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© 2017 Percona1
Peter Zaitsev, CEO
Advanced MySQL Replication Features
Highload++ Moscow, Russia
November 8, 2017
© 2017 Percona2
In This Presentation
Few Words about Replication & Availability
MySQL Replication Timeline
Advanced MySQL Replication Options
© 2017 Percona3
Few Words about Replication
© 2017 Percona4
Replication
Having Multiple Copies of the
data, updated with changes
© 2017 Percona5
Why Replication
Availability Scalability Performance
© 2017 Percona6
Availability
Service Stays up when
component fails
© 2017 Percona7
Availability via Redundancy
Have more than one system
Works well for stateless systems
Is not enough for databases
© 2017 Percona8
Availability via Replication
Redundant
Computing
Resource
Paired with
Replicated
Data
© 2017 Percona9
Component Failure
• Total Crash
• Process Crash
• Stall/Unresponsive
• Consistency Issues
Node
Failures
• Single Network Port Failures
• Network Device Failures
• Partitions
• Complicated Failures
Network
Failures
© 2017 Percona10
Scalability with Replication
Scales Reads
Does not Scale Writes very well
Data Distribution is needed for scaling writes
© 2017 Percona11
Performance
Reduce response time by
maintaining replica closer to user
Better Performance Through
avoiding resource saturation
© 2017 Percona12
Replication in MySQL
A brief Time Line
© 2017 Percona13
MySQL Replication
MySQL 3.23
• Initial
Statement
Replication
Implemented
MySQL 4.0
• Split IO
Thread and
SQL Thread
MySQL 5.1
• Row and
Mixed
replication
modes
supported
MySQL 5.6
• Per Database
Parallel
Replication
• GTID Support
MySQL 5.7
• General
Parallel
Replication
• Multi-Source
Replication
• Group
Replication /
MySQL
Innodb
Cluster
© 2017 Percona14
Galera Based Replication
Technology
Similar to MySQL Group
Replication but more mature
Available for MySQL,
Percona, MariaDB
Alternative Track
© 2017 Percona15
Replication in MariaDB
Is not 100% Same as in MySQL
Different GTID Implementation
Different parallel replication
Not instrumented in the same way
Number of features became available in MariaDB Earlier
Not covering MariaDB in this Presentation
© 2017 Percona16
Advanced Replication
© 2017 Percona17
What is Basic Replication ?
Statement
Replication
Replication of
the Full
Database
Using Binary Log
Position
Single Tier
Topology
Single Thread Asynchronous
Write to Single
Master
Keep Slave
Meta-Data Data
in Files
Master-Slave-
Replication
Manual Failover
& Traffic
Management
© 2017 Percona18
Statement vs Row Replication
•STATEMENT
•ROW
•MIXED
Configured on
the Master as
binlog_format
© 2017 Percona19
How Rows are Logged ?
•Full
•Minimal
•Noblob
binlog_row_image
© 2017 Percona20
Missing Seeing Queries ?
Also Log Query For informational Purposes
binlog_rows_query_log_events
Off by Default
© 2017 Percona21
Replication of Full Database
Full Replication Most Simple for Troubleshooting and
Recovery
Can replicate only portions of the database
Can add additional data to the slaves
© 2017 Percona22
Replication Filering
• Binlog_do_db
• Binlog_ignore_db
On the Master
(writing binary
log)
• Replicate_do_db
• Replicate_ignore_db
• Replicate_wild_do_table
• Replicate_wild_ignore_table
On the Slave
© 2017 Percona23
Position Identification
By Binary Log
Position
•File: mysql-
bin.000003
•Position: 73
By GTID
•3E11FA47-71CA-
11E1-9E33-
C80AA9429562:23
© 2017 Percona24
What is in GTID ?
