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MOTIVATION
Presented By: Bhoomi Ahuja
 Motivation
 Characteristics Of Motivation
 Importance of Motivation
 Theories Of Motivation
 Content Theories
 Process Theories
 Application Of Motivation In Organisational
Behaviour
 Conclusion
CONTEXT
MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION
Motivation can be defined as the driving force
behind our actions, fuelled by our desire for
something. It is that internal strength that gets us
to move, and give 100% to whatever goal or end
we desire or plan to achieve. From a manager’s
point of view motivation is the process to
energise, direct and sustain your subordinates’
efforts to attain the goals.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
MOTIVATION
1. Motivation is a Psychological Concept
2. Motivation affects the Whole Individual, not part of Him
/Her
3. Motivation is never an Unending Process
4. Non-fulfilment of Basic Needs Makes a Man Sick
5. Goals are Motivators
6. Motivation is a complex phenomenon
7. Motivation is different from Satisfaction, Inspiration, and
Manipulation
 Improves Performance
Level
 Helps to Change Negative or
Indifferent Attitudes of
Employees
 Reduction in Employee
Turnover
 Helps to Reduce
Absenteeism in the
Organisation
 Reduction in Resistance to
Change
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Content theories focus on the factors within a person that
energize, direct, sustain and stop behaviour. They look at the
specific needs that motivate people. Content theorists include:
1. Abraham Maslow (Maslow’s Model)
2. Clayton P. Alerter (ERG Theory)
3. Fredrick Herzberg (Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory)
4. David C. McClelland (Mc Clellands’s Theory Of Needs)
Their theories have been helpful in discussing motivation, but
not all have been verified through research.
CONTENT THEORIES
MASLOW’S MODEL
ERG THEORY
HERZBERG’S TWO
FACTOR THEORY
MC CLELLANDS’S
THEORY OF NEEDS
Process theories provide a description and analysis of
how behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and
stopped. Four process theories are predominant:
• Reinforcement Theory
• Expectancy Theory
• Equity Theory
PROCESS THEORIES
Reinforcement theory of
motivation overlooks the internal
state of individual, i.e., The inner
feelings and drives of individuals
are ignored by skinner. This theory
focuses totally on what happens to
an individual when he takes some
action. Thus, according to skinner,
the external environment of the
organization must be designed
effectively and positively so as to
motivate the employee. This theory
is a strong tool for analysing
controlling mechanism for
individual’s behaviour. However, it
does not focus on the causes of
individual’s behaviour.
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
The Expectancy Model looks at how likely it
is that the performance and outcome will
occur. An individual makes voluntary choices
about:
(1) whether the job can be accomplished,
(2) whether the outcome will occur as a
result of performing
(3) whether the outcome will be desirable.
Although there have been many studies
testing this model, the type and makeup of
the studies raise the issue of whether the
results can be generalized. As a result, there
are major problems in the application of the
theory. Also, the complexity of the model
makes it difficult to understand. Nonetheless,
it is a theory that is commonly used in the
compensation field and is therefore relevant
to the discussion of incentive programs
EXPECTANCY MODEL
Equity theory is based on the assumption that
employees compare their efforts and rewards with those
of others in similar work situations. This theory
hypothesizes that individuals are motivated by a desire to
be treated equitably at work. Equity theory can be
viewed as comparing the effort expended and resulting
rewards of one person to the effort expended and
resulting rewards of a referenced person. If these are
viewed as equal or appropriate, then the first person
feels the treatment is fair and is motivated.
EQUITY THEORY
Motivational theories attempt to explain what motivates
people to behave the way they do. Motivational theories can
be applied to workplace settings to shed light into why some
employees work harder or are more committed than others,
which can lead managers to understand how to motivate each
employee to perform at peak levels. Understanding how to
apply motivational theories in the workplace can take your
leadership skills to the next level.
APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION IN
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Motivation and its theories

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Motivation and its theories

  • 2.  Motivation  Characteristics Of Motivation  Importance of Motivation  Theories Of Motivation  Content Theories  Process Theories  Application Of Motivation In Organisational Behaviour  Conclusion CONTEXT
  • 4. MOTIVATION Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind our actions, fuelled by our desire for something. It is that internal strength that gets us to move, and give 100% to whatever goal or end we desire or plan to achieve. From a manager’s point of view motivation is the process to energise, direct and sustain your subordinates’ efforts to attain the goals.
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION 1. Motivation is a Psychological Concept 2. Motivation affects the Whole Individual, not part of Him /Her 3. Motivation is never an Unending Process 4. Non-fulfilment of Basic Needs Makes a Man Sick 5. Goals are Motivators 6. Motivation is a complex phenomenon 7. Motivation is different from Satisfaction, Inspiration, and Manipulation
  • 6.  Improves Performance Level  Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees  Reduction in Employee Turnover  Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organisation  Reduction in Resistance to Change IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
  • 7. Content theories focus on the factors within a person that energize, direct, sustain and stop behaviour. They look at the specific needs that motivate people. Content theorists include: 1. Abraham Maslow (Maslow’s Model) 2. Clayton P. Alerter (ERG Theory) 3. Fredrick Herzberg (Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory) 4. David C. McClelland (Mc Clellands’s Theory Of Needs) Their theories have been helpful in discussing motivation, but not all have been verified through research. CONTENT THEORIES
  • 12.
  • 13. Process theories provide a description and analysis of how behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and stopped. Four process theories are predominant: • Reinforcement Theory • Expectancy Theory • Equity Theory PROCESS THEORIES
  • 14. Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., The inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by skinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. Thus, according to skinner, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analysing controlling mechanism for individual’s behaviour. However, it does not focus on the causes of individual’s behaviour. REINFORCEMENT THEORY
  • 15. The Expectancy Model looks at how likely it is that the performance and outcome will occur. An individual makes voluntary choices about: (1) whether the job can be accomplished, (2) whether the outcome will occur as a result of performing (3) whether the outcome will be desirable. Although there have been many studies testing this model, the type and makeup of the studies raise the issue of whether the results can be generalized. As a result, there are major problems in the application of the theory. Also, the complexity of the model makes it difficult to understand. Nonetheless, it is a theory that is commonly used in the compensation field and is therefore relevant to the discussion of incentive programs EXPECTANCY MODEL
  • 16. Equity theory is based on the assumption that employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations. This theory hypothesizes that individuals are motivated by a desire to be treated equitably at work. Equity theory can be viewed as comparing the effort expended and resulting rewards of one person to the effort expended and resulting rewards of a referenced person. If these are viewed as equal or appropriate, then the first person feels the treatment is fair and is motivated. EQUITY THEORY
  • 17. Motivational theories attempt to explain what motivates people to behave the way they do. Motivational theories can be applied to workplace settings to shed light into why some employees work harder or are more committed than others, which can lead managers to understand how to motivate each employee to perform at peak levels. Understanding how to apply motivational theories in the workplace can take your leadership skills to the next level. APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR