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Integrated Cache Training –
Netscaler Webinar




                   Mark Hillick
Agenda of Cash, sorry Cache
 •  Goals of Caching

    q Why & What

 •  Cache Policies

 •  How long to cache

 •  Memory for Cache

 •  IC configuration
   example

 •  Cache Statistics

 •  Troubleshooting IC
                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   2
Presentation Goal


 Please be aware that this a technical presentation with lots of detail
 and it is intended that it can be used as a reference guide at a later
 date (e.g. when you're on-site).

 Sadly, it s not like my usual Zen presentation with lots of funny
 pictures and jokes, sorry L




                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved        3
Caching Goals


 •  Caching would be useless if it did not significantly improve
   performance.

 •  Goal => to eliminate the need to send requests in many cases.

    q Reduces the number of network round-trips required for many
      operations - we use an "expiration" mechanism for this
      purpose

 •  Goal => remove the need to send full responses in many other
   cases.

    q  The latter reduces network bandwidth requirements - we use
      a "validation" mechanism for this purpose
                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   4
Caching is Used Everywhere


 •  Local cache in your browser

 •  Cache in the office (Forward Proxy or Transparent)

 •  Cache at the ISP (Transparent)

 •  Cache at the origin (Reverse Proxy or Transparent)

 •  Cache integrated inside a traffic manager – much better J




                © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   5
Caching Benefits.


  1.  Saves Bandwidth


  2.  Reduces traffic to back-end server & so saves processing
        resources


  3.  Protects back-end servers from flash crowds


  4.    Improves the response time & Increases site capacity


   P.S. Even more benefits when integrated within a LB J


                © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   6
IC in Packet-Processing
                              TCP Processing


                                 SSL Decrypt


                                HTTP Parsing


                               AAA Processing


                             Cache Redirection


                              Content Switching


                             Application Firewall


                             Responder Action?


                                   Cache Hit?


                         HTTP Cache Req Policies


                              Rewrite Policy Eval


                                 Load Balancing


                                Content Filtering



          © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   7
Non-Caching Proxy



GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1                                         GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1
    Host: www.example.com                                                Host: www.example.com

                                                     Proxy	




     HTTP/1.1 200 OK                                                      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
 Last-Modified: Thu, ...                                              Last-Modified: Thu, ...
  Content-Length: 3688                                                 Content-Length: 3688
 Content-Type: text/html                                              Content-Type: text/html




                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                                  8
Caching Proxy: Miss



GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1                                         GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1
    Host: www.example.com                                                Host: www.example.com

                                                     Proxy	




     HTTP/1.1 200 OK                                                      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
 Last-Modified: Thu, ...                                              Last-Modified: Thu, ...
  Content-Length: 3688                                                 Content-Length: 3688
 Content-Type: text/html                                              Content-Type: text/html


                                              Proxy  Cache	
                                              (Saves  copy)	

                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                                  9
Caching Proxy: Hit



GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1
    Host: www.example.com

                                                     Proxy	




     HTTP/1.1 200 OK
 Last-Modified: Thu, ...
  Content-Length: 3688
 Content-Type: text/html


                                             Proxy  Cache	
                                             (Fresh  copy!)	

                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   10
HTTP Response after a hit
•  wget -S --header="If-None-Match:23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" -U
  Mozilla http://10.90.196.68/index.html

•  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
………

•  Via: NS-CACHE-9.2: 65
•  ETag: "23834-b1-4951a45768b8d"
•  Server: Apache/2.2.14 (Ubuntu)
......... OR .........

•  ETag: "23834-b1-4951a45768b8d"
•  2011-04-26 18:22:56 ERROR 304: Not Modified.
………

                         © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   11
HTTP Response after a miss

•  $ wget -S --header="If-None-Match:23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" -U
  Mozilla http://10.90.196.68/index.html
……….
•  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
•  Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 09:30:59 GMT
•  Server: Apache/2.2.14 (Ubuntu)
•  Last-Modified: Mon, 15 Nov 2010 16:52:53 GMT
………..
•  Saving to: `index.html.41


                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   12
What Not to Cache

•  Cache-Control: no-store                                   =>applies to entire message (req/resp)
•  Cache-Control: no-cache =>server cannot respond with cached
  response
•  Cache-Control: Private => not by shared cache
    q More info see -
      http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html
•  POST request.
•  Don t cache if set-cookie exists
•  Don t cache all 5xx response codes, example 503 (Gateway time out)

