIRCULATION • MOTION OF WORKING FLUIDS IN EVAPORATOR TYPES CIRCULATION 1. NATURAL CIRCULATION CIRCULATION BY MEANS OF DENSITY DIFFERENCE 2. FORCED CIRCULATION CIRCULATION BY MEANS EXTERNAL FORCE LIKE PUMPING
  30. 30. Boiler Mixed Nozzle Economizer Chimney ID fan ESPAir Heater FD Fan PA Fan Coal Bunker Chain Feeder Boiler Section – Flow Diagram Steam to Turbine From HP Heater InlettoBoiler
  31. 31. No. 1 HP Heater BFBP MD-BFP CEP GSC No.7AB&8AB LP Heater No.5 LP Heater DEAERATOR CONDENSER LPT LPT IPT HPT No. 2 HP Heater No. 3 HP Heater BRCP LTRH I/L Header LTRH ECO I/L Header LTSH ECO No.6 LP Heater HP BFWP CRP SEPARATOR SEPARATOR DRAIN TANK ROOF TUBE I/L Header SH DIV Panel FSH FRH VERTICAL WATER WALL SPIRAL WATER WALL MSP HRP HP-BP LP-BP WW LOWER Header GG TD-BFP A B BA A B C
  32. 32. Steam Turbine • A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work.
  33. 33. Steam Flows from Boiler to turbine Bypass Turbine
  34. 34. HP T IPT LPT A LPT B CPU GSC Condensor (HP) Condenser (LP) 2 HPH-1HPH-2HPH-3 EXT From CRH LPH -5LPH -6 LPH -7A LPH -7B LPH -8A LPH -8B 3 Deaerator BFB P TDBFP Boiler CEP 3x50% 2x50% FCS 5 56 6 2x50% From Reheater Economiser (MD BFP 1x35%) (MD BFBP 1x35%) 7 8 7 8 8 77 8 1
  35. 35. Condenser Extraction system of A Large Steam TurbineReheat Steam HP Main Steam Steam for Reheating IP LPLP HPH HPH/TDBFP LPH LPH LPH
  36. 36. Condenser Steam from last stage of LPT Exhausts on condenser tube  condensation of steam takes place Water collected in hot well
  37. 37. Cooling Water System HOT WATER COLD WATER Cold Water Cooling Tower CW Pump Condenser CCCW Pump ACW Pump Equipments Heat Exchanger
  38. 38. Circulating water scheme • A circulating water pump house • Intake channel • Trash rack • A chlorination plant • Traveling water screen • Connecting pipe line to condensed • Outlet channel • A cooling tower
  39. 39. Closed Loop system: Condenser River Flow Steam from Turbine Pump for make up Hot mist CW Pump Cooling Tower Hot water Cold Water
  40. 40. CW scheme… Reservoir/ River Canal Intake Trash rack TWS CW pumps Condenser Hot Pond CT pumps Cooling tower
  41. 41. Condensate & Feed Water System Low Pressure Heaters D/A Feed Storage Tank High Pressure HeatersCEP-B CEP-A BFPs HOT WELL Boiler HOT WATER STEAMWARM WATER A B C
  42. 42. Cascade Aerator Gas Chlorination Stilling Chamber Raw Water Flash Mixer Flocculator Tube Settler Clarified Water Storage Tank To RO MB Plant Poly-electrolyteFeCl3 Alum, Lime Alum, Lime Alum, Lime PRE TREATMENT PLANT Poly Dosing Poly Dosing Poly Dosing
  43. 43. Clarifier Soft Water Pumps Clarified Water Storage Tank Filter Feed Pumps CT Make Up Line Multi Grade Filter Ultra Filtration Micron Cartridge Filter De- gassifier RO Feed Pumps RO High Pressure Pumps RO Membranes RO Permit Tank MB Feed Pumps Mixed Bed DM Water Tanks DM Water Distribution Water Flow Diagram (WTP)
  44. 44. Water Flow Diagram (DM Water) DM Water Tank Condensate Tank De-Aerator Boiler Turbine Water Cooled Condenser
  45. 45. What is Ash • Ash is Oxidized form of the mineral matters present in coal • Typical ash composition:Sio 2 ,Al2O 3 ,Fe 2 O 3 ,CaO,MgO etc • Coal with more Sio 2 & Al 2 O 3 , Ash MP > 1400°C • Coal with more Fe2O 3 , CaO & MgO Ash MP < 1100°C
  46. 46. General Description: Ash Handling System comprises of following sub systems: 1. BOTTOM ASH HANDLING SYSTEM: A. Bottom Ash Hopper with accessories B. Bottom Ash Overflow Transfer System C. Bottom Ash area drain Transfer System D. Economizer Ash Disposal System 2. FLY ASH HANDLING SYSTEM A. Vacuum Conveying System B. Pressure Conveying System 3. SILO UNLOADING SYSTEM 4. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 5. ASH SLURRY DISPOSAL SYSTEM 6. HANDLING FACILITIES (CRANES & HOISTS) 7. ASH SLURRY SUMP ACCESSORIES 8. ASH SLURRY TRANSPORT PIPING 9. AIR CONDITIONING & VENTILATION SYSTEM
  47. 47. Bottom Ash Handling System Ash Slurry Sump AshPond Ash Slurry Pumps – 4 sets ASPH Eco Hopper-6nos Flushing Appratus- 6nos Overflow Tank Overflow Pump Settling Tank Sludge Pumps Ash Water Sump AWPH FAHP-4Nos, BAHP-3Nos, LPW-4Nos Water Sludge Bottom Ash Hopper Feed Gate Jet Pump Clinker Grinder
  48. 48. Fly Ash Handling System Surge Hopper ESP hoppers- RCC Silo Conveying Compressor- IA Compressor Vacuum Pump Unloading spout for Railway Wagon Unloading spout for Closed Tanker Ash Conditioner for Open Truck for future Expansion APH Hopper- Flushing Apparatus Air Washer- Seal Box- 3 cell Collector Master D Pump Slave D Pump Wetting s Ash Slurry Pump House Collector Tak- Silo Fluidizing Blower From Fly Ash HP Water Pump
  49. 49. COOLING TOWER CW PUMP GENERATOR GENERATOR TRANSFORMER COAL MILL BUNKER FD FAN PA FAN ID FAN STACK APH BOILER DRUM CEP BFP LPH HPH ESP CONDENSER Koradi Super Critical Expansion Power Project site (3 x660 MW) - Sunil Hi-Tech Engineers Limited
  50. 50. Typical Modern Power Plant Turbine
  51. 51. CONDENSATE & FEED WATER SYSTEM HOT WELL HOT WELL CONDENSER GSC DRAIN COOLER LPH-1 LPH-2 LPH-3 EJECTOR D/A D/A FST HPH-5HPH-6FRS TO BOILER LP DOZING CEP-B CEP- A BFP-A,B,C
  52. 52. HP Turbine Rotor
  53. 53. LP Turbine Rotor

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