GTID = source_id:transaction_id
Source_id is Server_uuid of Originating Server
Always Preserved on the Slaves
Track which transactions executed
mysql.gtid_executed table (5.7) + binlog
© 2017 Percona25
GTID Benefits and Drawbacks
Automatic Position Discovery
Easy Slave Promotion
Discovery of Missed Transactions
Pain in the Ass with Manual Troubleshooting
© 2017 Percona26
Replication Topologies
Single Tier Master-Slave
Bi-Directional
Tree
Ring
Directed Graph
© 2017 Percona27
Options For Complicated Topologies
•Store copy of applied
statements in local binlog
•Disabled by default until
MySQL 8
Log_slave_updates
© 2017 Percona28
Parallel Replication
Single Thread Replication is typical limiting factor
Parallel Replication for multiple Databases since 5.6
Parallel Replication for same table since 5.7
© 2017 Percona29
Managing Parallel Replication
slave-parallel-workers
slave-parallel-type=DATABASE|LOGICAL_CLOCK
slave_preserve_commit_order
© 2017 Percona30
Asynchronous Replication
Default in MySQL
There is no guaranty of Timeliness
“Replication Lag” can be days… and weeks
Support for Semi-Synchronous Replication
Support for Virtually Synchronous Group Replication
© 2017 Percona31
Sync or Async
Synchronous
Replication
Asynchronous
Replication
© 2017 Percona32
Synchronous Replication
Data “Persisted” on Target Server
Guarantees No Data Loss if Source server fails
Conflicts can be easily prevented
Expensive
© 2017 Percona33
Persistence in terms of
Durability – In case of original node loss, can date be
recovered?
Visibility – Is data visible by reads going to secondary node
Both Required for truly synchronous replication
© 2017 Percona34
What “Persisted” means ?
•Assumes power loss of both
servers does not happen
In
Memory
•Handles Total Loss of Master
and Power loss on the SlaveOn Disk
© 2017 Percona35
Asynchronous Replication
Anything not Synchronous
Many different variants exist!
© 2017 Percona36
Asynchronous Properties
•What happens with
Persistence ?
•What happens with
Visibility ?
Commit
on
Master
© 2017 Percona37
Persistence
Uncommitted Data on Master
Committed Data on Master
Data in Slave’s memory
Data on Slave’s Disk (log)
© 2017 Percona38
Visibility
•Phantom Reads
Results be visible by
concurrent sessions
before
acknowledgement
•No Phantom Reads
Results can’t be
visible by
concurrent sessions
© 2017 Percona39
Semi-Synchronous Replication in MySQL
• Both on Master and SlavePlugin Required
• INSTALL PLUGIN rpl_semi_sync_master
SONAME 'semisync_master.so';Master
• INSTALL PLUGIN rpl_semi_sync_slave
SONAME 'semisync_slave.so';Slave
© 2017 Percona40
Semi-Sync Replication Options
Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled
Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_timeout
Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_wait_point=AFTER_SYNC|AFTER_COMMIT
Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_wait_for_slave_count
Slave: rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled
© 2017 Percona41
Where Do We Write ?
Single Master Multi-Master
© 2017 Percona42
Single Master
All writes go to the single node
One way replication stream
Simple
No Conflicts
Replication aware Application or Connector
© 2017 Percona43
Active-Passive Master-Master
Replication is bi-directional
Only one Master can be written at the same time
Essentially Single Master if configured well
Minefield if not configured well
© 2017 Percona44
Multiple Active Masters
Can write to multiple masters
Replication is multi-directional
More Complicated
Possibility of Conflicts
© 2017 Percona45
MySQL Replication Multi-Master
Recipe for problems with Async/SemiSync Replication
Design Application to Avoid Conflicts
MySQL Group Replication
PXC/Galera Based Solutions
© 2017 Percona46
Multi-Master with MySQL Replication
auto_increment_offset
auto_increment_increment
slave_exec_mode=idempotent
© 2017 Percona47
Replication Position information
Master_info_repository=FILE|TABLE
Relay_log_info_repository=FILE|TABLE
Sync_master_info
Sync_relay_log_info
Relay_log_recovery
Less Problem with GTID Replication
© 2017 Percona48
Master Slave Replication ?
Most Commonly Used Variant
MySQL Group Replication is other Option
Percona XtraDB Cluster/Galera - Community Alternative
© 2017 Percona49
MySQL Group Replication Overview
Inspired by Galera Ideas (and Success)
Built on top of standard MySQL Replication
Available as Plugin for MySQL 5.7
Considered GA but really very early product
© 2017 Percona50
Difference from MySQL Replication
No Master/Slave but Group Membership
Transactions are committed when they are certified by majority of nodes (Paxos)
Does not accept writes if there is no Quorum
Flow Control to prevent unlimited replication lag
Nodes encountering inconsistency leave the cluster
Conflict Detection and Resolution (or avoidance)
Simple FailOver
© 2017 Percona51
MySQL Group Replication - Writes
By Default configures itself as Single
Primary
Can configure to allow writes to any
node
© 2017 Percona52
MySQL Group Replication Limitations
No Automated node Provisioning
Manual Recovery of failed nodes
No way (yet) to ensure node does not read stale data
© 2017 Percona53
MySQL Innodb Cluster
© 2017 Percona54
Failover and Traffic Management
How do we Re-Configure Replication if Master Crashes ?