•  By default, NS ignores cache-control headers in requests -> CG
  Settings
                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                                  13
Freshness

•  Describes how long the associated representation is fresh for.

   q No need to send a request to server if object has not expired

   q Saves time


•  Expires: Fri, 30 Oct 1998 14:19:41 GMT


•  Cache-Control: max-age=3600



                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   14
Validation

•  Validation – once expired, validator can be used to check with the
  server if the object is still valid.


   q  Send conditional request and get a short “304 Not Modified”
     response
   q  Saves bandwidth

•  If-Modified-Since <Date>


•  If-None-Match <Etag>


                    © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   15
Caching Proxy: Validation



GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1                                         GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1
    Host: www.example.com                                                Host: www.example.com
                                                                     If-Modified-Since: Thu, ...
                                                     Proxy	




     HTTP/1.1 200 OK                                                  HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
 Last-Modified: Thu, ...                                                   Date: Fri, ...
  Content-Length: 3688
 Content-Type: text/html


                                              Proxy  Cache	
                                              (Saves  copy)	

                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                                  16
Cacheability Policies
•  Specifies if response is cacheable.
    q  Request or Response-based policy
•  CG is DEFAULT by default J but can be changed.
•  Action types
     q  CACHE: Transaction is cacheable. Store the object
     q  NOCACHE: Transaction is non-cacheable.
     q  MAY_NOCACHE
        o  For request based policies only
        o  The response may be cacheable. The default if no response
          cacheability policy matches is to not cache the response.
    q  MAY_CACHE
      o  For request based policies only
      o  The response may be cacheable. The default if no response
          cacheability policy matches is to cache the response.
    q  INVAL
      o  Mark the object as invalid
                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   17
Cache Decision Time

•  Cache, Nocache, Inval
    q  Cache decision @ request time & unless something that prevents decision
      like CL mistmatch, no policy eval @ response time



•  MAY_CACHE, MAY_NOCACHE
    q  Cache decision @ response time




                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved         18
Invalidate versus Expire

•  Invalidate
    q  Invalidate will invalidate the object/"all objects in contentgroup".
    q  But the way it is done is it is optimized such a way that we don't look at
       each object and remove it but when you run expire command or when new
       request comes for the invalid object, it is then removed.

    q  We serve a full response (200) to client regardless of cache hit.

•  Expire
    q  Only mark the object as expired
    q  Request comes in & instead of getting full response (i.e what we do for
       invalid object) we will send if-modified-since/if-none-match conditional
       request to back-end server. i.e can receive a 304.


                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                 19
Content Group
•  Every cached object => member of CG
    q  No CG, object => Default
    q  minhit – no. of hits before store
•  Properties of objects can be controlled per contentgroup
•  Dynamic versus Static - parametised
•  Configurations per content-group are
    q  Expiry settings
    q  Portions of object considered for caching as well as Invalidation
       [Parameterized Caching]
    q  Pre-fetch objects before it gets expired (event-driven)
    q  Inserting headers (e.g. Via header)
    q  Memory related configuration for the objects and for this whole groups


                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved             20
Flash Cache (FC)
•  FC
    q Improves performance –> 1 req to back-end server
    q Concurrent requests queued on NS & single response served
    q set/add cache contentgroup <group_name> -flashCache YES


    q POWERFUL




    q Cannot enable with PET (ensures IC polls origin before serving)



                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved       21
Some Other CG settings
•  Expiry settings (blank by default)
q Relexpiry – relative -> overrides server response settings
q heurexpiryParam - %
q Expire after complete response received
•  If no expiry settings & none in response => cache miss but can do
  validation (non-fc)

•  Cache controls
q No cache depending on size or hits
q Mem limit usage per group
•  Works with FC J but probably not wise on significant groupsExpire
  after complete response received


                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved     22
Cache Policies

•  Built-In (begin with “__” & “ctx_”)
    q Greatly enhanced in 9.3 – should be sufficient for most


•  Bound globally or per vServer
    q Easy-To-Administer & View within Global Policy Manager


•  PI-based expression engine like other NS features




                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   23
Cache

•  Built-In (begin with “__” )
    q Greatly enhanced in 9.3 – should be sufficient for most


•  Bound globally or per vServer
    q Easy-To-Administer & View within Global Policy Manager


•  PI-based expression engine like other NS features




                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   24
Verification

•  Three Verification Options (again sh cache pa)


    q Hostname (Sufficient for Most Companies)


    q Hostname & IP (Default)


    q DNS (Most Secure)




                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   25
Flushing the Cache
•  Flush Cache
   q Remove stale content manually
   q Troubleshooting (preferred flush, disable, enable)
   q CLI – either CG or Object
       o  flush cache contentGroup content_group_html
       o  flush cache contentGroup ALL
       o  flush cache object –locator <0x….>
   q GUI – IC > Cache Objects


•  Automatic CG flush once CG configuration is modified

                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   26
Cache Memory Management (1)
•  BSD & PPE First
•  7500 with 8gb RAM & 3 PE
    q 2gb for kernel, 3gb for PE & max 3gb for IC
    q Each PE has minimum of 1gb


•  17500 – 48gb mem & 11 PE
    q 2gb for kernel, 23gb to PE & IC can take up to 23gb
    q Each PE cannot exceed 3.2gb address space


•  IC takes up what’s left (!>0.5)

                     © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   27
Cache Memory Management (2)
•  > set cache pa –memLimit 254
•  > sh cache pa | grep -i mem
      Memory usage limit: 10000 MBytes

      Memory usage limit (active value): 10000 Mbytes                                 => reboot

      Maximum value for Memory usage limit: 15662 MBytes

•  > sh cache contentgroup
•  Memory Allocation Issues
q cli> stat cache –detail | grep alloc

    Memory allocation failures                                           5741   => cache misses



                     © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved                             28
Cache Selectors
•  Best practice to configure selectors (preferred over parameters)
    •  Named filter – locates particular objects in CG, not exact match
    •  Associate selector based on the request, not with responses
    •  Sample selectors
        •  http.req.url; http.req.method; client.ip.dst etc
•  Use cases
    q One file only cached once regardless of hostname
    q Two copies of same file – compressed & uncompressed
    q Same file, same hostname but different VIPs & CGs



                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved       29
“Not Cache” Best Practice
•  Not Cache policies first
    q Once IC is turned on, it will begin to cache as per the default
       policies.

        o  This may cause confidential content to be cached by
           accidentThen cache known, good content

    q Start with images – jpegs, gifs
    q Check statistics for
        o  Memory allocation errors
        o  Hits
        o  Misses
        o  Expiries

                   © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved     30
Cache HTTP Callout
•  Callouts to external servers
    q Cache saves multiple requests


•  add cache policy pol_callout -rule "CLIENT.IP.SRC.EQ
  (127.128.129.130 )" -action CACHE –storeInGroup

•  bind cache global pol_callout –priority 100 –gotoPriorityExpression END
  –type REQ_DEFAULT

•  sh cache object –locator <0x…>
   HTTP callout cell: YES
    HTTP callout name: callout1
    HTTP callout type: TEXT
    HTTP callout response: NO



                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved    31
Soft-Cache Expiry
•  When a back-end server does not respond quickly to requests, an
  upstream NetScaler can serve responses from the cache.

        q Liberal interpretation of RFC
        q Protects back-end server further (e.g. lash-type event)
        q Serves stale data for a minimal amount of time


•  Applies to 9.2.52.3 & above




                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   32
Configuration through Wizard (1)
  •  Easy-to-use J




                © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   33
Configuration through Wizard (2)




          © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   34
Configuration through Wizard (3)




          © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   35
Example Configuration
  •  enable feature IC

  •  set cache parameter –memlimit 512

  •  add cache contentgroup cg_image –relExpiry 600 –memLimit 100 –
    maxResSize 512


  •  add cache policy cp1 –rule http.req.url.contains(“jpeg”) –action cache
    –storeingroup cg_image


  •  bind cache global cp1 –priority 1 –type REQ_DEFAULT

  cli> sh cache object
  0x000000078b4200000004 cg_image //10.102.30.16:80/abc.jpeg

                © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved       36
Statistics via the CLI (1)

  •  cli> sh cache object
  0x000000078b4200000004 cg_image //10.102.30.16:80/abc.jpeg


  •  cli> sh cache object –locator 0x000000078b4200000004
        q  Address in Memory

  •  nscachemgr –a/-g <contentgroup>
       q  Shell Equivalent

  •  Use grep – POWERFUL for parsing output for hits, misses etc.