How do we Makes Sure Application uses Right Master ?
How do we get Slave used by Application ?
© 2017 Percona55
Making MySQL Replication Better
MHA
MySQL Failover
Orchestrator
© 2017 Percona56
Orchestrator Screenshot
© 2017 Percona57
Traffic Management Solutions
• Not Immediate, Does not handle existing connectionsDNS
• TCP/IP Port level. Does not understand MySQL ProtocolHAProxy
• Like HA Proxy in the CloudElastic Load Balancer (etc)
• Currently very basicMySQL Router
• Proprietary SolutionsMaxScale, ScaleArc
• MySQL Protocol Aware 100% Open Source Proxy Solution for MySQLProxySQL
© 2017 Percona58
We integrate ProxySQL with PXC
High Availability
Multiplexing (Connection Pooling)
Caching
Read/write Splitting
Easy Configuration with proxysql-admin
Can run in dedicated writer and load balanced mode
© 2017 Percona59
Dedicated shared ProxySQL 5
9
application server 1 application server 2 application server 3
PXC node 1 PXC node 2 PXC node 3
ProxySQL
© 2017 Percona60
ProxySQL on application side
application server 1 application server 2 application server 3
PXC node 1 PXC node 2 PXC node 3
6
0
ProxySQL ProxySQL ProxySQL
© 2017 Percona61
ProxySQL at PMM
© 2017 Percona62
SAVE THE DATE!
CALL FOR PAPERS OPENING SOON!
www.perconalive.com
April 23-25, 2018
Santa Clara Convention Center
© 2017 Percona63
DATABASE PERFORMANCE
MATTERS
Database Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance Matters

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MySQL Replication — Advanced Features / Петр Зайцев (Percona)

  • 1. © 2017 Percona1 Peter Zaitsev, CEO Advanced MySQL Replication Features Highload++ Moscow, Russia November 8, 2017
  • 2. © 2017 Percona2 In This Presentation Few Words about Replication & Availability MySQL Replication Timeline Advanced MySQL Replication Options
  • 3. © 2017 Percona3 Few Words about Replication
  • 4. © 2017 Percona4 Replication Having Multiple Copies of the data, updated with changes
  • 5. © 2017 Percona5 Why Replication Availability Scalability Performance
  • 6. © 2017 Percona6 Availability Service Stays up when component fails
  • 7. © 2017 Percona7 Availability via Redundancy Have more than one system Works well for stateless systems Is not enough for databases
  • 8. © 2017 Percona8 Availability via Replication Redundant Computing Resource Paired with Replicated Data
  • 9. © 2017 Percona9 Component Failure • Total Crash • Process Crash • Stall/Unresponsive • Consistency Issues Node Failures • Single Network Port Failures • Network Device Failures • Partitions • Complicated Failures Network Failures
  • 10. © 2017 Percona10 Scalability with Replication Scales Reads Does not Scale Writes very well Data Distribution is needed for scaling writes
  • 11. © 2017 Percona11 Performance Reduce response time by maintaining replica closer to user Better Performance Through avoiding resource saturation
  • 12. © 2017 Percona12 Replication in MySQL A brief Time Line
  • 13. © 2017 Percona13 MySQL Replication MySQL 3.23 • Initial Statement Replication Implemented MySQL 4.0 • Split IO Thread and SQL Thread MySQL 5.1 • Row and Mixed replication modes supported MySQL 5.6 • Per Database Parallel Replication • GTID Support MySQL 5.7 • General Parallel Replication • Multi-Source Replication • Group Replication / MySQL Innodb Cluster
  • 14. © 2017 Percona14 Galera Based Replication Technology Similar to MySQL Group Replication but more mature Available for MySQL, Percona, MariaDB Alternative Track