                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   37
Statistics via the CLI (2)




            © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   38
Statistics via the GUI (1)




           © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   39
Statistics via the GUI (2)




           © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   40
Statistics via the GUI (3)




           © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   41
Troubleshooting Tools1

•  Browser -> inconsistencies & can be very frustrating L
    q FF (HTTP Fox & Tamper Data Extensions but FF4 issues)
    q IE (7, 8, 9) -> Fiddler
    q Opera & Chrome -> as standard, no extensions


•  Tracing & PCAP ->
    q Nstrace & Wireshark as usual J




                  © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   42
Troubleshooting Tools2

•  Paros (as a proxy in the middle) -> I now use Zap (Owasp project fork of
  Paros)

•  CLI -> no user-cache to worry about J
    q wget
    •  wget –S –header=“If-None-Match:etag_value” http://test.com/file.jpg
    q curl
    o  curl –header “If-None-Match: etag_value” test.com/index.html




                 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved      43
Troubleshooting

 •  Cache turned on but no cache objects
     q  sh cache pa != Memory usage limit: 0 bytes
     q  Zero memory = cache misses
          o  Warning msg in 9.2 when sh cache object
     q  Check expiry settings? NS? Server?

 •  Blank entries in nscachemgr output?
     q  //10.90.196.76/
     q  //10.90.196.76/citrix_logo.jpg
     q  Default caching properties of GET / HTTP/1.1



               © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   44
CTX Articles (just a snapshot)

   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX124553 - how to IC
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX123753 - compressed
      content to unadvertised clients
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX126557 - caching
      uncompressed & compressed content of same file
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX128801 - same
      hostname/object but different vip twice
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX129118 - has my HTTP
      callout been cached
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX124718 - cache callout
      response
   •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX129734 - Soft Cache
      Expiry



               © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved    45
Extra Reading

  •  You can use perl, curl, wget, browser add-ons but I like wget –
       q  http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-wget-your-ultimate-
         command-line-downloader.html
      q  http://www.computerhope.com/unix/wget.htm
      q  Google “wget site:www.linuxquestions.org”
      q  Easy to write a basic shell script around it & doesn’t need
         to be too complicated


  •  RFC 2616 (HTTP) VERY IMPORTANT
      q  Section 13 (Caching)
      q  Section 14 (Headers)



                © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved       46
So with IC you can, take over….




          © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   47
Sláinte




          © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   48
© 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved   49

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Integrated Cache on Netscaler

  • 1. Integrated Cache Training – Netscaler Webinar Mark Hillick
  • 2. Agenda of Cash, sorry Cache •  Goals of Caching q Why & What •  Cache Policies •  How long to cache •  Memory for Cache •  IC configuration example •  Cache Statistics •  Troubleshooting IC © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 2
  • 3. Presentation Goal Please be aware that this a technical presentation with lots of detail and it is intended that it can be used as a reference guide at a later date (e.g. when you're on-site). Sadly, it s not like my usual Zen presentation with lots of funny pictures and jokes, sorry L © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 3
  • 4. Caching Goals •  Caching would be useless if it did not significantly improve performance. •  Goal => to eliminate the need to send requests in many cases. q Reduces the number of network round-trips required for many operations - we use an "expiration" mechanism for this purpose •  Goal => remove the need to send full responses in many other cases. q  The latter reduces network bandwidth requirements - we use a "validation" mechanism for this purpose © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 4
  • 5. Caching is Used Everywhere •  Local cache in your browser •  Cache in the office (Forward Proxy or Transparent) •  Cache at the ISP (Transparent) •  Cache at the origin (Reverse Proxy or Transparent) •  Cache integrated inside a traffic manager – much better J © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 5
  • 6. Caching Benefits. 1.  Saves Bandwidth 2.  Reduces traffic to back-end server & so saves processing resources 3.  Protects back-end servers from flash crowds 4.  Improves the response time & Increases site capacity P.S. Even more benefits when integrated within a LB J © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 6
  • 7. IC in Packet-Processing TCP Processing SSL Decrypt HTTP Parsing AAA Processing Cache Redirection Content Switching Application Firewall Responder Action? Cache Hit? HTTP Cache Req Policies Rewrite Policy Eval Load Balancing Content Filtering © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 7
  • 8. Non-Caching Proxy GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Host: www.example.com Proxy HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK Last-Modified: Thu, ... Last-Modified: Thu, ... Content-Length: 3688 Content-Length: 3688 Content-Type: text/html Content-Type: text/html © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 8
  • 9. Caching Proxy: Miss GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Host: www.example.com Proxy HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 200 OK Last-Modified: Thu, ... Last-Modified: Thu, ... Content-Length: 3688 Content-Length: 3688 Content-Type: text/html Content-Type: text/html Proxy  Cache (Saves  copy) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 9
  • 10. Caching Proxy: Hit GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Proxy HTTP/1.1 200 OK Last-Modified: Thu, ... Content-Length: 3688 Content-Type: text/html Proxy  Cache (Fresh  copy!) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 10
  • 11. HTTP Response after a hit •  wget -S --header="If-None-Match:23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" -U Mozilla http://10.90.196.68/index.html •  HTTP/1.1 200 OK ……… •  Via: NS-CACHE-9.2: 65 •  ETag: "23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" •  Server: Apache/2.2.14 (Ubuntu) ......... OR ......... •  ETag: "23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" •  2011-04-26 18:22:56 ERROR 304: Not Modified. ……… © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 11
  • 12. HTTP Response after a miss •  $ wget -S --header="If-None-Match:23834-b1-4951a45768b8d" -U Mozilla http://10.90.196.68/index.html ………. •  HTTP/1.1 200 OK •  Date: Wed, 27 Apr 2011 09:30:59 GMT •  Server: Apache/2.2.14 (Ubuntu) •  Last-Modified: Mon, 15 Nov 2010 16:52:53 GMT ……….. •  Saving to: `index.html.41 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 12
  • 13. What Not to Cache •  Cache-Control: no-store =>applies to entire message (req/resp) •  Cache-Control: no-cache =>server cannot respond with cached response •  Cache-Control: Private => not by shared cache q More info see - http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html •  POST request. •  Don t cache if set-cookie exists •  Don t cache all 5xx response codes, example 503 (Gateway time out) •  By default, NS ignores cache-control headers in requests -> CG Settings © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 13
  • 14. Freshness •  Describes how long the associated representation is fresh for. q No need to send a request to server if object has not expired q Saves time •  Expires: Fri, 30 Oct 1998 14:19:41 GMT •  Cache-Control: max-age=3600 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 14
  • 15. Validation •  Validation – once expired, validator can be used to check with the server if the object is still valid. q  Send conditional request and get a short “304 Not Modified” response q  Saves bandwidth •  If-Modified-Since <Date> •  If-None-Match <Etag> © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 15
  • 16. Caching Proxy: Validation GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 GET /foo/index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Host: www.example.com If-Modified-Since: Thu, ... Proxy HTTP/1.1 200 OK HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified Last-Modified: Thu, ... Date: Fri, ... Content-Length: 3688 Content-Type: text/html Proxy  Cache (Saves  copy) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 16