  • 15. © 2017 Percona15 Replication in MariaDB Is not 100% Same as in MySQL Different GTID Implementation Different parallel replication Not instrumented in the same way Number of features became available in MariaDB Earlier Not covering MariaDB in this Presentation
  • 17. © 2017 Percona17 What is Basic Replication ? Statement Replication Replication of the Full Database Using Binary Log Position Single Tier Topology Single Thread Asynchronous Write to Single Master Keep Slave Meta-Data Data in Files Master-Slave- Replication Manual Failover & Traffic Management
  • 18. © 2017 Percona18 Statement vs Row Replication •STATEMENT •ROW •MIXED Configured on the Master as binlog_format
  • 19. © 2017 Percona19 How Rows are Logged ? •Full •Minimal •Noblob binlog_row_image
  • 20. © 2017 Percona20 Missing Seeing Queries ? Also Log Query For informational Purposes binlog_rows_query_log_events Off by Default
  • 21. © 2017 Percona21 Replication of Full Database Full Replication Most Simple for Troubleshooting and Recovery Can replicate only portions of the database Can add additional data to the slaves
  • 22. © 2017 Percona22 Replication Filering • Binlog_do_db • Binlog_ignore_db On the Master (writing binary log) • Replicate_do_db • Replicate_ignore_db • Replicate_wild_do_table • Replicate_wild_ignore_table On the Slave
  • 23. © 2017 Percona23 Position Identification By Binary Log Position •File: mysql- bin.000003 •Position: 73 By GTID •3E11FA47-71CA- 11E1-9E33- C80AA9429562:23
  • 24. © 2017 Percona24 What is in GTID ? GTID = source_id:transaction_id Source_id is Server_uuid of Originating Server Always Preserved on the Slaves Track which transactions executed mysql.gtid_executed table (5.7) + binlog
  • 25. © 2017 Percona25 GTID Benefits and Drawbacks Automatic Position Discovery Easy Slave Promotion Discovery of Missed Transactions Pain in the Ass with Manual Troubleshooting
  • 26. © 2017 Percona26 Replication Topologies Single Tier Master-Slave Bi-Directional Tree Ring Directed Graph
  • 27. © 2017 Percona27 Options For Complicated Topologies •Store copy of applied statements in local binlog •Disabled by default until MySQL 8 Log_slave_updates
  • 28. © 2017 Percona28 Parallel Replication Single Thread Replication is typical limiting factor Parallel Replication for multiple Databases since 5.6 Parallel Replication for same table since 5.7
  • 29. © 2017 Percona29 Managing Parallel Replication slave-parallel-workers slave-parallel-type=DATABASE|LOGICAL_CLOCK slave_preserve_commit_order
  • 30. © 2017 Percona30 Asynchronous Replication Default in MySQL There is no guaranty of Timeliness “Replication Lag” can be days… and weeks Support for Semi-Synchronous Replication Support for Virtually Synchronous Group Replication
  • 31. © 2017 Percona31 Sync or Async Synchronous Replication Asynchronous Replication
  • 32. © 2017 Percona32 Synchronous Replication Data “Persisted” on Target Server Guarantees No Data Loss if Source server fails Conflicts can be easily prevented Expensive
  • 33. © 2017 Percona33 Persistence in terms of Durability – In case of original node loss, can date be recovered? Visibility – Is data visible by reads going to secondary node Both Required for truly synchronous replication
  • 34. © 2017 Percona34 What “Persisted” means ? •Assumes power loss of both servers does not happen In Memory •Handles Total Loss of Master and Power loss on the SlaveOn Disk
  • 35. © 2017 Percona35 Asynchronous Replication Anything not Synchronous Many different variants exist!