  • 17. Cacheability Policies •  Specifies if response is cacheable. q  Request or Response-based policy •  CG is DEFAULT by default J but can be changed. •  Action types q  CACHE: Transaction is cacheable. Store the object q  NOCACHE: Transaction is non-cacheable. q  MAY_NOCACHE o  For request based policies only o  The response may be cacheable. The default if no response cacheability policy matches is to not cache the response. q  MAY_CACHE o  For request based policies only o  The response may be cacheable. The default if no response cacheability policy matches is to cache the response. q  INVAL o  Mark the object as invalid © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 17
  • 18. Cache Decision Time •  Cache, Nocache, Inval q  Cache decision @ request time & unless something that prevents decision like CL mistmatch, no policy eval @ response time •  MAY_CACHE, MAY_NOCACHE q  Cache decision @ response time © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 18
  • 19. Invalidate versus Expire •  Invalidate q  Invalidate will invalidate the object/"all objects in contentgroup". q  But the way it is done is it is optimized such a way that we don't look at each object and remove it but when you run expire command or when new request comes for the invalid object, it is then removed. q  We serve a full response (200) to client regardless of cache hit. •  Expire q  Only mark the object as expired q  Request comes in & instead of getting full response (i.e what we do for invalid object) we will send if-modified-since/if-none-match conditional request to back-end server. i.e can receive a 304. © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 19
  • 20. Content Group •  Every cached object => member of CG q  No CG, object => Default q  minhit – no. of hits before store •  Properties of objects can be controlled per contentgroup •  Dynamic versus Static - parametised •  Configurations per content-group are q  Expiry settings q  Portions of object considered for caching as well as Invalidation [Parameterized Caching] q  Pre-fetch objects before it gets expired (event-driven) q  Inserting headers (e.g. Via header) q  Memory related configuration for the objects and for this whole groups © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 20
  • 21. Flash Cache (FC) •  FC q Improves performance –> 1 req to back-end server q Concurrent requests queued on NS & single response served q set/add cache contentgroup <group_name> -flashCache YES q POWERFUL q Cannot enable with PET (ensures IC polls origin before serving) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 21
  • 22. Some Other CG settings •  Expiry settings (blank by default) q Relexpiry – relative -> overrides server response settings q heurexpiryParam - % q Expire after complete response received •  If no expiry settings & none in response => cache miss but can do validation (non-fc) •  Cache controls q No cache depending on size or hits q Mem limit usage per group •  Works with FC J but probably not wise on significant groupsExpire after complete response received © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 22
  • 23. Cache Policies •  Built-In (begin with “__” & “ctx_”) q Greatly enhanced in 9.3 – should be sufficient for most •  Bound globally or per vServer q Easy-To-Administer & View within Global Policy Manager •  PI-based expression engine like other NS features © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 23
  • 24. Cache •  Built-In (begin with “__” ) q Greatly enhanced in 9.3 – should be sufficient for most •  Bound globally or per vServer q Easy-To-Administer & View within Global Policy Manager •  PI-based expression engine like other NS features © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 24
  • 25. Verification •  Three Verification Options (again sh cache pa) q Hostname (Sufficient for Most Companies) q Hostname & IP (Default) q DNS (Most Secure) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 25
  • 26. Flushing the Cache •  Flush Cache q Remove stale content manually q Troubleshooting (preferred flush, disable, enable) q CLI – either CG or Object o  flush cache contentGroup content_group_html o  flush cache contentGroup ALL o  flush cache object –locator <0x….> q GUI – IC > Cache Objects •  Automatic CG flush once CG configuration is modified © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 26
  • 27. Cache Memory Management (1) •  BSD & PPE First •  7500 with 8gb RAM & 3 PE q 2gb for kernel, 3gb for PE & max 3gb for IC q Each PE has minimum of 1gb •  17500 – 48gb mem & 11 PE q 2gb for kernel, 23gb to PE & IC can take up to 23gb q Each PE cannot exceed 3.2gb address space •  IC takes up what’s left (!>0.5) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 27
  • 28. Cache Memory Management (2) •  > set cache pa –memLimit 254 •  > sh cache pa | grep -i mem Memory usage limit: 10000 MBytes Memory usage limit (active value): 10000 Mbytes => reboot Maximum value for Memory usage limit: 15662 MBytes •  > sh cache contentgroup •  Memory Allocation Issues q cli> stat cache –detail | grep alloc Memory allocation failures 5741 => cache misses © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 28
  • 29. Cache Selectors •  Best practice to configure selectors (preferred over parameters) •  Named filter – locates particular objects in CG, not exact match •  Associate selector based on the request, not with responses •  Sample selectors •  http.req.url; http.req.method; client.ip.dst etc •  Use cases q One file only cached once regardless of hostname q Two copies of same file – compressed & uncompressed q Same file, same hostname but different VIPs & CGs © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 29
  • 30. “Not Cache” Best Practice •  Not Cache policies first q Once IC is turned on, it will begin to cache as per the default policies. o  This may cause confidential content to be cached by accidentThen cache known, good content q Start with images – jpegs, gifs q Check statistics for o  Memory allocation errors o  Hits o  Misses o  Expiries © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 30
  • 31. Cache HTTP Callout •  Callouts to external servers q Cache saves multiple requests •  add cache policy pol_callout -rule "CLIENT.IP.SRC.EQ (127.128.129.130 )" -action CACHE –storeInGroup •  bind cache global pol_callout –priority 100 –gotoPriorityExpression END –type REQ_DEFAULT •  sh cache object –locator <0x…> HTTP callout cell: YES HTTP callout name: callout1 HTTP callout type: TEXT HTTP callout response: NO © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 31
  • 32. Soft-Cache Expiry •  When a back-end server does not respond quickly to requests, an upstream NetScaler can serve responses from the cache. q Liberal interpretation of RFC q Protects back-end server further (e.g. lash-type event) q Serves stale data for a minimal amount of time •  Applies to 9.2.52.3 & above © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 32
  • 33. Configuration through Wizard (1) •  Easy-to-use J © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 33
  • 34. Configuration through Wizard (2) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 34
  • 35. Configuration through Wizard (3) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 35
  • 36. Example Configuration •  enable feature IC •  set cache parameter –memlimit 512 •  add cache contentgroup cg_image –relExpiry 600 –memLimit 100 – maxResSize 512 •  add cache policy cp1 –rule http.req.url.contains(“jpeg”) –action cache –storeingroup cg_image •  bind cache global cp1 –priority 1 –type REQ_DEFAULT cli> sh cache object 0x000000078b4200000004 cg_image //10.102.30.16:80/abc.jpeg © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 36
  • 37. Statistics via the CLI (1) •  cli> sh cache object 0x000000078b4200000004 cg_image //10.102.30.16:80/abc.jpeg •  cli> sh cache object –locator 0x000000078b4200000004 q  Address in Memory •  nscachemgr –a/-g <contentgroup> q  Shell Equivalent •  Use grep – POWERFUL for parsing output for hits, misses etc. © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 37
  • 38. Statistics via the CLI (2) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 38
  • 39. Statistics via the GUI (1) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 39
  • 40. Statistics via the GUI (2) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 40
  • 41. Statistics via the GUI (3) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 41
  • 42. Troubleshooting Tools1 •  Browser -> inconsistencies & can be very frustrating L q FF (HTTP Fox & Tamper Data Extensions but FF4 issues) q IE (7, 8, 9) -> Fiddler q Opera & Chrome -> as standard, no extensions •  Tracing & PCAP -> q Nstrace & Wireshark as usual J © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 42
  • 43. Troubleshooting Tools2 •  Paros (as a proxy in the middle) -> I now use Zap (Owasp project fork of Paros) •  CLI -> no user-cache to worry about J q wget •  wget –S –header=“If-None-Match:etag_value” http://test.com/file.jpg q curl o  curl –header “If-None-Match: etag_value” test.com/index.html © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 43
  • 44. Troubleshooting •  Cache turned on but no cache objects q  sh cache pa != Memory usage limit: 0 bytes q  Zero memory = cache misses o  Warning msg in 9.2 when sh cache object q  Check expiry settings? NS? Server? •  Blank entries in nscachemgr output? q  //10.90.196.76/ q  //10.90.196.76/citrix_logo.jpg q  Default caching properties of GET / HTTP/1.1 © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 44
  • 45. CTX Articles (just a snapshot) •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX124553 - how to IC •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX123753 - compressed content to unadvertised clients •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX126557 - caching uncompressed & compressed content of same file •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX128801 - same hostname/object but different vip twice •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX129118 - has my HTTP callout been cached •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX124718 - cache callout response •  http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX129734 - Soft Cache Expiry © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 45
  • 46. Extra Reading •  You can use perl, curl, wget, browser add-ons but I like wget – q  http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-wget-your-ultimate- command-line-downloader.html q  http://www.computerhope.com/unix/wget.htm q  Google “wget site:www.linuxquestions.org” q  Easy to write a basic shell script around it & doesn’t need to be too complicated •  RFC 2616 (HTTP) VERY IMPORTANT q  Section 13 (Caching) q  Section 14 (Headers) © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 46
  • 47. So with IC you can, take over…. © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 47
  • 48. Sláinte © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 48
  • 49. © 2007 Citrix Systems, Inc. — All rights reserved 49