  • 36. © 2017 Percona36 Asynchronous Properties •What happens with Persistence ? •What happens with Visibility ? Commit on Master
  • 37. © 2017 Percona37 Persistence Uncommitted Data on Master Committed Data on Master Data in Slave’s memory Data on Slave’s Disk (log)
  • 38. © 2017 Percona38 Visibility •Phantom Reads Results be visible by concurrent sessions before acknowledgement •No Phantom Reads Results can’t be visible by concurrent sessions
  • 39. © 2017 Percona39 Semi-Synchronous Replication in MySQL • Both on Master and SlavePlugin Required • INSTALL PLUGIN rpl_semi_sync_master SONAME 'semisync_master.so';Master • INSTALL PLUGIN rpl_semi_sync_slave SONAME 'semisync_slave.so';Slave
  • 40. © 2017 Percona40 Semi-Sync Replication Options Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_timeout Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_wait_point=AFTER_SYNC|AFTER_COMMIT Master: rpl_semi_sync_master_wait_for_slave_count Slave: rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled
  • 41. © 2017 Percona41 Where Do We Write ? Single Master Multi-Master
  • 42. © 2017 Percona42 Single Master All writes go to the single node One way replication stream Simple No Conflicts Replication aware Application or Connector
  • 43. © 2017 Percona43 Active-Passive Master-Master Replication is bi-directional Only one Master can be written at the same time Essentially Single Master if configured well Minefield if not configured well
  • 44. © 2017 Percona44 Multiple Active Masters Can write to multiple masters Replication is multi-directional More Complicated Possibility of Conflicts
  • 45. © 2017 Percona45 MySQL Replication Multi-Master Recipe for problems with Async/SemiSync Replication Design Application to Avoid Conflicts MySQL Group Replication PXC/Galera Based Solutions
  • 46. © 2017 Percona46 Multi-Master with MySQL Replication auto_increment_offset auto_increment_increment slave_exec_mode=idempotent
  • 47. © 2017 Percona47 Replication Position information Master_info_repository=FILE|TABLE Relay_log_info_repository=FILE|TABLE Sync_master_info Sync_relay_log_info Relay_log_recovery Less Problem with GTID Replication
  • 48. © 2017 Percona48 Master Slave Replication ? Most Commonly Used Variant MySQL Group Replication is other Option Percona XtraDB Cluster/Galera - Community Alternative
  • 49. © 2017 Percona49 MySQL Group Replication Overview Inspired by Galera Ideas (and Success) Built on top of standard MySQL Replication Available as Plugin for MySQL 5.7 Considered GA but really very early product
  • 50. © 2017 Percona50 Difference from MySQL Replication No Master/Slave but Group Membership Transactions are committed when they are certified by majority of nodes (Paxos) Does not accept writes if there is no Quorum Flow Control to prevent unlimited replication lag Nodes encountering inconsistency leave the cluster Conflict Detection and Resolution (or avoidance) Simple FailOver
  • 51. © 2017 Percona51 MySQL Group Replication - Writes By Default configures itself as Single Primary Can configure to allow writes to any node
  • 52. © 2017 Percona52 MySQL Group Replication Limitations No Automated node Provisioning Manual Recovery of failed nodes No way (yet) to ensure node does not read stale data
  • 53. © 2017 Percona53 MySQL Innodb Cluster
  • 54. © 2017 Percona54 Failover and Traffic Management How do we Re-Configure Replication if Master Crashes ? How do we Makes Sure Application uses Right Master ? How do we get Slave used by Application ?
  • 55. © 2017 Percona55 Making MySQL Replication Better MHA MySQL Failover Orchestrator
  • 57. © 2017 Percona57 Traffic Management Solutions • Not Immediate, Does not handle existing connectionsDNS • TCP/IP Port level. Does not understand MySQL ProtocolHAProxy • Like HA Proxy in the CloudElastic Load Balancer (etc) • Currently very basicMySQL Router • Proprietary SolutionsMaxScale, ScaleArc • MySQL Protocol Aware 100% Open Source Proxy Solution for MySQLProxySQL
  • 58. © 2017 Percona58 We integrate ProxySQL with PXC High Availability Multiplexing (Connection Pooling) Caching Read/write Splitting Easy Configuration with proxysql-admin Can run in dedicated writer and load balanced mode
  • 59. © 2017 Percona59 Dedicated shared ProxySQL 5 9 application server 1 application server 2 application server 3 PXC node 1 PXC node 2 PXC node 3 ProxySQL
  • 60. © 2017 Percona60 ProxySQL on application side application server 1 application server 2 application server 3 PXC node 1 PXC node 2 PXC node 3 6 0 ProxySQL ProxySQL ProxySQL
  • 62. © 2017 Percona62 SAVE THE DATE! CALL FOR PAPERS OPENING SOON! www.perconalive.com April 23-25, 2018 Santa Clara Convention Center
  • 64. DATABASE PERFORMANCE MATTERS Database Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance MattersDatabase Performance Matters